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August 2021

  1. Dhara Shah

    Research on emotional intelligence is flourishing in recent past but the current state of it is slightly paradoxical. Emotional intelligence has a pivotal role to play in an emotionally laden environment like healthcare. This study is an attempt to know and understand the current state of research on emotional intelligence in a medical context. Relevant literature is found through selected databases and seven systematic reviews focused on medical education and practices are selected to study in detail. Quality appraisal of selected studies are carried out and the composite result of these studies is presented in this paper. The result of this study supports the positive utilization of emotional intelligence in medical education and practice by carefully considering all critics. A potential area of further research is suggested.

  2. Azra Kamal

    Background: This study was a qualitative analysis of street heroin in Bihar. The aim of the study is to examine the purity and composition of street grades samples of heroin sized from arrests of street level users and dealers in Bihar. Analysis of composition of illict drug can support in comparative analysis in linking two or more sample together. It can also provide information about their distribution route. Materials and Methods: Eleven suspected samples of heroin were selected seized from street- level users/ dealers in Bihar and referred to Forensic Science Laboratory, Bihar, Patna. Physical characteristics of the samples were analyzed for their colour and appearance. Marquis Test and Frohde Test were performed for presence of diacetyl morphine. Gas-Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry screening was conducted to identify the adulterants and conformation of heroin. The chemical formulation (Chloride or Base) was confirmed using precipitation tests with Silver Nitrate and Barium Chloride solutions. Molish’s Test and Benedict’s Test were done for identification of sugar diluents. Result: Eight out of eleven samples looked like fine powder, the rest were more granular. Preliminary colour tests were performed for diacetyl morphine. Positive result indicates all of the eleven samples contained diacetyl morphine. Purity was assessed by means of Gas-Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Different manufacturing impurities and adulterants were also found. Anion test for chemical formulation was performed indicates Basic and Hydrochloride nature of heroin. Carbohydrate test also shown positive. Conclusion: These profiles latter can be used in comparison of illegal heroin specimens in different areas and also allow us to determine the geographical place where heroin was made.

  3. Akinyemi, Akindimeji, Ogbebor, Peter I. and Cole, Abimbola A.

    Manufacturing companies in Nigeria has witnessed poor financial performance, subsequent failure and liquidation which can be traced to weak internal control system, internal fraud, and non-compliance with corporate governance standard, lack of transparency, creative accounting and insider trading. The financial performance of manufacturing companies has been called to question on several occasions. The study examined the effect of internal control system on financial performance of manufacturing companies listed in Nigeria. The study employed ex-post facto research design, a target population of forty-three (43) manufacturing companies quoted on Nigerian Stock Exchange was used and a sample of fifteen (15) companies was selected from the population. The data was gathered from audited financial reports of the sample manufacturing firms for a period of ten (10) years. The study employed descriptive method of analysis to describe the data while inferential statistics such as multiple linear regression technique was used to test the hypotheses using Stata software. Inferences were made at 10% level of significance. The study showed that Risk management has significant and positive effect on financial performance of manufacturing companies listed in Nigeria giving the F-statistics value of 7.212 with probability value of 0.000 and Adjusted r2 of 0.151. Hence the null hypothesis of no significant effect is rejected. Board independence have statistical impact on financial performance with F-statistics value of 5.441 with probability value of 0.000 and Adjusted r2 of 0.113. Hence the null hypothesis of no significant effect is rejected. From the findings of the study, the study concluded that manufacturing companies that had invested on effective internal control systems have more improved financial performance as compared to those with a weak internal control system. The following recommendations were made based on the outcome of the study: Management should develop a mechanism to incorporate relevant feedback from the various stakeholders into their internal control system and Board of Directors of manufacturing firms should ensure that the internal control systems recommended by both internal and external auditors are periodically monitored and evaluated.

  4. Dr. Niranjan Patel, Dr. Bhavin Kadavala, Dr. Nirav Chanpa, Dr. Deepak Tiwari and Dr. Vishal Patel

    Background: social media use is increasing at alarming rate among the young adults. Excessive social media use is leading to adverse psychological impact in young adults. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 640 undergraduates over a period of twelve months. Social Media Disorder Scale (SMDS) was used to detect social media addiction and Big Five Inventory (BFI) was used to assess personality factors. Descriptive statistics, Chi square test and student’s t-test were used for analysis. Results: Prevalence of social media addiction was 9.76 %. More than 80% participants used more than one social media platform. Addiction rates were 33% among users who spent four hours or more daily on social media, 24% among those using social media since more than five years and those who spent more than 300 Rs/month on internet, 14.79% who reported ‘fear of missing out’ (FoMO), 27 % in those who reported regular substance use and used social media more during sleeping hours, and 20% among those who used social media at every place (home/hostel, college). Users with social media addiction had higher mean score in neuroticism and lower mean score in agreeableness and conscientiousness. There was no significant difference in mean scores of Extraversion and openness to experience among addicts and non addicts. Conclusion: Social media addiction is common in health professionals those who spent more time, money, using it since longer duration, reported FoMO and regular substance use. High neuroticism, and less agreeableness and conscientiousness are seen in social media addiction.

  5. Sabina Sedhai, Shyam Raj Regmi, Sudhir Regmi, Bishnu Mani Dhital, Keshav Budhathoki, Ananda G.C., Shahid Murtuza, Puran Gurung and Amir Khan

    Background: Cardiac injury has now been a emerging complication of the ongoing pandemic of COVID 19.Increased risk of infection to the patients with cardiovascular disease were addressed in various studies however the risk of myocardial injury and subsequent complications and long term outcome after COVID 19 are of concern in coming years. Aims and objective: The aim of the study is to correlate the presence of cardiac injury and their clinical outcome in patients with moderate and severe COVID 19 pneumonia. Methods and Methodology: This was a prospective observational study done from March 2021 to July 2021, conducted in Chitwan Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. Cardiac injury was defined by raised in cardiac biomarkers level, electrocardiographic changes and decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction. Results: In this study, total 44 patients were studied with a mean age of 54.59±12.58 years and age more than 50 years (72.7%) with male predominance (65.9%). Hypertension (29.5%) being the common risk factor in those patients. Significant difference was found in moderate and severe COVID 19 with WBC count, serum Potassium level, C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin I, D-Dimer (p<0.05). Sinus tachycardia was the most common ECG findings. Only 27.27% were able to transfer to ward, mortality during ICU stay observed in 47.72% of patients and 25% were discharged against the medical advice. There was significant difference in in-hospital mortality with the severity of COVID 19. Conclusion: Cardiac injury was common in patient with severe COVID 19 patients. Cardiac biomarkers as well as WBC count, serum potassium level, D-Dimer, CRP helps in prognosis of severity of COVID 19. Electrocardiogram(ECG) changes and in hospital mortality was observed more in severe COVID 19 patients.

