Cocaine analysis in wastewaters- performance and applications of solid phase extraction- higher performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry techniques (SPE-HPLC MS/MS).
Subject Area:Physical Sciences and Engineering
In the last few decades, active research has been focused on the levels, distribution and impacts of pharmaceuticals and related products in the wastewaters. Recently, many articles have been reported on different levels of cocaine hitherto detected in biological fluids now appreciably found in aquatic environment at ng/L levels as a result of its escalating use. Identification and measurement of cocaine and its metabolites in surface and sewage waters using higher performance liquid chromatographic methodologies in the literatures have effectively replaced immunological methods which only suggest the presence of these substances. In this article, we review aspects of cocaine metabolism, transport routes, stability, analysis and environmental estimates of these emerging contaminants with the hope to highlight current developments in investigating and monitoring their fate and potential effects in aquatic environments. Current interests on analytical high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, HPLC which include aspects of sample pre-treatment and extraction protocols is compiled with the view to provide information that are of scientific interest, on the current trend and prevalence of cocaine to stimulate new environmental assessments and managements.