White spot syndrome virus (WSSV): An overview
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an enveloped, ellipsoid, large double-stranded DNA virus of approximately 300 kb in size belonging to the virus family Nimaviridae, genus Whispovirus is the major viral pathogen of cultured shrimp. However, this review evaluates and focuses on the several investigations that have been demonstrated on WSSV. Although remarkable progress has been made in the characterizing WSSV genome at molecular level, with completion of WSSV genomic DNA sequence, research has now focused on the functional analysis of genetic products, especially on the functions of the proteins. However, the mechanism of WSSV entry into the shrimp tissues and of the spread of virus in the crustacean body is still unknown. It is believed that the viral structural proteins and the enveloped proteins play very important roles in the virus infection, such as recognition and attachment to the receptors in the host cell surface. The production of recombinant proteins in bacterial expression system aids in the easy purification and over expression of these proteins that can be used for functional studies. To protect shrimp from WSSV infection, vaccination with inactivated WSSV or recombinant proteins of WSSV is used to induce resistance. Since, no effective cure for WSSV infection is available. WSSV prevention and control are priorities considerable efforts of research are necessary in this prime area of research.