  6. Dr. Deepak C. Koli, Dr. Siddhesh S. Mhatre, Dr. Sulekha Jain, Dr. Ankit A. Gupta and Dr. Hemant H. Mehta

    Patients with chronic liver disease pose a serious challenge to anaesthesiologists because of multisystem involvement; despite advances in perioperative management, this subset of patients is at high risk for perioperative hepatic decompensation, encephalopathy, and mortality. In this case report we are describing anaesthetic management of a male patient known case of carcinoma buccal mucosa with maxillary recurrence and chronic liver disease with model for end stage liver disease score of 10 posted for major head neck surgery, we did multidisciplinary team discussion to decide plan for perioperative management of this patient having direct coombs test positive and with apt biochemical testing along with thromboelastography (TEG) guided swift correction with blood and blood products lead to favourable outcome in our patient.

  7. Mahesh Dave, Sahil Kharbanda, Abhishek Nyati, Ravi Manglani, Manasvin Sareen, Devender Sukhwal and Ramgopal Saini

    Background-At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified as the cause of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China. It rapidly spread throughout the world. Identifying patients at highest risk for severe disease is important to facilitate early, aggressive intervention and to mitigate the crises occurring throughout the world. Biomarkers were needed for patient stratification into those likely to develop severe disease and with high risk of mortality. Present study aims to find out those indicators. Methods: Total patients admitted over a period of 1 year from 1st April 2020 to 31th March 2021 in Dedicated COVID Hospital of RNT Medical College and MB hospital Udaipur was 4304 out of which 620 died and 3498 got discharged, 186 couldn’t be followed up as they took leave against medical advise. From death group (620 patients) and Survival group (3498 patients), 400 patients were selected randomly from each group and were analysed and comparison was made between both the groups including parameters like ALC(Absolute lymphocyte count), NLR (Neutrophil Lymphocyte)ratio and RDW(Red cell distribution width). Results: Median age in death and survival group was 62.03 and 47.18 respectively. Mean Absolute lymphocyte count was 0.88 and 0.93 in death and survival group respectively. Mean Neutrophil -Lymphocyte ratio in death and survival group was 8.37 and 4.34 respectively. Mean RDW- CV was 1.86 and 1.67 in death and survival group respectively. Conclusion: From the present study we conclude that Decreased ALC and Elevated NLR are a reliable indicator of death as an outcome in COVID 19 disease whereas RDW was high in COVID19 patients but had no significant relationship with outcome of the disease.

  8. Dr. John Ndikaru Wa Teresia, PhD

    The outbreak of Coronavirus plunged the world into extraordinary times by crashing economies and restricting movements to a scale that has never been seen before. The outbreak was first reported in December 2019, in Wuhan City, China and in Kenya on March 13, 2020. The pandemic caused havoc on all sectors and especially healthcare system in Kenya and this is evident considering the incidences of criminal activities that we have researched. Some of the crimes in the study included domestic violence, burglary, and robbery with violence, children prostitution, rape, defilement, early pregnancy, illegal evictions and police brutality. The study objective was to establish the impact of corona virus on crime. The study conducted adopted survey as the design because of the flexibility it has in collecting data from a multiple populations. The questionnaires were distributed virtually using the survey monkey platform, which enabled the respondents to access and respond to the questions using their smart phones. The quantitative data collected was analyzed based on descriptive statistics, yielding frequencies and percentages of the perceptions of the respondents on every measured variable. A total of 384 questionnaires were distributed out of which 234 were returned. The findings indicates that looming economic uncertainty in Kenya effected many citizen; the loss of control, anger, frustration, and irritability that was expressed in the form of domestic violence against household members, particularly women and children.

  9. Rebecca Dillu and Manjari Nandwani

    The Covid-19 pandemic has disrupted the education sector globally. Classes have been suspended to enforce social distancing and educational institutions, universities have shifted to online methods of teaching and evaluation. Online class challenges linked to lack of teacher preparedness. While children face issues in accessing education digitally, teachers face issues in delivering education through digital mediums. Aim: A descriptive study was conducted to assess the barriers perceived by faculties regarding online teaching in the era of Covid-19. Methodology: Purposive Sampling technique was used to select the sample size of 109 faculties of different colleges of Delhi-NCR teaching through online mode. Multiple choice questions and Likert scale were used for data collection through electronic survey. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The findings depict that majority of faculties (72%) perceived most prevalent barriers in conducting online mode of teaching while some (27%) felt neutral and few (1%) perceived no barriers of online teaching. Barriers were classified as personal, institutional and technical. The most prevalent barriers perceived by the faculty in these areas were difficulty in demonstration of practical skills (88%), increased workload (69%) and frequent change in software/application creates a fuss (73%). Chi square test showed the significant association of perception score with gender, faculty status and designation of the faculty. Conclusion: In order to improve the online education outcome, the universities/colleges are advised to promote the facilitating factors and cope with the barriers, by providing administrative support, adequate training, technology support, help in dealing with the anxiety.

  10. Rhattat Achour F., Yassine, N., Zaghba, N. and Anniche, H.

    Objective: Show the contribution of therapeutic education in the management of asthma, by highlighting the benefits felt by asthma patients after a TPE program carried out remotely during the Covid 19 pandemic. Methods: This prospective longitudinal study compared two groups of 60 asthma patients, group A (30 patients) benefiting from a TPE program respecting the HAH protocol and the reference group B (30 patients) not benefiting from this program. The latter includes four sessions at the rate of one session per quarter, the first session defined the educational diagnosis of the patient for the two groups then, the second and third sessions assessed the skills of the patients in group A, the fourth session assessed the benefits of TPE for both groups. For statistical analysis we used SPSS version 26 software. Means and standard deviations to characterize continuous quantitative variables. The percentages and frequencies were used to describe the qualitative variables. In addition, the chi-square test and Fisher's test were used to compare the percentages between group A having benefited from the TPE program and the reference group B as appropriate. The Mann-Whitney comparison nonparametric test was also used. To assess the magnitude of the difference and the effect between the two groups A and B we presented the statistics of the effect size: Eta squared (η2) for the Mann – Whitney Wilcoxon test, V de cramer for the test chi-square comparison. Results: The benefits of TPE were assessed by the acquisition or not of the various skills: - Self-care skills were acquired for 60% of patients in group A, against 3.3% for group B, the difference in percentages with group B is significant at the 1% level with a size of very large effect of 0. 744 -Coping skills were 76.7% for the group of patients who completed the TPE program, compared to 6.7% for the reference group; Fisher's test shows a significant difference with a very large effect size of 0.752. Also, concerning drug education, almost 70% of patients in group A recognized the benefit of drug education against 23.3% for group B. Fisher's test shows a significant difference at the 5% threshold with a very large effect size of 0.838. Regarding quality of life, almost 70% of patients in group A judged that TPE provides a better quality of life compared to 46.7% in group B.

