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Consequences of thyroid dysfunction on menstrual cyclicity and Women Reproduction

Author: 
Swaroopa Maralla and Bharathi, D.
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Thyroid dysfunction is extremely common in women, as women are five to eight times more likely to have thyroid dysfunction than men, and has unique consequences related to menstrual cyclicity and reproduction. Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism may result in menstrual disturbances. The most common manifestations are hypomenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. The thyroid dysfunction is also frequently associated with other menstrual disturbances including amenorrhea and anovulation. Hyperthyroidism occurs in about 0.2-0.4% of all pregnancies and Hypothyroidism is also common in pregnancy with an estimated prevalence of 2-3% and 0.3-0.5% for subclinical and overt hypothyroidism respectively. In pregnant women, even minimal hypothyroidism can increase rates of miscarriage and fetal death and may also have adverse effects on later cognitive development of the offspring. Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy may also have adverse consequences. Women often overlook their symptoms or mistake them for symptoms of other conditions. For example, women are at particularly high risk for developing thyroid disorders following childbirth. Symptoms such as fatigue and depression are common during this period, but these are also symptoms of thyroid disease. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) estimates that more than half of thyroid conditions remain undiagnosed. Accordingly, Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin (TSH) determination is warranted for all women planning pregnancy or those already pregnant.

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