The diagnostic study of Bambara Groundnut (BG) (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc) production, marketing, agronomic practices was conducted in four villages sampled from two districts of Missenyi and Muleba in Kagera region, Tanzania, East Africa. The resuts indicated that about 93.3% of the farmers involved in BG production were female and children of less than 20 years old. Male (6.7%) were involved in land preparation in so known as assisting their women during cultivation, that means male were indirectly participating in BG production. Age wise the majority (59.2%) had age between 41 to 50, followed by elderly (20.8%) of age >50 who were involved fully in Bambaranut production compared to (20%) of age <41. The results indicated that most BG farmers had attended at least primary education (94%). Bambara groundnut production was mainly in small holding (≤0.5ha) of about (88.3%). The 99% of BG farmers intercrop the bambaranut plants with other crops especially with cassava (Manihot esculentum) while (1%) sole plant the crop. Two planting system were identified in Kagera region; Farmers plant BG on ridges along and across the hills in Missenyi and Muleba districts respectively. The yield of BG generally was low (150-400kg ha-1) due to lack of improved seeds (89.2%), pests and diseases especially Fusarium wilt (35%), gender imbalance, land tenure system were mentioned as constraints of the production of BG. It was noted that high price of BG of approximately 1.6-2.0$ kg-1 compared to beans which costs approximately 0.75-8.00$ kg-1 in retail basis. Thus encourages few farmers continue growing BG in the region. However, the informal marketing system was ranked highest in the study areas. Scientific investigation of the formal marketing of BG in Kagera region and Africa in large might be necessary to ensure household income.