  11. MD. Najemoddin Quazi, Sheryl Cornelio and Capt. Valsa Thomas

    Title with Purpose of the study: COVID-19 infection is spreading throughout the world and collapsing the morale of the world. In this pandemic the health care workers are at risk of contracting the pandemic due to direct exposure to the covid 19 positive patients. It is imperative to identify the risk factors and hence protect the healthcare workers in order to safeguard the patients and healthcare workers. The objective of the study was to assess the experience of healthcare workers infected with COVID-19. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at Dr L H Hiranandani Hospital. Sample size was 110 selected by non-probability convenience sampling technique. The tools used for the study were: Tool1: Demographic data consisting of demographic information of the healthcare workers infected with Covid 19. Tool 2 consisted of open ended questionnaires on experience of Covid 19. Data was collected and analysed by using inferential statistic method. Results: Analysis of the data has revealed that majority (24.5%) of the sample were in the age group of 25- 30 years of age. A vast majority (58.8%) of the samples were females. Among the various occupation, a vast majority (38.88%) of them were nurses. Interestingly, a majority of 67.27% of the healthcare workers infected were working in Covid area and 74.55% of the samples infected used PPE while on duty. An open ended questionnaire was given to all the samples, the content of which was collated, Experience was collated. The common theme identified were: Theme 1: Fear: Of being in isolation and fear of death, fear of being contaminated., Theme 2:Experience of infection: physical discomfort, Theme 3: Psychological effect- panic situation, loneliness due to isolation. Theme 4: Social impact: Social stigma, isolation, impact on near and dear ones by the society. Theme5: Spiritual bargaining.

  12. Mutaz Abbashar Mahdi Osman, MD Moaz Sedeeg Alhag, RN, Gasim Mohammed Abdul Bagi, MBBS, Ashraf Obeid M Elhadi, MD and Ihab B Abdalrahman, MD, ABIM

    Background: Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has greatly advanced over the last six decades, but there is a delay by more than a decade between the developed and low-income countries. In low-income countries, 77% of ICUs lack trained staff. Sudan as a low-resource country is severely suffering from lack of skilled healthcare providers in critical care and other specialized services. Eldaman hospital, Kordofan state, Sudan was an example of this problem. The hospital has a well-equipped ICU, but was not able to deliver critical care service for more than 2 year due to lack of trained staff. Objective: The objective of this intervention is to enable service commissioning in low resource area and capacity building of local staff. Method & Result: To solve the problem the hospital imported commissioning team of experienced ICU staff (doctors and nurses) who are also critical care educators. This helped to createa continuous capacity building program for local staff and trained 37 and 15 critical care nurses and doctors respectively. The imported team in collaboration of locally trained staff helped to create 10 ICU beds to serve 229 patients. Conclusion: Importing Commissioning team and establishing a continuous capacity building program, look like an attractive solution to enable critical care service in low-income countries.

  13. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Imtiyaz ahmad Ganie, Dr. Zahid Mohd Rather, Dr. Tajamul samad, Dr. Mehraj-UD-Din Ganaie and Yasmeen Akhtar

    To observe the impact of barbed suture and study its safety and feasibility in laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgeries. The study was conducted in the Post Graduate Department of General and Minimal and Access Surgery from June 2018 to June 2021. Our study was conducted on 34 patients and following observation was made.: The mean age in our study was 59.76 ± 12.497 Yrs. (Range from 21to 85 Yrs.). Maximum were present in the age range of 60 to 79 (52.9%) and out of 34 patients, 22 (64.7 %) were males and 12 (35.3 %) females. The peri-operative diagnosis were malignancy 28 (82.4 %) (Ca stomach 21 (61.8 %), Ca colorectum 7 (20.6%)) with 6 (17.6%) of the patients had a benign disease (Choledochal Cyst\Oriental Cholangiohepatitis 3 (8.8%), Benign Gastric Outlet Obstruction 3 (8.8%)). The various procedures done, Gastrojejunostomy in maximum number of patients i.e. 17 (50%) followed by esophagojejunostomy in 6 (17.6%) patients. Ileotransverse Anastomosis in 5 (14.7%), Jejunojejunostomy and Colorectal Anatomosis each in 3 (8.8%) patients was observed. The time taken for various gastro-intestinal anastomosis, Colorectal anstomosis ( mean 35-50 minuts), Gastro- jejunostomy (mean 25-40 minuts), Esophago- jejunostomy (mean 40-45 miutes), Ileotransverse anastomosis (30-49 minute), Jejuno- jejunostomy (40 -49 minuts). The hospital stay in various Gastrointestinal Surgeries Colorectal anstomosis (7 to 10 days), Gastro- jejunostomy (3 to 8 days), Esophago- jejunostomy (7 to 10 mdays), Ileotransverse anastomosis ( 5 to 8 days), Jejuno- jejunostomy ( 5 to 7 days).We conclude that the barbed sutures make the intra-corporeal suturing fascinating and technically easy, which otherwise is tedies event. It adds speed to the intracorporeal suturing and makes it more proficient and technically feasible there by decreasing anastomotic bloodloss and leaks.

  14. Dr. Moushmi Parpillewar, Dr. Amita Kotak, Dr. Kirti Dhote, Dr. Himali Hatwar and Dr. Shivangi Joshi

    Background:-The aim of this paper is to present a rare case of cesarean scar ectopic complicated with placenta increta in the second trimester of pregnancy. Case Report: A 32 yrs old G3P2L2 with h/o previous 2 cesarean section presented to us with complaints of bleeding per vaginum since 1 month.Per vaginal examination was suggestive of a cystic mass of size 4*5 cm in the right adnexa. Transvaginal ultrasound was suggestive of a hypo echoic mass of size 4.5*3.6 cm in the lower uterine segment with increased vascularity and encroaching the myometrium thereby suggesting placenta increta. Her quantitative βh CG was 322 mIU/ml .Patient underwent a suction and evacuation followed by an exploratory laparotomy for as the size of the mass did not decrease. Obstetric hysterectomy with b/l conservation of fallopian tubes and ovaries was performed as the excision of the lesion lead to massive hemorrhage. Histopathology findings were consistent with products of conception and placenta increta. The patient was discharged on post operative day 12 and her follow up after 2 weeks was uneventful. Conclusion: Cesaerean scar ectopic complicated with morbidly adherent placenta is rare and prompt diagnosis and treatment is needed to avoid catastrophic complications.

  15. Dr. Hetal Chauhan

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since spread globally in a few short months. The use of negative pressure mask technique resulted in 98%reduction in the fine particulate aerosol stimulation and eliminated larger respiratorydroplet spread during stimulated ESS including during external drill activation. As global ENT services resume routine elective operating, we demonstrate the potential use of a simple negative pressure mask technique to reduce the risk of viral exposure for the operator and theatre staff during ESS.

  16. Ms. Varsha Thakur, Ms. Ravina, Ms. Ritika, Ms. Roshani Thakur, Ms. SakshiGoel, Ms. Sapna and Ms. Sapna Thakur

    Background: Postnatal depression is a serious mental health problem among women and its consequences have important implications for the welfare of the family and the development of the child. Objectives: The purpose of the study are: 1. To assess depression among the postnatal mothers residing at the regional hospital Kullu and with the families. 2. To find out the association between depression in postnatal mothers residing at the regional hospital Kullu with selected demographic variables. Hypothesis: H0-There will be no significant association between Postnatal depression with their selected socio demographic variables. H1- There will be significant association between the Postnatal depression with their selected socio demographic variables. Methods: Cross sectional descriptive survey design was used. 60 sample were selected at regional hospital Kullu by using simple convenient sampling technique .Edinburgh Depression Scale –Long form used to assess the level of postnatal depression among postnatal mothers. Level of postnatal depression was assessed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: In this study findings reveal that majority of postnatal mothers in regional hospital Kullu belongs to Hindu religion 96.6% , 1.6% muslim and 1.6% christian Majority of postnatal mothers were lliterate in regional hospital Kullu was 96.6% and 3.3% were illiterate. Majority of postnatal mothers belongs to joint family 61%, nuclear family 26.6% and 3rd generation 11.6%. Conclusion: The study finding revealed that postnatal mothers residing at regional hospital Kullu are more affected with depression as compare to postnatal mothers residing with their families. The finding of the study served as a basis for the nursing professionals and students to conduct further studies regarding depression on health status of postnatal mother.

  17. Christiana Asiedu PhD and Patrick Kwaku Ofori PhD

    Background: About 99% of maternal mortality (MM) occurs in developing regions particularly Africa and Asia, during labor, birth and the 24 hours after birth. However, about 88% – 98% of these deaths are avoidable. World health organization (WHO) recommended that every pregnant woman must use Skilled Delivery Service (SDS) during labourreduce maternal and neonatal mortality. SDS are services provided to women during pregnancy, childbirth and immediately after child birth by accredited and competent health care providers. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of utilization of SDS by Pregnant Women at the health facilities in Central Region of Ghana. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to conduct the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 1100 pregnant women. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data after pretesting was done and the collected data were analysed using frequencies and percentages. Results: The results showed that majority (80%)of the pregnant women had the intention to use SDS during labour. Among women who had given birth before, during their last delivery, about 69% used SDS at health facilities in Central Region of Ghana. Conclusion: In conclusion, Central Region is doing better than the national coverage of 56% but it is worth emphasizing that more need to be done to achieve the global target of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3.1 and 3.2. As a result, the governments through the Ghana Health Service (GHS) must implement strategic interventions that will motivate every pregnant woman in the country to use SDS.

  18. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes agents governing state change of water and water production.

  19. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes an equation of motion that should also be considered during analysis of mechanical motion

  20. Nripesh Trivedi

    The aim of this paper is to discuss different and novel concepts in online social networks. The discussion ranges from user activities, user behavior, models of social networking to dynamics of social networks.

  21. Nema Ram and Ashwin Singh Chouhan

    In this universe all plants In this universe all plants have medicinal value for cure, prevention and treatment of various diseases due to rich source of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins and flavonoids which is potential source of drugs. Thousands of phyto-constituents and their potential uses have been described so far and many of them have been isolated which are being used in modern medicinal system for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. The major problems which occurs during use of medicinal active constituents from plants is very less yield, which ultimately makes the whole process and also the medicine very high in terms of cost and expenses. Therefore a large number of plant species (especially medicinal) are under the threat of extinction because of their over exploitation. To overcome this problem, various techniques have been employed including plant tissue culture, genetic manipulation, UV radiation exposure, use of fungus Piriformospora indica with jaggery solution etc. to get promising result. Dipcadi erythraeum is also known as Jangali Dungari comes under the Rare, Endangered and Threatened species by IUCN and WCMC. Dipcadi erythraeum plants have a long history of traditional uses in treatments of wide ranges of diseases. It has been proved by traditionally uses that Dipcadi erythraeum has great folk medicinal value such as leaves are used as laxatives; ointments for wounds, bulb and capsules are edible during famine, while whole plant is used for cough, biliousness, diabetes and urinary discharge. Chopped bulbs are fed to animal against stomach pain, scorpion stinging, sweating and Bulbs are also used as remedy for bronchial troubles, cardiac trouble. So the plant was propagated using fungus Piriformospora indica and in vitro micropropagation (plant tissue culture). But overall result showed that there is no possibility of growth of plant Dipcadi erythraeum. So it should be conserved through natural conservation like plant protection by over grazing, collection of seeds etc.

  22. Mr. Adarsh Kumar and Mr. Raghavendran M.

    Ventilator associated pneumonia is a type of hospital acquired infection. It occurs when the patient undergone the ventilator. It develops 48 hrs or longer after mechanical ventilation, by means of an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. The study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge on prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia among nursing students. The main objectives of study were to assess the knowledge on prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia and to associate the level of knowledge with selected demographic variables. A quantitative research approach with Descriptive research design was used for this study. The target population for the study was GNM students who are studying in selected Nursing Colleges, Kanpur. Sample size was 50 students, were selected by convenience sampling technique and structured questionnaire was used for this study to collect the data. Data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics on the basis of objectives of the study. The result shows that 20 (40%) having Good knowledge level, 26 (52%) having Average knowledge level and 4 (8%) having Poor knowledge level of students regarding prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia. The maximum mean knowledge score was 12.06, and the Standard Deviation was 5.15. With respect to association between the level of knowledge with the selected demographic variables shows no significance. The study concludes that, the knowledge level of students regarding prevention on ventilator associated pneumonia is average, the study suggest that proper teaching and adequate training regarding prevention on ventilator associated pneumonia will be helpful for the students to gain knowledge.

  23. Dr. Vivek D. Choubey, Dr. Anuradha A. Chalke and Dr. Srinivas N. Turlapati

    Bhagandara is one of the common diseases occurring in anorectal region. Bhagandara (Fistula in ano) explained as one among the eight (Vātavyādhī, Pṛameha, Kusṭha, Arśa, Bhagandara, Aśamarī, Mūdha Garbha and Udara Roga). Major dreadfull disease in ayurvedic texts. In ancient Ayurvedic literature. Acharya Sushruta, the father of surgery has included this disease as one among the Ashtamahagada1.At first it present as pidika around guda and when it bursts out, it is called as Bhagandara. It can be correlated with Fistula in ano as de-scribed in Western medical science. the description of Bhagandara is found in different Samhitas but it is scattered in various Sthāna as Nidāna, Cikītsā etc so In this review an attempts has been made to highlight the concepts of Bhagandara in ancient time according to different Ācharyas of Āyurveda collectively in different heading given below, historical review, etymology and definition,aetiology (Nidan) of Bhagandara, pathogenesis (Samprapti) Purvarūpa, Rūpa, classification and management of Bhagandara.

  24. Vimala, K. and Dr. Maruthanayagam, D.

    Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configuring network in which mobile devices are connected by wireless links. MANETs face several challenges due to open network architecture, shared wireless medium, highly dynamic network topology and so on. Recently a new class of routing algorithms based on swarm intelligence has emerged for routing problems in MANET. These algorithms are inspired from nature's self-organizing systems such as ant colonies, bird flocks, honey bee, and fish schools. Nature is of course a great and immense source of inspiration for solving hard and complex problems in computer science since it exhibits extremely diverse, dynamic, robust, complex and fascinating phenomenon. It always finds the optimal solution to resolve its problem maintaining seamless balance among its components. This is the thrust behind bio inspired computing mechanisms. Nature inspired algorithms are meta-heuristics that mimics the nature for resolving optimization problems opening a new era in computation. The common features of these biological systems which include their ability of self-organization, robustness, adaptation, self-healing, and local decision making, make them an appropriate source of inspiration for routing in MANETs. For the past eras, numerous research efforts have been focused in this particular area. Still being young and the results being identical amazing, broadens the scope and feasibility of Bio Inspired Algorithms (BIAs) exploring new areas of application and more opportunities in computing. In this paper provide a complete summary of the nature inspired routing algorithms for Mobile Adhoc networks. Then, numerous existing research papers related to bio-inspired models are also discussed and investigated to find the research gaps.

  25. Bhavna Anand, Srishti Bachchas, Shubhi kulshrestha and Sukriti Raj

    Low back pain is defined when the pain happens in the area just below the ribs to the hips in normal human being in the back. This condition that can be caused by many causes like muscle and ligament injury or overuse. Whereas, Functional status refers to the ability of an individual to perform activities of daily living without any difficulty. If the individual experiences any kind of discomfort while performing these activities, that could be the result of many conditions and low back pain is one of them. The aim of this study is to find the prevalence and severity of low back pain among the population of two wheeler riders and assess its association with functional status. A survey was done among 50 two wheeler riders in Delhi. The questionnaire used for this study to detect the presence of low back pain and factors affecting the functional status was ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) and FSQ (Functional Status Questionnaire). Data analysis was done on Microsoft excel to find the result. Out of 50 respondents, the study determined that about 72% of the subjects experience disability and the 28% have no disability under which 36% subjects presented with mild disability, 24% with moderate disability, 10% with severe disability and 2% with the ODI score 35-50 as completely disabled. The prevalence of low back pain was more in the age group of 20-30 years. The study determined medium prevalence of low back pain in two wheeler riders and large strength of association was found between low back pain and functional status.

  26. Dr. Neha Gahlaut

    Background: Squamous metaplasia may be diagnosed in some diffuse sclerosing variants of papillary carcinoma. Objective- However, bone maturing in the thyroid tumour is a phenomenon that occurs rarely and can mimic a variety of lesions. This study reports such a case in 83 year old man presenting with painless thyroid swelling from last 5 years. Methods: Case study. Conclusions: Osseus metaplasia in diffuse sclerosing variant can be considered as a different subtype because of its aggressive behaviour.

  27. Gantsetseg Sukhbaatar and Gantulga Sukhbaatar

    One of the most unusual, illogical, and inexplicable phenomena in the history of thousands of years of Mongolian literature and culture is a unique (but rare) genre of oral and written literature called riddles. The riddle is based entirely on lateral thinking, in other words it is a manifestation of the lateral chaos of language as a result of lateral thinking. The most obvious linguistic and mental evidence for this pattern is the riddle. For this reason, we have tried to clarify the custom of honoring knucklebone from a nomadic ethnographic point of view what puzzled the knucklebone and what is puzzled with the knucklebone, and how knucklebone divination is practiced in the Mongolian folk riddles. In the study of the knucklebone riddles, the knucklebones were expressed anonymously and figuratively without using their names directly, and in addition to hiding and allegorizing the name of something else in the name of knucklebone, riddles also puzzled about games, divination, and symbols of knucklebone.

  28. Olive Vivien Noah Ewoti, Antoine Tamsa Arfao, Luciane Marlyse Moungang, Ulrich Kolkossok Badouana, Claire Stephane Metsopkeng, Raoul Polycarpe Tuekam Kayo, Yves Yogne Poutoum and Moïse Nola

    A study was carried out to assess the abundance dynamics of Vibrio and the impact of abiotic factors on these dynamics in some surface rivers in the city of Ntui (Center Region). A total of 7 sampling stations were chosen on the Sanaga, Bololo and Ntui-ossombo rivers. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature and dissolved O2 among others were considered. Heterotrophic aerobe bacteria were isolated and counted while bacteria of the genus Vibrio, were isolated, counted and identified by standard methods. The specific richness was assessed. The Shannon and Weaver H 'diversity indices and the Piélou equitability indices respectively made it possible to estimate the diversity and to assess the even distribution of the species in the stand in relation to an equal theoretical distribution for all species. Overall, the values of electrical conductivity (39 to 299 Μs.cm-1), were low and reflect waters of low mineralization. The temperature variations (25 to 30 ° C) observed in the three rivers studied are linked to those of ambient temperature, in fact, the thermal variations of lotic ecosystems match those of air. In total, 4 species of vibrioplankton were isolated in the water of watercourses during the study. These are Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulinificus in decreasing order of their rate of occurrence and abundance. The high occurrence rates of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae (80%) at the level of the Sanaga River and other stations, would explain the sources of contamination of these pathogenic germs in this locality. It should also be noted that some abiotic parameters such as water temperature between 25 and 28 ° C is a good culture medium for microorganisms in the environment.

  29. Laxmikant N. Borkar and Devendra M. Mate

    The paper incorporates a qualitative and quantitative study of pollen contents in four squeezed honey samples collected from Bramhapuri tahsil of Chandrapur district. Cajanus cajan represents the predominant pollen type (49%) in one sample are designated as Cajanus honey. The other significant pollen types recorded include Celosia argentea, Lathyrus sativus, Coriandrum sativum, Prosopis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Capparis grandis, Cajanus cajan, Cleome gyanandra, Tridax procumbence, Capsicum annuum. The pollen counts ranged from 85,000/g to 125500/g. The data reflects the floral situation of the place were particular honey was produced and the identification of geographical origin based on the presence of a combination of pollen types of that particular area.

  30. Rajesh Kumar Dhorta, Dr. Ajay Kumar and Dr. Devinder Sharma

    Agriculture sector in India is of such relevance that it is contributing employment to more than 50 percent of the work force and 17 to 18 percent of the Nation’s Gross Domestic Product. It is pertinent to understand that the land available for cultivation is abundant and in a country like India where large majority of the population belongs to middle and low economic class and youth is in search of job avenues, if youth is skillfully involved to initiate and go for adopting innovative agricultural activities, employability can be enhanced. At present, land available for cultivation out of the total land holdings in Himachal Pradesh is 75.3 percent of the total area and 85.9 percent of total area in India. Further, Net Area sown is 11.9 percent of the total cultivable area in the State as compared to 45.8 percent that of the Country. Agriculture sector is contributing nearly 16 percent to the Gross State Domestic Product of Himachal Pradesh. Based upon the criteria of land holding, households, cultivable cropping area, net sown area and irrigation, the research paper endows to examine the role of agriculture sector in the economic development of Himachal Pradesh.

  31. Eyang, Anthony Ebebe, PhD and Matthew Abua Ebim, Ph. D

    In news reports there are common filaments of in cultural and political ideologies, based on the premise that linguistic choices in texts can carry ideological meaning. In such situations, ideologies are closely linked to power and domination, and they are located in language. News is a representation of the world in a language that is considered to be neutral and media/ted. Everything that is said or written is articulated from a particular ideological position. Differences in expression carry ideological distinctions and thus differences in representation. Newspapers have a responsibility to inform and enable people to make judgments about topical issues, this can however be achieved through a press free of vested interests from higher powers. The press is more than a business; it has a duty to the public as a major source of information on the main issues of the day. The wishes of the readers also need to be taken in to account. Exaggerated and highly coloured presentations of facts can have a powerful influence over readers. For most people, reading the daily newspaper whether in print or online constitutes their most substantial and significant consumption of printed discourse. This provides newspaper discourse with major ideological importance. In this paper, we examine the ideologies that underlie the depiction of the Boko Haram sect and Niger Delta Militants in Nigeria as found in newspaper reports. Data were generated from three Nigerian newspapers: Guardian, This Day and Daily Trust.

  32. Savanah M. St. Clair

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what level different degrees of wind exposure influence morphology and secondary growth in Camelina sativa L. crantz. The hypothesis was that wind-stressed Camelina develops greater lignified areas and invests carbon and energetic resources in sclerification. Camelina was harvested in the late flowering stage and analyzed in terms of stem anatomy and morphology. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in morphology or sclerification between groups. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the data in order to elucidate Camelina morphology.

  33. Suvish S.Kumar

    Population ageing, urbanization and migration are our time's greatest demographic definers. In the global background of ascending life expectancy, around 10 to 20% of geriatric population experiences mild cognitive impairment. The worldwide incidence is about 10 million, which rationales to one new case every 3 seconds. This unprecedented wave would endanger 82 million by 2030 and 152 million by 2050 (WHO - Global Dementia Observatory). The onus of enhancing cognitive reserve is borne by, one and all of us. With increasing age and lesser involuntary cognitive exercises we undergo day after day, be it from learning routes to GPS or from memorizing numbers to speed dials, the peril of sliding along the slippery slope of degenerative darkness looms at us, silently galloping behind veils of our sedentary, stressful, under stimulating choices in life. This article is a review on the current conditions surrounding dementia, from a public health risk perspective.

  34. Mazin Al-Edeinat

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between three elements of job design based on the job characteristics model (autonomy, task significance, and feedback) and employee performance. More so, the study aimed at determining the highest predictor of employee performance among the three elements investigated in this study. Design/methodology/approach: A a sample of 420 university lecturers within selected MENA states participated in this study, and SPSS version 21 correlation and regression analyses were used in analysing the data. Findings: the results revealed that there is positive and significant relationship between autonomy, task significance, and feedback, and employee performance. In addition, it found that autonomy is the highest predictor of employee performance. Research limitations/implications: Even though the job characteristics model comprises of five elements, only three were considered in this study, the findings of this study revealed how employee performance can be elevated through job design elements. Practical implications: For the human resource managers of higher institutions to achieve high level of employee performance, they should focus on designing jobs in such a way that employees are given the freedom to make decisions on their own, believe that their jobs have an impact on people within and outside their work environment. More so, higher institutions should employ a system through which the lecturers can be provided with both positive and negative feedback about their performance to motivate them to perform better. Originality/value: Several previous studies have investigated job design as a determining factor for employee performance in different contexts, but this study is one of the first to investigate the performance of university lecturers based on the elements of job design, there filling a gap in literature.

  35. Pondikpa NADJOMBE, Hodabalo KAMOU, Boris Armel OLOU, Mèmbassolim SOGO, André De KESEL, Annemieke VERBEKEN and Kudzo Atsu GUELLY

    Background: The role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in tropical forest ecosystems is not to be overlooked. They promote plant growth and protect their roots from pathogens. Some species are commonly used by local populations in the diet and treatment of certain chronic diseases. To better assess the diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Togo, a study was undertaken in the Alédjo Wildlife Reserve. The objective of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of ectomycorrhizal fungi of the genus Russula from Alédjo Wildlife Reserve. Methods: For this purpose, fruit bodies were collected between 2016 and 2020 in the Alédjo Wildlife Reserve in 50m x 10m squares along 1000 m2 transects established parallel in nine (9) different vegetations through woodlands and gallery forests. Results: Mycological surveys resulted in the collection of 54 taxa of the genus Russula. Analysis of the collected specimens was done according to morpho-anatomical characters. All the specimens identified belong to seven (7) sections, twenty-one (21) subsections and thirty-two (32) speciesof the genus Russula, including seven (7) new species for Togo. Conclusion: This study showed that the diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in general and that of the genus Russula in particular is very high in Alédjo Wildlife Reserve.

  36. Alobwede Esambe Charles

    Code switching between two languages is a common feature of the speech of bilinguals. It reveals some degree of their competence in both languages. This paper is an attempt to investigate the similarities between the functions of code switching in the language of bilingual students. It is based on the assumption that code switching is partially a conscious strategy to achieve certain goals. The subjects of this paper are students of the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters of the University of Buea. Based on the author’s observations, a list of functions of the students’ speeches is provided. The results of this study confirm the results of previous studies such as Nwoye (1993) and Camilleri (1995). Code switching serves a communicative function in the speeches of the students in this study who switch from French to English and vice-versa to communicate either with their mates, friends or other users of both languages or one of the languages.

  37. Aditya Husni, Frank Bietra Buchari and Utama Abdi Tarigan

    Background: Many procedures today can be performed using the Tumescent local anesthetic technique. Several studies using this technique resulted in a clean, safe, and effective operating field, and can reduce the cost of several elective operations. Therefore, the researchers wished to investigate differences in duration and onset of action of Tumescent anesthetics during surgery and before surgery in different dilution concentration groups. Methods: This experimental analytical study was conducted to compare the onset and duration of local anesthetic action with the Tumescent technique using lidocaine and epinephrine with dilutions of 1:500,000, 1: 1,000,000 and controls usinglidocaine only. The subjects of this study were male or female young adults who met the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria with the research formula obtained 10 samples in each group. Tumescent technique local anesthetic injection was performed in the hand area. Onset and duration were assessed by sensory sensation using the cotton wool test. Results: Based on ANOVA statistical test on the onset of action, there was no significant difference in the mean of onset in the three groups (p<0,945) and found a significant difference in the duration of work of the three groups (p<0,00). Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the duration of work between lidocaine-only group and dilution concentration groups (p<0,00).

  38. Manfred Doepp

    A remark at the outset: one should distinguish between digestive enzymes (formerly called ferments) and intracellular enzymes. The former have been in use for a long time; they include lipases, amylases, peptidases or the well-known bromelain. They work excellently in the intestine, but only partially pass into the blood and not at all into the body cells. They "crack" larger molecules and in this way "clean" the intestinal contents and to a limited extent the blood. Beneficial, of course. However, intracellular enzymes have far greater tasks; without them there is no life. The entire intermediary metabolism needs them and consists of them, i.e. energy production towards ATP (together with coenzymes) as well as protein production and the monitoring of DNA functions. Without them, the body's cells would be unable to function. At any moment, mainly as a result of oxidative and nitrosamine stress, thousands of DNA changes occur, the repair of which is the responsibility of enzymes.

  39. Laura A Calder and Suvish S Kumar

    This article will review the ways in which public health practitioners can utilise social action approaches to address health inequalities. A critical analysis and evaluation will present on how the social determinants of health are capable of impacting health and wellbeing and will discuss the ways in which the principles and practice of community development can be utilised to tackle depression at a community level. The relationship between public health theory and its application to social action will also be examined focusing on community development approaches to support communities to address health inequalities in relation to depression. Public health theory and public health practice development will be explored and the relationships between communication and public involvement in public health service provision will be presented.

  40. Dr. Wanjare, P. D. and Dr. Surve, S. V.

    The petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Syzygium cumini (L.) was investigated for antimicrobial activity against Fungal isolates Candida albicans, Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the bacterial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus pumilus by disc diffusion method (Zone of Inhibition in mm at 100 µg / disc). It has been reported that petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Syzygium cumini (L.) showed appreciable inhibition against Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum (zone of inhibition 09 mm). GC-MS analysis of Petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Syzygium cumini L. shows the presence of four phytochemical compounds includes Cyclopentasiloxane, decamethyl-, 3-Dodecene (E) (%), 2-hexadecanol (%), 1-(+)–Ascorbic acid(%), 2,6-dihexadecanoate(%).

  41. Dr. Smriti Gupta

    The physiologic process of formation of blood cells is known as haematopoiesis. It proceeds through different stages starting from early embryonic life- mesoblastic stage (yolk sac), hepatic stage and myeloid ( bone marrow) stage. During embryonic and early foetal life, haematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac (only erythroblasts) and the liver ( all blood cells). Some blood cell formation also occurs in the spleen (all blood cells), lymph nodes and thymus (most lymphocytes). Bone marrow starts producing blood cells around 3 to 4 month and by birth becomes the exclusives site of blood cell formation childhood, haematopoiesis becomes restricted to the flat bones such as sternum, ribs, iliac bones and vertebrae and proximal end of long bones. at other skeletal sites haematopoietic areas are replaced by fat cells. However when there is in creased demand for blood cells production, conversion of yellow fatty inactive marrow to red active marrow can occur. In extremely severe cases (severe chronic anaemia) resumption of haematopoitic activity in organs pother than bone marrow such as liver and spleen (extramedullary haematopoiesis) can occur.

  42. Riyadh Y. Alsada, Dr. Yathish Kumar and Dr. Wahib AL-Hubaishi

    For industrial companies to survive for a more extended period in a highly competitive market, these companies must replace traditional cost systems with a quality costing system. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the role that quality cost programs play in improving the wheel of economic development for least developed countries by providing a review of some successful uses of quality cost programs as well as focusing on the essential variables that led to the deterioration of Yemeni industries, and their inability to compete in the local and foreign markets. It clarifies the treatments that Yemeni companies must follow to raise the quality of their productivity. This study concluded that most of the evidence presented by the literature that quality improvement and cost measurement processes lead to an actual and significant reduction in quality costs for companies implementing quality cost programs, but this evidence is still few and limited to developed countries.

  43. Walifa Rasheed-Karim

    This paper proposes that teaching involves problem solving and there are differences between novices and experts. It is evident that teachers use different styles and strategies and they would benefit from exploring these with knowledge of their individual differences. A diagnosis of teacher styles and strategies is made with a view of making recommendations for using these to teach dyslexic students. A conceptual model is proposed as a research tool to develop understandings of teacher styles and strategies and so develop a model to enable teachers to match their styles and strategies of teaching with the styles of dyslexic students. Of note is the Wholist-Analytic (W-A) and Verbal-Imagery (V-I) category of styles which Mortimore (2008) argues is important when matching students’ styles to teachers and so may help students achieve. The W-A/V-I model is diagnosed by the Cognitive styles Analysis (CSA) but caution should be taken if this instrument is used to develop dyslexic students’ knowledge of a topic (Mortimore, 2008). Analysis of cognitive styles of pre-service teachers suggests there are grounds for matching styles and strategies with dyslexic students’ styles as this may be helpful for learners; but this requires detailed exploration. Where students find it difficult to interact socially with other teachers it may be necessary to think about the structures of artificial intelligence models to help learners gain confidence and skills.

  44. Walifa Rasheed-Karim

    It is generally acknowledged that tuition benefits students and primary pupils but little is known about the benefits of after school tuition and how parents and teachers could help primary pupils achieve in this activity. One way by which parents and carers feel they will raise a child’s standards is by private tuition. It is suggested that parents and carers would benefit from a training programme using cognitive style research aimed at facilitating interest and reflectivity. The training programme is based on data gathered by a survey which informs parents and teachers how to help pupils achieve goals set by the school. This paper suggests how organisational and parents’ goals for pupils may be achieved through after school tuition.

  45. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper heuristically describes people’s response to anything online (on internet) or offline.

  46. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes light, renewability, compatibility and governing dynamics.

  47. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper explains the relation between user’s interest in social networking applications from the perspective of the structure of these social networking applications.

  48. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes dynamics of a cycle, its existence and why it is like that.

  49. Alfageh, Z. A.

    The Messla oil field in Sirte basin consist of 54 production wells covering 52.591 acres. The reservoir of interest contain light oil and primary production is estimated to account for 45% of the original oil in place (OOIP¬) 3.075 billion barrels (BBL). The Messla oil field is operated by National Oil Corporation (NOC) subsidiary Arabian Gulf Oil Company (AGOCO). Due to the hard economic situation which our country lives in. It is essential to the economy to produce as much oil as physically possible, to save the economic from collapse. There are two options that can be implemented in the field to increase production: water flooding and steam flooding. Both options are favorable under specific criteria. Experiences of worldwide Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) projects and papers have been reviewed for geological characteristics, cost and equipment information for water flooding and steam flooding.

  50. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes different ways of illustrating user behavior, dynamics behind it and finally gives a theory of cognition that could be used to determine user behavior.

  51. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes three independent dimensions along which user behavior could be studied.

  52. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper is about numerical integration.

  53. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes a theory of relationship between energy and mass.

  54. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper reflects on a simple way to detect threat among users on the internet through their behavior.

  55. DELFRARO, Diogo Ordones, SANTANA, Lucas Pasqual Boaventura, ARDENGHI, Beatriz Borro, MELLO, Marina Alves Jacintho, TANIOS, Thais Tirapelli and DUARTE, Thaissa Faloppa

    A Amaurose Congênita de Leber (ACL) é a mais severa distrofia da retina e é majoritariamente autossômica recessiva, na qual um defeito gênico causa um significativo prejuízo funcional de fotorreceptores retinianos. Foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1869 e atualmente é responsável por cerca de 20% dos casos de cegueira nas crianças em idade escolar e pelo acometimento de 4,5 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo, sendo que em populações consanguíneas ou em comunidades isoladas a frequência da doença aumenta de forma considerável. Até o presente momento, 23 tipos de genes foram descobertos como sendo responsáveis por desencadear a doença. Pacientes portadores de ACL(Amaurose Congênita de Leber), além de uma perda severa da acuidade visual desde o nascimento, apresentam uma variedade de outras alterações oculares como fotofobia, nictalpia e ceratocone, além de diversas anomalias retinianas como degeneração e atrofia corio-retiniana, maculopatia e pseudopapiledema do disco óptico. É possível, ainda, encontrarmos alterações no sistema nervoso central associadas à ACL(Amaurose Congênita de Leber), tais como, atraso no desenvolvimento e comprometimento da habilidade motora. O diagnóstico da doença é realizado através das alterações detectadas no teste de fundo de olho e no teste genético molecular. O tratamento consiste na abordagem terapêutica através de terapia farmacológica, reposição gênica e transplante de célula RPE (Retinal Pigment Epithelium). Atualmente, a terapia de reposição gênica para o RPE65 (Retinal Pigment Epithelium – Specific Protein, 65-KD corresponde ao tratamento mais estudado, mais seguro e eficaz em relação à ACL(Amaurose Congênita de Leber).

  56. Dr. Rajeswari, B.

    Money laundering is the illegal process of concealing the origins of money obtained illegally by passing it through a complex sequence of banking transfers or commercial transactions. The overall scheme of this process returns the "clean" money to the launderer in an obscure and indirect way. Money Laundering is a criminal act of misrepresenting illegally obtained money, such as from drug trafficking or terrorism, being obtained from legitimate resources. It is one of the illicit activities through which criminals disguise their original ownership of undeclared money by making proceeds appear to have been derived from lawful sources. The main objective of my research is To know the impacts of money laundering in India, To know the prevention and controlling methods of money laundering ,To analyse the money laundering. The researcher has done empirical study on money laundering in India. The primary information for the research is collected through online surveys from randomly selected respondents which included general public of different age groups with a well framed and structured survey questionnaire. The collected responses are portrayed in crosstab table and chi square tests table. The calculation done by the researcher based on the responses received is the pearson chi square technique was used. Money laundering economic development. International financial community should strongly support anti laundering efforts and cooperate to share information and regulatory and enforcement action. Developing countries should impose anti laundering Laws to improve the credibility of not only its financial sector, but its governance as well.

  57. Dr. Sadruddin Ahmad, Dr. Md. Nazim Uddin and Md. Saidur Rahman

    This research article deals with women in politics, education, health, culture, legal status, marriage and poverty situations within which women's employment opportunities in rural Bangladesh need to be evaluated. Some factors have a direct impact on women's decision-making authority in the home and society, while others may have an indirect impact on job possibilities in rural Bangladesh. The article further explores the women's socio-economic and political culture related to their employment opportunities and development in rural Bangladesh. This article also covers women in political parties, women's difficulties in politics and how they may overcome them, marital status and gender-based labor force participation, gender inequality in education, health, and nutrition, women's legal status, and women in rural Bangladesh.

  58. Rehmatullah Khan, Ghulam Razaque, Ghulam Mustafa Shahwani, Noman Ul Haq, Nisar Ahmed Shahwani, Muhammad Arsalan, Raseed Ahmed, Abdul Ghaffar, Naila Masood and Abdullah

    Levofloxacin is a third generation fluoroquinolones antibiotic with a broad spectrum activity against different kinds of bacteria. It is very widely used antibiotic, Levofloxacin has activity that is to counter the production the bacteria by damaging the DNA gyrase enzyme responsible for the replication of the bacteria to avoid further multiplication of bacteria. Ofloxacin is widely used broad spectrum fluoroquinolones antibiotic used against variety of bacterial infections caused by gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Ofloxacin is an intermediate between ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in activity against gram negative bacteria but it is comparable to or more potent than Ciprofloxacin for gram positive bacteria and certain anaerobes. Quality control is a system in which we make sure that the products are formulated and Quality control checked according the given standards. It will help in avoiding the risks involved in a Pharmaceutical industry that cannot be countered by simple testing of the product. Different brands of Ofloxacin and levofloxacin were collected from the market of Quetta Pakistan. Checked physiochemical properties of all collected brands of Levofloxacin and Ofloxacin and compared with each other according to the standard protocols. The physiochemical tests were performed weight variation, Hardness, Friability, Thickness, Disintegration and Dissolutions. The results showed that the all brands were within acceptable range including the dissolution of the both formulations tested. It is concluded that these type of research may be conducted in future to check the Quality control tests of available brands of different formulations. These types of research will contribute the community for the best selection of the medicine from the market and also help the prescriber to select a best drug among the available formulations.

  59. Syed Muhammad Younas, Ghulam Razaque, Noman Ul Haq, Nisar Ahmed Shahwani, Muhammad Arsalan, Ghulam Mustafa Shahwani, Abdullah, Raseed Ahmed and Waheed Ahmed Shah

    The aim of Controlled drug release system is to achieve a delivery profile that result in a high blood level of the drug for a long period of time, while in a conventional drug delivery system the drug level in blood flow rises after each administration of the drug and then falls before the next administration. Different drug to polymer ratios were combined and formulated CR captopril. F1, F2, F3 F4, F3, F5 and F6 prepared six separate formulations and tested their physicochemical properties. Preformulation studies Hausner’s ratio, compressibility index, solubility studies and post formulation studies Hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration and dissolution test were conducted. The flow properties were found to be within acceptable limits. The solubility studies done by using different solvents with different temperatures (pH 6.8, 7.4 with 250,370 and 400) it was found with near to the standards. The results of Physical tests were done and found within the acceptable limits. The dissolution of all formulations were checked according to the standard procedure and it was found that all the formulations were acceptable range. It is concluded that the formulations developed of controlled released captopril by using combination of polymers Eudragit, Xanthan Gum and formulation of controlled released of tablets were analyzed. The physical characteristics of tablets were checked accordingly which were within the limits specified. The dissolution of all formulations controlled released captopril showed more than 100% released within specified time. So it is recommended that in future control released tablets of different others drugs may be formulated in same combination of polymers to enhance the patient compliance.

  60. Abdramane SANON, Alain Péoulé Kouhouyiwo GOMGNIMBOU, Koulibi Fidèle ZONGO, Kalifa COULIBALY, Sékou FOFANA, Cheick Aboubacar BAMBARA Willifried SANOU and Hassan Bismarck NACRO

    La culture du riz pluvial La pauvreté originelle des sols en matière organique et en éléments nutritifs des sols justifie le recours aux fertilisants exogènes afin d’équilibrer le statut organo-minéral sols et de satisfaire les besoins alimentaires en Afrique subsaharienne. La présente recherche a pour objectif d’évaluer les effets de l'application de Fientes de Poulet (FP) et des engrais minéraux sur les paramètres chimiques du sol sous riziculture pluviale stricte. L’étude a été réalisée sur quatre ans dans la station de l’Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles située dans la région de l’Ouest du Burkina Faso. Pour ce faire, un dispositif expérimental en Bloc de Fisher avec quatre répétitions et six traitements a été utilisé. Les traitements appliqués sont : T0 (Témoin), T1 (NPK+Urée), T2 (Fumier de Poule), T3 (Fumier de Poule +Urée), T4 (Fumier de Poule +Burkina Phosphate) et T5 (Fumier de Poule +Burkina Phosphate+Urée). Les résultats révèlent que l’apport des différentes combinaisons de biodéchets et fertilisants inorganiques ont eu des effets significatifs sur le rapport C/N, le K_disponible, le phosphore assimilable, la CEC et la SBE. En effet, en dernière année de culture, l’apport de 7,5 t/ha de Fumier de Poule +500 kg/ha de Burkina Phosphate+100 kg/ha d’urée entraine une augmentation de 25% de Pass, 133% de K_disponible, de 56% de CEC et de 14% de C/N.Le fumier de poule combiné au Burkina Phosphate et à l’Urée à une capacité d’amélioration de la fertilité des sols en condition de riziculture pluviale stricte.

  61. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes three types of living of users and convenience.

  62. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes regeneration of water, origin of universe, light and love in human made entities.

  63. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper presents a general perspective on circular motion, inertia and mechanical motion.

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Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran