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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





October 2022

  1. Osama El Taher Mahmoud Ahmed, MD, Hemaid Mustafa Azab, MD, Yasser Abd El Razek Mohammed, MD, Osama Abd Alreheem Mahmoud, MD and Taher Abd-El Raheem, MD

    Background: Many different demands are present in people with intellectual disabilities, and the majority have behavioral issues. In the comprehensive rehabilitation of people with intellectual disability, controlling behavioral issues is a top priority.The main aim of this study was to study the outcome of behavioral intervention in children who struggle with intellectual disability as these studies are scarce in Egypt. It is a prospective outcome study done on 150 patients from Sohag Governorate with mild to moderate intellectual disability. Baseline assessment for children using the Stanford Binet test 5th edition and the Arabic version of Vineland Adaptive scale was done. The children offered the usual and common rehabilitation program used in Sohag in form of skills development, phoniatric and speech sessions for 6 months. Reassessment for children using the same tests was done. Results: The current study showed that 6 months after behavioral interventions, Stanford Binet intelligence scale scores show statistically significant increase than before behavioral interventions in children with intellectual disability. 6 months after behavioral interventions, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores show a statistically significant increase in overall adaptive scale, communication, daily living skills, and socialization scores than before behavioral interventions in children with intellectual disability. Conclusions: The findings of this study imply that children with intellectual disability can benefit from behavioraland skills intervention.

  2. Dr. Humera Irshad and Dr.G.H Yatoo

    Introduction: The rising disease burden worldwide has posed enormous pressure on healthcare to provide cost-effective treatment. In this scenario, it becomes imperative for hospitals to efficiently utilize the resources and there is requirement of accurate cost analysis of healthcare procedures. Role of Nuclear Medicine has become indispensable in diagnosing and prognosticating varied number of diseases. So that necessitates a balanced utilization of such procedures when the resources are limited. Aim: To analyze the unit cost of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed in Nuclear Medicine department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Material and Method: It was an observational, descriptive and cross sectional study carried out in the Nuclear medicine department of Sheri-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences for a period of one year. Activity based costing method was used to evaluate and analyze the unit cost of various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures Results: The unit cost of procedures performed in the Nuclear medicine department varied from Rs.1190 for RAIU (Radioactive Iodine Uptake) to Rs.11075 for High dose I-131 therapy. The most cost effective investigation was found to be cardiac MIBI scan with a unit cost of Rs. 2893.2 followed by bone scan when compared with tariffs of other Nuclear Medicine facility. It was found that the study hospital is already providing most of the nuclear scan services at much subsidized rates and the rates haven’t been revised since many years. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides a structured approach in analyzing activities, cost services, reducing costs, and improving quality.

  3. Gaurdas Sarkar

    Quality in higher education has become a grave concern at the present moment. The necessity of achieving quality is knocking at the door with the advent of Globalization. Quality is a big term. First of all we have to define quality. Then we have to proceed for achieving such quality. So we must have some clearly pre-defined objectives. Basically quality is measured by contribution of the learner after completion of learning. Now in order to measure a learner’s contribution we may identify some specific fields where a learner uses to contribute. These fields may be job market, family life, locality, society or country. The main key of achieving quality in higher education is to pay attention to the contribution to be made by a learner. In this line of thinking the present day educationists in our country are keen on propagating some innovative steps, which they claim to be instrumental to ensure quality in higher education. Technology has played an important role in entire teaching-learning process. To be more specific Information and Communication Technology has made an effective contribution in the field of education. Now let us take up this issue and analyze in details what contribution this advancement of technology has made in teaching learning process. There is no reason to deny that development of Information and communication Technology has enhanced the accessibility of both teacher and learner to expanded horizon of inputs. But the question is whether such enriched support system is sufficient to ensure provision of quality education to the learners.

  4. Dr. Pralitha Madhuri, G., Dr. Rajaram, G. Dr. Srinivasa Rao, C.H.

    Objective: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infection. Escherichia coli is one of the commnest organism causing Urinary tract infection .Ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolones) are the most commonly used as first line agents for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli. Inappropriately excessive use of Ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolones) has detrimental impact . Present study is antibiogram between Nitrofurantoin Versus Ciprofloxacin as first line agents for treatment of Urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli. Method: A total of 1205 urine samples collected between MAY2019 to October 2019 for culture and pathogens identified by conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Result: Among 1205 urine samples 203 samples shown culture positive, in this 39 samples shown Escherichia coli. Among them 28(71.7%) shown resistance to Ciprofloxacin and about 6 (15.3%) shown resistance to Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: This study concludes that Nitrofurantoin is a good Ciprofloxacin sparing drug. .It is suggested that Nitrofurantoin might be the first choice for treatment of urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli ,needs further studies regarding its side effects

  5. Dr. Nimmala Sri Harsha, Dr. Srivani, N., Dr. Rajaram, G.

    Introduction: Respiratory tract infections are most frequent of all infections and lower respiratory tract infections are most common worldwide. Immunity plays a significant role in an individual’s defense mechanism against infections. Once immunity specifically innate immunity is affected, people will be more prone for infections especially bacterial infections. Covid-19 pandemic is exhibiting waves of peaks during different months. Bacterial coinfections during viral pandemics are one of the challenges for the health care professionals. Material and Methods: This is a Retrospective study conducted in the department of microbiology S.V. Medical College, Tirupati during January 2021 to June 2021, approved by scientific committee. Total 382 sputum samples were included among which Males were 284 and Females 98. 218 (57%) samples yielded bacterial growth. Laboratory diagnosis was done by routine conventional methods with antibiogram by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Most common organism isolated was Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Klebsiella, enterobacter, Serratia, S.aureus. ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA were also isolated. Results: In the present study, out of 382 sputum samples, 218(57%) were culture positive and 164(43%) were sterile. Culture positivity was more in the age group of 56-65years. Commonest organism isolated was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Maximum susceptibility shown to cefoperazone –sulbactum, imepenem. Conclusion: As there is increase in prevalence of multi drug resistant organisms were observed, routine culture, antibiogram should be done. Implementation of changes in the local antibiotic policies according to the antibiotic susceptibility testing is needed.

  6. Godwin Effiong, Efiyeseim Okumo Sample Ikeremo and Ayibapreye Kelvin Benjamin

    This paper reports the design an automatic star-delta starter using electrical relays and an electronic timer by feeding the motor with 1⁄√3(58%) of the full load current to limit the starting current surges by starting the motor at reduced voltage and then have full supply voltage reconnected when they run up to near rotated speed. This method is commonly referred to as “Soft Starting” the motor. Traditionally, in many regions there is a requirement that all motor connections be fitted with a reduced voltage starter for motors greater than 4 KW5HP. This is necessary to curb the high inrush of starting currents associated with starting induction motors. In this paper, a low cost-based circuit that can be used to control the operation of an induction motor is designed and a delta-star starter is used in controlling the turning on of the motor with low power loss and electrical relays deployed for conversion of star to delta. This design reduces the high starting current of induction motor and along these lines forestall the motor from overheating.

  7. Veerpalkaur and Dr. Daljit Kaur

    After the annexation of Punjab by the Britisher, some social reform movements and social reformers made a significant contribution to the spread of education in Punjab. Education gave women a chance to develop and they entered the field of journalism like men. Magazines, journals and newspaper in various vernacular languages like Urdu, Hindi and Punjabi started to publish in Punjab in the last decade of 19th century. In the first half of 20th century in there were many periodical of different languages like as Tehzeeb-i-Niswan, sartaj, Noor-Johan, Saheli, Zeb-un-Nisa, Sohag, Muslima of Urdu, Jalvid-Shakha and Panchal-Pandita of Hindi, Bhujangan Patter, Komal sansar Istri, Istri Rattan, Istri Samchar, Istri Satsang, Istri Sudharak, Fuleran, Azad Bhain, Istri Chikista Darpan, Sughad Saheli and Punjabi Bhainof Punjabi. These periodicals were published for many specific purposes. All these periodical had their own aims and objectives but all these periodicals made significant contributions to upgrade women, giving them equal right with men and raising awareness among them about their duties and rights. Objectives: • To Identify women’s periodical of vernacular languages in the early twentieth century in Punjab. • To trace out the aims and objectives of different women’s periodicals of Punjabi language. • To highlight the role of women’s periodicals in creating awareness among women. • To examine the role of women’s periodical in uplifting the status of women during the early 20th century.

  8. DOSSOU Bayi Reine, MADJALANI Hèzouwè, SOUHO Tiatou, KANABIYA Essodjolon, PAKOUSSI Tcha, NABEDE Aklesso and METOWOGO Kossi

    Desmodium ramosissimum is a medicinal plants used in rural areas in Togo. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of the biological activities of D. ramosissimum, with a particular focus on the antioxidant activity of its different parts. Different organs such as leaves and roots were collected to extract active compounds by maceration. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using three different methods: DPPH radical scavenging, molybdenum ion reduction and iron reduction (FRAP method). Results recorded with all these methods showed that the leaves had a better antioxidant activity. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of major chemical groups such as total polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids and saponosides. The leaves having shown the best antioxidant activity, they should be favored in the interest of preserving biodiversity.

  9. ISSA Maman-Sani

    La saison des pluies est confrontée à des anomalies issues des perturbations des descripteurs intrasaisonniers dans le doublet Djidja-Za-Kpota. La présente recherche vise à caractériser les descripteurs intrasaisonniers des saisons des pluies observés à Djidja-Za-Kpota. La démarche méthodologique adoptée s’articule autour de la collecte des données, du traitement des données et de l’analyse des résultats. Les résultats de la recherche montrent que les descripteurs intrasaisonniers sont caractérisés par les plus fortes variations au niveau des comparaisons des périodes. En effet, le nombre de jours pluvieux de la grande saison pluvieuse a diminué significativement de 3,38 % entre la période 1971-1990 et 1991-2017. La durée moyenne des séquences sèches a augmenté de 11 %. Par contre, le nombre de jours pluvieux de la petite saison pluvieuse a connu une hausse significative de 9,64 %. La durée moyenne des séquences sèches a augmenté de 1,21 %. La grande saison des pluies se détériore et la petite saison des pluies s’est considérablement améliorée en l’occurrence en terme de distribution séquentielle des pluies. Par conséquent, les variations des descripteurs intrasaisonniers entravent la planification des travaux dans les exploitations agricoles du doublet Djidja-Za-Kpota.

  10. Dr. Bineetha K., Dr. Misha Mehta, Dr. Disha Kapadia and Dr. Hemant H. Mehta

    Background: Anticipation of difficult airway, adequate preparation and prompt management is an essential part of every anesthesiologist’s role. Failure to secure a patent airway can lead to fatal outcomes as a result of permanent cerebral hypoxia. Case Presentation: In this case of unanticipated difficult intubation in an elderly male with multiple comorbidities posted for an emergency procedure at odd hours, we describe a fiberoptic bronchoscope guided CMAC video laryngoscope assisted nasal intubation with constant backward, upward rightward pressure and adjustment of head and neck positions; Conclusion: Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway is more likely in elderly patients. Proper airway assessment is an essential part of the preoperative checkup and adequate preparations including a difficult airway cart is very important at all times.

  11. Dr. Syed Sameer Hussain and Dr. Mohammad Mushtaq

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare condular-ramal morphology in various vertical and sagittal facial types.The sample consisted of lateral cephalograms of 90 subjects in the age group of 15-25 years. Cephalometric tracings were done and various measurements taken. The Sample was differentiated into 3 classes using ANB angle, Wits appraisal and Beta angle.The sample was also differentiated into various vertical patterns on the basis of Jarabak’s ratio. Parameters depicting condylar- ramal morphology like mandibular arc angle, lower facial height angle, gonial angle, ramus height, ramus width and antegonial notch depth were measured. The recorded data was compiled and entered in a spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel) and then exported to data editor of SPSS Version 20.0 for analysis. Results: There was no significant difference in various condylar-ramal parameters in 3 sagittal malocclusions however the gonial angle was increased in Class III malocclusion probably consequent to the increased effective mandibular length. Ramus height was also significantly greater in Class III malocclusion when compared to the Class I and II groups. On comparing the vertical facial types, vertical growth pattern showed decreased ramus height and width, increased gonial angle, decreased mandibular arc angle, increased lower facial height angle and increased antegonial notch depth. Conclusion: The parameters used were more related to the facial patterns in the vertical dimension and less to the sagittal patterns. In the hyperdivergent pattern the mandible appears to have retained its infantile characteristics with different processes (condylar and ramal) appearing to be underdeveloped.

  12. Josipa Karačić, Stipe Čelan and Zora Pilić

    Introduction: The health suitability of drinking water is one of the basic measures to protect human health. Water analysis is the determination of organoleptic, physico-chemical, microbiological and other properties of water, in order to determine its health suitability. Methods: The aim of the work is to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of drinking water in the Herzegovina-Neretva canton using the standard methods prescribed by the Ordinance on health safety of drinking water and to determine the physical and chemical parameters. On the basis of the obtained physical and chemical indicators, obtain a detailed description of the state of water in the area of that canton. In the research, samples were taken from the area of Herzegovina-Neretva canton, sources are Dunajac (Čitluk Municipality), Neretva (Čitluk Municipality) and Radobolja (City of Mostar), which form the basis of the water supply of the aforementioned canton. The physical and chemical testing of water samples was carried out in the period from April 12 to 21, 2021. Water sampling was carried out according to the instructions prescribed by the Ordinance on health safety of drinking water. In the laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Mostar, we performed the following procedures: measurement of pH values and electrical conductivity; procedures necessary for the determination of dry matter in samples such as filtration, drying, weighing and others; in order to determine the alkalinity of the water, the chloride in the water and the total hardness of the water, we carried out certain titrations; we also performed the necessary procedures to determine the consumption of potassium permanganate in the samples. The results of the sample analyzes were processed and presented in a table. Results: It can be seen that all the tested parameters were within the maximum allowed values, prescribed by the Ordinance on health safety of drinking water. Conclusion: According to the obtained results of the physical and chemical analyzes of the waters of the mentioned sources, we can conclude that the water in the area of Herzegovina-Neretva canton is safe and suitable for human consumption.

  13. Dr. Pralitha Madhuri, G., Dr. Rajaram, G. and Dr. Srinivasa Rao, C.H.

    Introduction: Hepatitis D virus is defective RNA virus dependent on Hepatitis B virus for itsreplication and expression Hepatitis D virus also known as hepatitis delta virus is asmall satellite virus that requires presence of HBsAg to propagate .Hepatitis B virusinfection is a world wide health problem which is estimated that has infected more than3.5 billion people globally more than 350 million individuals suffer from chronic infection with this virus .HDV is co infected in 2% of HBV positive individuals as per past studies. Co existent infection with HDV tends to accelerate the progress of chronic HBV infection to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. Fulminant hepatitis may develop in 20 to 30 percent of patients in coinfection with both HBV and HDV .This study about the prevalence of HDV (Hepatitis D Virus) in HBV(Hepatitis B Virus)Positive individuals at SVRRGGH of SV Medical college Tirupati, will help us to aware medical practitioners of the risk of dual infection and also provides necessary emphasis on preventive measures. Aims and objectives: To know the seroprevalence of Hepatitis D virus (HDV) among Hepatitis B virus (HBV) seropositive individuals and to ensure necessary preventive measures. Materials and methods: After obtaining informed consent. The serological test will be performed using commercially available ELISA method according to the instructions provided in the manufacturers manual. ANTI HDV antibody is detected using ELISA method. Results: The present study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati after obtaining permission from the Institutional Ethical Committee. A total of 170 blood samples were collected from the patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study. The serum samples were tested for HBsAg and HDV antibodies using ELISA [Nova Tec, Germany]. The results were categorized under gender, age and source for obtaining the blood sample. Among the 170 samples collected which were positive for HBsAg, 5 (2.94%) were positive for HDV. Conclusion: Of 170 blood samples which were positive for HBsAg when tested for HDV antibodies 2.94 % are positive. Anti HDV antibodies are tested using ELISA kit for antibody detection. The age group commonly affected is 0-11 years age group and greater than 50 years Family and society face lot of economic burden as dependent age group is affected more. Females are most affected age group for HDV more than males. The available way to prevent Hepatitis D infection is to avoid Hepatitis B infection by getting vaccinated , High risk individuals should get Hepatitis B vaccination by series of 3 injections over a period of 6 months, stopping usage of recreational drugs, practicing safe sex practices, and has to be cautious about tattoos, ear piercings Co infection or super infection with HDV in Hepatitis B patients worsen the symptoms and fasten the liver damage and causes fulminant hepatitis and burden to the patient.

  14. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is one of the most important cucurbit vegetables in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in India and Bangladesh. Pointed gourd is morphologically distinct from other cucurbitaceous species due to its well-established dioecism, perennial nature, and vegetative means of propagation. The pointed gourd having the common Indian names of “Parwal”, “Parmal”, “Panal” and “Patal”. This important crop is widely grown in the eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, in some parts of Maharashtra and Gujarat and some hilly tracts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. This perennial vine crop survives for long time through giving rise to sprouts from the tuberous roots even left uncared. The estimated area and production of pointed gourd in India during 2018-19 are 55,000 ha and 7,40,000 MT respectively. Fruits of pointed gourd are rich in proteins and vitamin A and also possess medicinal properties that can lower blood sugar and serum triglycerides. Fruits are consumed in a variety of ways, including vegetable curry, pickled, and as various confections. They have prolonged market availability, and the high nutritional and medicinal values of pointed gourd fruits make them a wholesome vegetable. Seed propagation of pointed gourd is undesirable due to poor germination and unpredictable variation; thus, pointed gourd is multiplied through stem and root cuttings. Hybridization followed by selection among segregating progeny and clonal selection are promising approaches for genetic improvement of this species. In this review article, origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, breeding, uses, nutritional value and health benefits of pointed gourd are discussed.

  15. Mayembo Mfoutou, J.W., Loumouamou, B.W., Binaki, A.F., Bayoula, G.H., Biyendolo Loupangou, B.D., Moussoyi Moundanga, S. and Nzikou, J.M.

    In order to optimize solar drying, a study by surface plane of centered response composite types was used. After the choice of 3 factors, 16 experiments were carried out and led to a mathematical model of the second degree linking the responses (drying time and energy consumption) to the factors considered influential.After carrying out the experiments and analyzing the results using Minitab software, the study has allowed determined the optimal conditions needed to obtain a drying time and a minimum energy consumption to obtain a dry product with a water content of 15% in wet base. The analysis of the main effect profiles as well as the mathematical correlation show the following: • energy consumption was proportional with the thickness of the slice, the temperature and the speed of the air; • the drying time was proportional to the thickness of the slice and inversely proportional to the temperature (from the center of the domain to its upper level) and the air velocity; • a good concordance between the selected models and the experimental results was observed with correlation factors of 99.3% and 99.8% respectively for drying time and energy consumption. The optimal values of drying time DS=318.2922 minutes and energy consumption CE=7.1859 kwh with an overall desirability of 90.29% were obtained with the following optimal operating conditions: • Drying air temperature of 40°C; • Product thickness of 11.5mm; • Air velocity of 1.02m/s.

  16. Dawood Alkhalaileh, MD, Hassan Elqaderi, MD, Yazan Bani Hamad, MD, Tareq Alqudah, MD and Ali Alrousan, MD

    ST-elevation myocardial infarction is commonly caused by intracoronary plaque rupture with thrombus formation and acute vessel closure in single coronary artery that is labelled as the culprit. The simultaneous thrombotic occlusions of more than one coronary artery in the setting of STEMI is a rare entity, which is not fully addressed in the current STEMI guidelines, although more recent studies suggest a benefit of complete revascularization compared to culprit vessel-only treatment in the setting of STEMI. In this report we presented a case of STEMI with 2 culprit vessels.

  17. Dr. Bishnupriya Mohanty, Dr. Niranjan Bhide and Dr. Yashdeep Yog

    Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free from disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing (dental hygiene) and cleaning between the teeth. The most common types of dental disease are tooth decay (cavities, dental caries) and gum diseases, including gingivitis, and periodontitis. Gandoosha & Kavala procedures are used with both the aims e.g., for the prevention of the mouth disease including the diseases of the teeth and the gums; which is described in ‘Dina Charya’ and ‘Ritu Charya’ e.g., the daily regimen and the seasonal regimen respectively.

  18. Nidhi Sharma and Sadakat Ali

    Background and Objectives: Forensic Anthropology is one of the most important and valuable sections of medical human anatomy. The objective of this study is to use a few facial indices namely Interzygomatic distance used to predict anthropometric relationships between the ethnic groups with the help of anthropometric tools. The aim of this study is to observe the variation of facial indices in different ethnic groups of hilly peoples of the Uttarakhand region. Methods: After proper searching of past published literature databases, statistical analysis was applied to get proper findings. This study has been carried out from the year 2021 to May of the year 2022. The study sample comprised randomly selected (100; 50 males + 50 females) Kumaoni and (100; 50 males + 50 females) Terai ethnic groups subjects from overall two hundred (200) subjects of my study from remote areas of tribes of Uttarakhand region born and brought up in Uttarakhand region aged 21 years and above up to 35 years young subjects, have been chosen for the reason that by this age, there is the completion of facial skeletal growth by ossification of bones. Result: With the help of reviewing most of the papers of past publications, we analyzed some of the essential final results in our present study: the linear regression equation derived for the Interzygomatic distance. The statistical analysis becomes statistically significant in Terai females (0.02 (S)) but in Kumaoni males (0.09 NS), Kumaoni females (0.2 NS) and Terai males (0.2 NS) it becomes nonsignificant. Discussion and Conclusion: In this study, the p-value is 0.2797 in Kumaoni females and 0.0913 in Kumaoni males, in the case of females the p-value indicates that the result is statistically significant. In the case of Kumaoni males, the p-value is more than 0.05; it is statically nonsignificant. The p-value is 0.0279 in Terai females and 0.2678 in Terai males. In the case of males and females both, the p-value is less than 0.05, in the case of males and females, the p-value indicates that the result is statistically significant. Interzygomatic distance is a very good parameter to observe the facial widths in hilly people like Kumaoni and Terai.

  19. Pamella A. Ananda, Stella L.A Juma and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Safety of students in schools is a matter of concern globally. In Kenya, students have lost their lives in the past decades due to arson, accidents, and food poisoning in spite of existence of Safety Standards Manual for schools of 2008. In Kakamega County Secondary Schools, there were 65 deaths, 205 cases of food poisoning; 112 cases of injury occasioned by gang rape, 103 floods, 107 landslides, 50 fire outbreaks, 102 lightening, 15 cyclones and 10 accidents in school buses from the year 2008 to 2018. Principals have a responsibility of ensuring safety of students in schools. The objective of the study was to examine contribution of principals to infrastructure requirements compliance in disaster management preparedness in public secondary schools in Kakamega County. A conceptual framework showing relationship between the independent variable, (contribution of principals) and the dependent variable, (disaster management preparedness) were used to guide the study. The findings of the study revealed that principals’ contribution to disaster management preparedness with regard to compliance in infrastructure requirements was 72.1%. It involved creation of appropriate class size, ensuring inspection and ventilation of buildings, provision of fire exists and extinguishers, construction of buildings in consultation and approval by public works department. The study concluded that principals’ contribution to disaster management preparedness in schools was high and significant. The findings are of help to educational planners and managers as they inform formulation of policy and strategies for preparedness in management of disasters in schools.

  20. Pritee Sharma

    In this paper, we will discuss what is Institution repository its types, scope, need, and requirements of its ICT infrastructure used software, future aspect of benefits barriers, etc., and what is the difference between Institutional Repository as well as Digital repository.

  21. Hemant, Dr. Rashmi Gupta and Deepti Sehrawat

    The use of neural networks for cryptography is demonstrated in this paper. There are two stages to the system. In the first stage, computer vision completely non numbers (NPRNGs) are created, and the outputs are checked for randomization utilizing random variation tests from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Inside the second phase, NPRNGs are used to create a neural network-based cryptosystem. Data that has been encrypted using non-linear algorithms is subjected to decryption efforts using two identical artificial neural networks in just this crypto algorithm (ANNs). Non-linear encryption is modelled utilising apparent connection capabilities in the first neural network. The next neural network uses decision-making functionality to encode and decode data.

  22. Sakher Alsharaa, Dawood Alkhalaileh, Hassan Elqaderi, Khalil Musallam and Yazan Bani Hamad

    Objective: A lot of Recent studies try to investigate the relationship between abnormal liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and incidence of coronary arteries disease. In this study we try to find a relationship between abnormal liver enzymes and three vessel coronary arteries disease. Method: One-hundred coronary arteries disease patients were randomly chosen from those who followed in outpatient clinic from Jan 2022 to June 2022 in queen alia heart institute. After reviewing angiography reports, patients were divided into two groups as three vessel CAD and non-three vessel CAD, non-three vessel CAD group also divided into 1-2 vessel CAD and medical CAD. In addition to optimal medical therapy and revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting), measurements of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations were performed in all patients before proceeding with coronary angiography. Results: The patient groups of CAD distribution were 13% medical CAD, 62% 1or 2-vessel CAD and 25% 3-vessel disease. Mean age was 63.48 ± 11.833 (range 33–87) years and 22 per cent (n = 22) were females. 49% them are diabetic and 72% are hypertensive patients. 5% of patients have elevated AST (>37) & 5% have elevated ALT (>41). All of them didn’t show elevation > 3-folds of normal. None of the elevated enzymes patients found in the 3-vessel CAD group. Conclusion: abnormal liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) may not be associated with angiographic severity of coronary arteries disease.

  23. Dr. Madan Lal Teli and Dr. Radheyshyam Teli

    In present scenario Ayurveda spread globally. Ayurveda deals with the metallic and herbo mineral preparations with their types, occurrence, physical properties and organoleptic characteristics. Not only in human also in animal have very good effect by Ayurvedic herbs. Currently this is found that cow species have affected by a specific virus named lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Lumpy skin disease is a high-consequence disease in cattle caused by infection with the poxvirus lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The virus is endemic in most countries also in India. It is found that west Rajasthan had very badly affected by LSDV. Many cows had died due to infection of LSDV. It is important that signs and symptoms of disease are recognized rapidly by animal caregivers. In this disease cattle developed multifocal cutaneous nodules characteristic of LSDV. Chronic lesions consisted of full-thickness necrosis of the dermis and epidermis Lesions. This single case study highlights are preparation and effect of Ayurvedic medicine (Aaragwadhadi kashayam) on LSDV affected cow.

  24. Jackson Venusto Modi Lado and Sarafino Agustino

    The degreased in water penetration and gaseous exchange is brought about by Changing in soil physical properties such as compatibility. The activities of organisms and movement materials in soil is controlled by very important elements such as Ph., cation exchange capacity, organic and moisture content (Lasat, (2002). The study was carried out between the periods of August to September 2021 to generate knowledge concerning the effects of the crude oil on Moisture and organic content of the soil. The samples were taken from one of the oil fields and analyzed at the chemistry laboratory of the University of Juba. After removing approximately 3 cm surface layer, soil samples were pulled out from depth of 10 cm. The soil was dried, sieved through 5mm sieve and 4kg of sieved soil was filled into four 2 liter plastic jar. The crude oil was then added into the filled plastic jugs, with each receiving a given quantity of crude oil. The amounts of crude oil applied were 0g, 25g, 50g and 75g and each quantity serves as a treatment. The jar for treatment received no oil. The crude oil was mixed with the soil in jar using hand trowel and each treatment is replicated three times, the soil samples were obtained from each jar from top layer (0 cm- 1cm) and surface layer (about 15 cm) depth. The samples were collected on days (1, 2, 3, 4.) after crude oil application. The soil samples from each jar was well mixed together to obtain homogenous mixture. The results showed that There was significance difference at P = ˂ 0.001 for all items tested. The results also showed that there was slightly positive correlation (r =0.0351) between the days and moisture content, as the days increase the moisture content increases, and there is slightly negative correlation (r =-0.2559) between the days and organic content, as the days increase the moisture content decreases. In conclusion, the crude oil had an effect on moisture content, and organic content of soil and that moisture content and organic content polluted with crude oil can be changed with time.

  25. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Watermelon {Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai} is a flowering plant species of the Cucurbitaceae family and the name of its edible fruit. Watermelon is an ancient fruit. The ancestors of the watermelon called the Tsamma melon, which are still found in the Kalahari Desert even today. The sweet, juicy flesh is usually deep red to pink, with many black seeds, although seedless varieties exist. Common names in English areWatermelon, Wild watermelon, Sweet melon, Dessert watermelon. The common names in Indian languages areKumati palam (Tamil); Taramuj (Bengali); Tarabuucha (Gujarati); Kharbuza, Kharmuja, Tarabuuza, Tarbooz, Tarbuj, Tarbuz, Tarmuj ( Hindi); Tarabuuja (Marathi); Tarabuuja (Pujabi); Kallangdi Hannu (Kannada). It is an excellent source of vitamins C and A, as well as a good source of vitamin B6 and vitamin B1 and various minerals. The seeds are eaten as a snack or added to other dishes, and may be roasted and seasoned. They are a good source of fat and protein. The Greeks and Romans considered watermelon to have medicinal properties. Notable Greek physicians Hippocrates and Dioscorides praised its healing properties and used it as a diuretic as well as a treatment for children who suffered a heatstroke. According to the National Institute of Industrial Research, watermelon is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. In India there is approximately 25 commercial varieties. Watermelon comes into season during the summer months, usually from April to June. However, unusual weather patterns during planting sometimes introduce the fruit to cities as early as March. In this review article, Introduction, Origin and Distribution, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics, Genetic Diversity, Crop Improvement, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of watermelon are dicussed.

  26. BEIGUE ALFA P’ham, SOUHO Tiatou, DOSSOU Bayi Reine, BANAKINAO Toussaint Bawou, MENSAH Labité Komlan, AWILI Tètouwalla and AMOUZOU Kou’santa

    The development of new processing technologies should make it possible to obtain good quality products that meet the required sanitary standards compatible with good consumer health. To this end, the general objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of improved smoking processes on the safety of smoked fish in Togo. The study compared the traditional and improved smoking system introduced in Togo within the framework of an agricultural sector support project in order to determine the microbiological quality of smoked fish and to assess the impact of the new smoking technologies for the benefit of the target beneficiary groups and consumers. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among women processors through a process survey and microbiological laboratory tests. The data show that fish smoking is done by women, the majority of whom are between 25 and 30 years old. The women processors use several types of combustible during smoking. With regard to microbiological quality, of the five (05) germs tested, compliance with the standards was only found for "coagulase positive staphylococci". The results of the microbiological tests were unsatisfactory for the "FMAT" germs. As for the hygiene control and spoilage germs "faecal coliforms", 38.5% of the results were unsatisfactory. The presence of FMAT, CTT indicates that the smoking and cooling process was poorly conducted, these germs can remain and proliferate in the smoked fish after smoking. The non-observance of good hygiene practices and the unsanitary environment of the production workshops would be at the origin of the post-smoking microbial contamination.

  27. Madume A. K. and Kua P. L.

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is usually defined as a change in maternal weights measured before pregnancy and prior to delivery, which is crucial to fetal growth and subsequent breastfeeding. Both excessive and inadequate GWG affect maternal and offspring health. Exercise contributes significantly to maternal and fetal wellbeing during pregnancy. This study probed the effectiveness of supervised, planned physical activity (aerobics) on maternal weight in pregnancy. Sixty-Four pregnantwomen who completed the study were simply randomized into experimental (n=38) with age range 25-43years and control (n=26) with age range 19-41years. Their pre-intervention weight measurements were taken and recorded and a 10-week, three times weekly aerobic exercise (40-45 minutes duration each session) training administered on the experimental group only. Post-intervention values were taken from all participants and data summarized using mean and standard deviation. Analysis of covariance was used to test the efficacy at 0.05 alpha level. The result revealed that the pretest experimental group mean value was 73.16+9.67with a mean difference of -4.28. The post intervention mean score was expectedly higher at 76.37+9.95 with a mean difference of -7.78. It follows that the aerobic exercise impacted the weight of the pregnant women. Also, being in the negative, showed that there was a reduction in the body weight of the experimental group as compared to the control group. It was concluded that the aerobic exercise was effective in moderating maternal weight gain in pregnancy and is an effective strategy in maternal weight maintenance.

  28. Dr. Vandna Yadav and Dr. Archana Choubey

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are very important for the researchers because of their importance in in various fields such as economic, environmental and electrical conductivity. These polymers have very important properties such as Optical, mechanical, and electronics. Conducting Polymers shows widest range of applications: such as electrostatic materials, conducting adhesives, electromagnetic shielding against electromagnetic interference (EMI), artificial nerves, aircraft structures, diodes, and transistors. This review papers discuss important potential applications of these nanofibers and nanotubes in various fields such as sensors, nanodiodes, field effect transistors, field emission and electrochromic displays, supercapacitors and energy storage, actuators,

  29. Renu Sharma, Gyan Prakash Sharma, Meenakshi Sharma and Naina Vishnoi

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is a kind of primary hepatic cancer that begins in liver cells (hepatocytes) damaged by birth defects, cirrhosis, alcohol or drug abuse, contamination of food, poor eating habits and regimen, hemochromatosis, or severe infection with many viruses such as hepatitis B and C. Cancer is an illness that occurs when abnormal cells sprout too quickly and occupy a lot of space, leaving fewer living space for normal cells to reside. A cancerous growth can interrupt almost all of the liver's functions. Its cause is usually attributed to environmental, dietary, or lifestyle factors. Surprisingly, men have four times the incidence of HCC than women. Prolonged damage and inflammation, regardless of the cause, advancement through fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally HCC, where the cancerous lesion usually begins. In Ayurveda the "Yakrtarbuda" is not specifically described. Ayurvedic experts have given many names to liver-related disorders that fall under the category of abdominal diseases. The clinical manifestations of yakritarbuda are virtually identical to the disease described in the Ayurvedic text as Kamala Roga.Yakritarbuda is a Pitta-dominant disorder ofaavaran of Kapha and Meda at the site of khavaigunya, which necessitates the use of Pitta Virechaniya and Koshtha Sodhaka drugs to remove vitiated and agitated doshas from the body. Due toits therapeutic potential, Narayana churna can easily carry out these functions.

  30. Sulaiman A. Alsalamah and Mohammed. I. Alghonaim

    The aims of this study wereto investigatethe antibacterial activity of clove and black cumin oils against Gram-positive and negative Bacteria.Clove and black cumin oils were purchased from the local market in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. The antibacterial activity of clove and black cumin oils was determined by the agar diffusion method.The tube dilution method was done to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of the oils.The results of the antibacterial activity of clove oil and black cumin oilagainst Staphylococcus aureus. Both oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. black cumin oilshowed the highest [15mm] whereas clove oil was [13mm]antibacterial activity. Where E. coli black cumin oilshowed the highest [32mm] whereas clove oil was [16mm].The minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] of clove oil against microorganisms. The MIC of clove oil ranged from [1.5-2 mg/ml]. When The MIC of black cumin oil ranged from [0.9-1.3 mg/ml]. The lower MIC is an indication of the high effectiveness of the oil.In conclusion, the results of this study showed that black cumin oil was more potent than clove oil against gram-positive and negative bacteria. So it could be used as antimicrobial agent against Staphylococcus aureus and E.colibacteria.


    The existence of African native languages deteriorates vis-à-vis foreign languages such as English, French, Portuguese and Spanish. The former colonies keep using the later as their official languages. The status of the African native languages is either Mother Tongue (MT) or first language (L1), facing that of foreign language (FL) and second language (L2). Unfortunately, the functions of most of these languages are limited to oral communication because their scriptural forms do not exist. This study tries to draw the connections between status and the form, using the Larry (MT or vernacular language), the Kituba and Lingala (L1 or vehicular language) as main communicative languages in Brazzaville. Results show that these Congolese languages are gradually getting menaced and losing ground. This is due to the outstanding intellectualism that takes Congolese people – who are African people as well – to use more and more French words and expressions when speaking them daily. The use of the Roman alphabet would help the Congo, as some African countries have done it, to glocalize their languages in the written form in order to link their status, form and function better. Didactically, African children should first learn their MT and L1 orally and writingly before they tackle with the learning of foreign languages.

  32. Dr. Arivalagan, S., , Dr. Dinesh Kumar K.S.A. and Dr. Suhana Koting

    Use of industrial waste materials (soil) or secondary waste materials has encouraged to use in construction field for the production of cement and concrete because it contribute to reducing the consumption of natural resources. Copper slag is one of the industrial by product materials that is considered as a waste which could have a capable future in construction Industry as partial or full substitute of either cement or aggregates. Many civil engineering researchers have found it before possible to use copper slag as a concrete aggregate. Tests were conducted to determine the properties of copper slag as aggregate such as density and specific gravity. As 100% replacement of natural fine aggregate with copper slag as fine aggregate is not feasible, partial replacement at various percentage were examined. For this experimental study M30 grade concrete was used and tests were conducted for various proportions of copper slag (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) replacement with fine aggregate (sand) in concrete. The obtained results were compared with those of control concrete made with ordinary Portland cement and sand at 7days, 14days and 28days of curing.

  33. Ogoun, Timipa Richard and Dibagha, Izibeya James

    The liver, which is one of the largest organs of the body with varying degree of functions is prone to diverse ailments. This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of Calcium Carbide coerced ripened Pawpaw on the Liver mass of the Wistar rats. Mature unripe Pawpaw’s were plucked off from the parent plant and were dividing into two groups; The first group was kept to rip at normal room temperature while the second group was induced with Calcium Carbide to rip. 10gram of Calcium carbide was placed in a bowl containing 5ml of water for dissolution in a closed metal bucket containing 1kg of the fruit (pawpaw) rapped with black nylon and was allowed for two days. After ripening, sampled fruits were washed and juiced. 600g of both the naturally ripened and calcium carbide ripened pawpaw were peeled separately and blended in an electric blender with 350ml/1L of deionized water. The juice was filtered and poured into clean bottles labeled (CaC2 induced ripened juice and naturally ripened pawpaw juice). A total of 21 adult Wister rats of both sexes weighing between 126.9- 214.3g were used. The Wistar rats were divided into three groups based on the body weight and then different concentrations of naturally ripened and calcium carbide induced ripened Pawpaw were administered orally. LD50 was carried out using Lorke, 1983 method. Group 1: Normal control group of 4 rats (2 males and 2 females) receive normal water and feeds only as placebo. Group 2 : Treatment Group (1) of 4 rats (2 males and 2 females). Group 3: Treatment Group (2) of 4 Wistar rats (2 males and 2 females) received Calcium Carbide ripened pawpaw for 4 weeks. 5ml/kg for both the natural fruit and the CaC2 ripened fruits were administered against each body weight of the adult Wistar rats. The Wistar rats were weighed and one Wistar rat was sacrificed weekly in groups. Blood and organ(liver) were collected from the three groups for histopathological analysis. The results showed Hepatocyte Hypertrophy, focal inflammation, Sinusoidal Dilation and amongst other. In conclusion, the consumption of fruits ripened with Calcium carbide pose detrimental effect on the liver, which could lower its functionality and integrity.

  34. Mahboob Hasan, Bushra Siddiqui, Zeeshan Nahid, Shahbaz Faridi and Nuzra Fazal

    We present a case of a 40 year old male who presented to the neuro clinics with the complaints of headache for three months. The clinic-radiological differential diagnoses were Craniopharyngioma, Pituitary macroadenoma, meningioma, chordoma and Epidermoid cyst. On histopathological and detailed immunohistochemical examination, this case was diagnosed as Chordoid meningioma. Since the chordoid features are related with a rapid recurrence after incomplete removal, meticulous histopathological and immunohistological examination is crucial for the adequate postoperative

  35. Naiknaware Tushar, Gaikwad Sakshi, Bhosale Siddhi, Patil Mukesh and Dr. Jain Ashish

    Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is used to determine the amount of variation due to Measurement System (MS) in the total variation of the process. It also assesses the effects of measurement error of the analytical instrument or by the operators/appraisers in the process. MSA consists of methods such as Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility (GR&R), Bias and Stability to assess the Measurement System. After MSA is performed successfully, the next step is Statistical Process Control (SPC). In SPC, Control Charts are most commonly used to determine whether the process is in control and stable. Control Charts works by collecting the data from the analysis of samples and arranging the data in the graphical manner to visually assess the stability of the process. Along with the Control Charts, the Process Capability Indices can also be calculated to determine the reliability of the process in the future.

  36. Dr. Shazia Bashir, Dr. Umer Hamid, Dr. Farhana Giri and Dr. Rassieq Aslam

    Occiput posterior (OP) position is the most common fetal malposition is important as it leads to the prolongation of second stage of labour and hence the adverse outcome. Background: To evaluate relation between fetal position and duration of second stage of labour as it has an impact on proper patient management. Methods: After full dilation of cervix position of occiput was noted by doing per vaginal examination after taking proper consent. The time of delivery was recorded and length of second stage was calculated. Conclusion: Occipito Posterior position is associated with increase duration of second stage of labour irrespective of parity.

  37. Moroh J. AKAZA, Noel GROGA, Yah G. GNAMIEN, Bi Boh N. GORE, Konan Soumaïla K. KONKOBO E. N’DRI and Soumaïla K. KONKOBO

    Improved exotic varieties of pepper are widely cultivated, in Côte d’Ivoire,to the detriment of local varieties. But some of them present difficulties in germination and plant growth which decrease production levels. However, their statistical magnitude, the parameters involved, the state of this situation relative to local varieties and between individual varieties are not known. Thus, this work was to determine characteristics of germination and in nursery growth of local and improved pepper varieties. Tweenty-four local and exotic varieties collected in Haut-Sassandra region in Côte d’Ivoire were evaluated in nursery according to a randomized complete block design with three replications for seven parameters. Data recorded were subjected to analyses of variance and multivariate analyses. First, it was noticed that no seeds germinated in two of the 14 exotic varieties. Thus, germination rate varied from 0 to 100 %, whereas it was from 60 to 100 % in local varieties. The 22 remaining varieties were highly significantly (p < 1 %) different for six parameters, except number of leaves. In addition, local varieties were highly significantly (p < 1 %) different fron exotic ones for only germination rate and germination time. Indeed, the seeds of local varieties germinated better (85.61 %) than those of improved varieties (76.19 %). Also, seeds of local varieties germinated in a shorter mean time (7.66 days) than those of exotic varieties (8.82 days). Otherwise, three clusters of varieties were distinguished significantly (p < 5 %) for stem diameter and plantlet height, but highly significantly (p < 1 %) for germination rate. Thus, a cluster, composed of 11 varieties whose all seeds germinated (100 %), with lowest stem diameter value (0.11 cm) and highest plantlet height value (3.16 cm) opposed another cluster comprising four varieties with weakest germination rate (65 %), highest mean stem diameter (0.19 cm) and weak plantlet height (2.7 cm). This study demonstrates, on the one hand, non-germination and very low germination in certain improved varieties and, on the other hand, the shorter average germination time in local varieties. All these results open up perspectives for regressive and inferential evaluations of growth, development and production.

  38. Mesfin Bogale Gebre Meskel

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived impact of marketing public relation practice on customers’ satisfaction in Ethiopian Telecommunication Corporation. This study used pragmatic research paradigm to test the application of PESO public relation model on the practice of marketing public relation. The descriptive qualitative results of this study showed that Ethiopian telecommunication corporation used all the four marketing media activities (Paid, Earned, Shared, and Owned) as part of its public relation efforts evaluated using PESO model. Based on the correlational analysis, this study showed the presence of positive and significant correlation between public relations activities and customers’ satisfaction of Ethiopian Telecommunication Corporation. The multiple linear regression also showed that 65.5% of variance in customers’ satisfaction is due to the corporation’s public relation marketing activities.

  39. Sandeep Kumar Maurya and Divya Jaiswal

    Purpose of Review: In this review paper, we highlight the recent concepts and discuss some of the current advances and future prospects used in cancer therapy. We hereby use the nanoparticle based such as liposome preparation for targeting the cancer. Methods used for Review: We performed a non-systematic search of journals, authoritative guidelines such as WHO, NCBI, etc. and selected the most comprehensive and relevant research articles, clinical studies, translational articles and review articles on nanoparticle such as liposome-based cancer therapy. The selection of paper for the reviewing purposes are purely based on the originality of the paper as well as by observing the clinical uses. Recent Findings in Review: Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. Systemic delivery of free drug is considered a major clinical failure of chemotherapy in cancer treatment, as limited concentration of the drug reaches at the tumor site which is site of action for the drug. Most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) used in chemotherapy are highly cytotoxic to both type of cells i.e., cancerous cells and normal cells. According to this, targeting tumor vasculature is essential for tumor therapy. In this context (reference), the encapsulation of anticancer drugs in a nanoparticle i.e., liposomal system offers safe platforms for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs for cancer therapy. This may also be helpful and useful for reducing the cytotoxic side effects of anticancer drugs on normal cells. This short review focuses on the use of liposomes in anticancer drug delivery, different liposomal formulations for cancer, and the mechanism of action of liposomal drug delivery for cancer therapy and some of the recent finding bioactive compound used in liposomal form for the cancer treatment.

  40. Kshirabdhi Tanaya and Pravati Tripathy

    Background: Aggressive and violent behavior usually exhibited by verbal aggression and physical violence towards others. Causes of aggressive behavior may vary from person to person. As per different individuals different way of perception anger arises. People having aggressive behavior may not be aware about their physical injury, threat towards self. There are certain stressors are their which develops aggression like external and internal stressors that are failure at academic or work place, fear of physical illness , perceived loss of loved one or loss of significant relationship, physical attack and criticism from others. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used with certain Objectives: 1.To evaluate the level of aggressive behavior among high school children 2.To find out the association of aggressive behavior with selected socio-demographic variables. Purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the sample. Total 150 numbers of samples (School going children 12-16 years ) were taken from KV schools of Bhubaneswar, Khurdha. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: Study result depicted that among all four categories of aggression, majority children were having hostility behavior and maximum number of the children were having verbal aggression. There were significant association found between socio-demographic variables (occupation of father, type of family and Number of children in the family) with the level of aggression among school going children. Conclusion: various education programs and trends also can be used to assess the children’s aggressive behavior to empower their mental health. Through innovative programs that aggressive behavior and associated factors can be minimized.

  41. Jayasree, Frenny Ann Phillip, Rachel Cherian Koshy, Jagathnath Krishna K M., Divya V Gladston and Nimmy George

    Background and Aims: Optimal head and neck positioning is very important for successful endotracheal intubation in patients with a difficult airway. Our study aims to investigate whether the use of ramped position can help decrease the incidence of unanticipated difficult airway. Our primary objective is to compare ease of endotracheal intubation between standard and ramped positions. Our secondary objective is to compare the laryngeal view between standard and ramped positions. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in 150 patients belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status (ASA PS) I, III, III between the age group of 18-60 years who underwent elective surgery under general anaesthesia (GA). Airway assessment was done preoperatively and patients with Airway Difficulty Score (ADS) less than 8 were selected for the study. Group R was placed in ramped position and Group S was placed in sniffing morning air/standard position. Both groups were assessed intraoperatively for ease of intubation and laryngeal view. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 11.0 software. Results: Time taken for intubation was more in ramped position than standard position (P=0.006). Number of first attempts was more in standard position compared to ramped position and second and third attempts were more in ramped position than standard position (P =0.003). Better laryngeal view was obtained in standard position than ramped position (P=0.032). Conclusion: Ramped position required more time to intubate, more attempts at intubation and showed more difficult laryngeal views compared to standard position.

  42. Dr. Pooja, P.P., Dr. Nakshatra Shetty, Dr. Tejkiran T Shetty, Dr. Dhanya S Rao and Dr. Raghavendra Kini

    Background: Sialolithiasis is the formation of calcific concentration within the parenchyma or ductal system of major or minor salivary glands. It most commonly affects the submandibular gland and affects adults aged 30 to 60 years. It causes swelling and pain, along with decreased salivary flow in the affected region. Here we discuss a case of sialolithiasis associated with increased thyroid hormone along with an incidental finding of complex odontoma in a 42-year-old patient.

  43. Aishah A. Somali, Manal El-Zohri and Sameera O. Bafeel

    This study investigated the efficiency of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) foliar spraying on basil (Ocimum basilucum) growth and oxidative stress alleviation under drought conditions. Basil plant subjected to four water levels (100, 75, 50 and 25% FC), at the same time leaves were sprayed with 100, 150 and 250 μM SNP. The results demonstrate that basil growth significantly decreased under drought stress, while SNP spraying, with all studied concentrations, significantly enhanced plant growth under drought conditions. Out of three SNP concentration tested, 150 μM proved to be the optimal treatment for ameliorating drought stress. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids content increased under drought conditions. Application of SNP at all studied treatments significantly improved chlorophyll a and carotenoid content mainly under moderate and severe drought condition (50, 25% FC). Proline concentration in the basil leaves significantly decreased under drought condition while SNP application alleviated osmatic stress. As indicators of drought stress, H2O2 and MDA content increased. SNP application alleviate drought stress by reducing H2O2 and MDA content. The beneficial effect of SNP was apparent in plants defensive state, where the concentration of ascorbic acid, oxidized glutathione and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher levels compered to untreated stressed control. Under all drought levels, the most pronounced improvement achieved for SOD activity (3 folds) by applying 250 µM SNP, for APX activity (24 folds) at150 µM SNP and for GR activity (2 folds) at 100 µM higher than untreated stressed plants. Therefore, foliar usage of SNP at 100, 150 and 250 µM might be suggested as an efficient way for enhancing basil tolerance to drought stress.

  44. Mr. Appanagoud. M. Patil , Mr. Satish.Nadagaddi, Mr. Ninganagouda. Patil, Ms. Shewtha Ohal and Ms. Reeba Mol Varghese

    Background: - The world is a comprehensive cyber community that has been connected by a network of wired and wireless devices through the world wide web (WWW).Today most of us have secured a room in cyber space by having email accounts, doing online transaction and through e-learning .All these online activities can be performed through both wired and wireless devices. The only device in the list that can be embedded several gadgets together is a mobile phone. Aims and objectives: - The present study was designed to assess the physical, social, and psychological effects of excessive usage of mobile phones in teenagers. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive research design was used for the study. In this study convenient sampling technique was adopted to draw the samples. The investigator has selected 60 students of D. Y. Patil college of Nursing; Pune In this study, the investigator used structured Rating scale to assess the effects of excessive usage of mobile phones. Results: According to the study the female teenagers has more severe physical effects i.e 30% which is less in male teenagers i.e 10%. But male teenager’s faces more moderate physical effects i.e 8% than female teenagers i.e 5%.The female teenagers suffer mild physical effects i.e 13% more than male teenagers i.e 4% According to study female teenagers have more mild social and psychological effects i.e 28% than male teenagers i.e 12%. But in male teenagers the moderate social and psychological effects are more i.e 6%, than in female teenagers i.e 4% and female teenagers has more severe social and psychological effects 16% than in male teenagers i.e 4%. Conclusion: The study showed that both male and female teenagers are facing the physical, social and psychological effects of mobile phones.

  45. Dr. Mohit Meharda, Dr. Neera Samar, Dr. Abhay Singh, Dr. Bavneet and Dr. Rahul Gangoda

    Primary Lateral Sclerosis (PLS) is an uncommon motor neuron disorder. Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement . The course of the disease is insidious and progressive, usually starting with the lower extremities, weakness may progress to affect the arms and the muscles at the base of the brain (bulbar muscles). As a rare disease, diagnosis is exclusionary. We are reporting a case of 46 year old female presented with lower limb weakness since 3 years which progressed to upper limb weakness and spastic dysarthria.

  46. Sheryl Sendur, K.C. Meena, I. S. Naruka, Nitin Soni, O.P. Singh, Kachouli, B.K. and Patidar, B.K.

    A field experiment was conducted at Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, College of Horticulture, RVSKVV, Mandsaur, (M.P.) during the Rabi season 2019-20 in RBD-Factorial with replicated three times. Result revealed that the maximum plant height (40.02, 108.17 and 193.65 cm) and dry weight (3.66, 15.88 and 107.96 g) were found in AF-2 and they were also maximum (42.81, 112.81 and 195.42 cm & 3.80, 17.88 and 109.59 g) when crop was sown on 20th October. Under the interaction too maximum (43.55, 115.48 and 198.03 cm & 3.93, 18.37 and108.66) in the treatment combination D1V2 (20th October + V2-AF-2) at 60, 90, 120 DAS and at harvest, respectively. In the yield and yield attributes, the primary (3.20), secondary (14.01) and tertiary (12.01) umbels and umbelletes per primary (37.74), secondary (29.90) and tertiary (13.24) umbels, umbel dry weight (8.59), test weight (8.41), seed yield (17.43), straw yield (27.00) and harvest index (36.74) had maximum in AF-2 and they were maximum (3.45, 14.41, 12.65, 39.37, 31.03, 13.54, 9.19, 8.65, 18.50, 28.96 and 37.91) respectively when fennel crop was sown on 20th October. Under the interaction of different treatment they were also obtained maximum (3.51, 14.97, 12.78, 36.69, 31.14, 13.93, 39.83, 9.83,8.77, 19.25, 29.81 and 39.06) respectively in the treatment combination D1V2 (20th October + V2-AF-2). The highest chlorophyll in leaves at 60 (1.43) & 90 (1.54) DAS and volatile oil in seed (1.23) had in fennel variety AF-2. However, Crop sown on 20th October they were also maximum (1.67, 1.79 & 1.36) at 60 & 90 DAS and volatile oil in seed respectively. Among the different infections 20th October + AF-2 had maximum chlorophyll at 60 (1.70) & 90 (1.81) DAS and volatile oil in seed (1.37) over other combinations.

  47. Omer Yusuf Erdurmus

    Top of the basilar artery syndrome is a rare condition that can cause intracranial ischemia. In this syndrome, there may be mild findings as well as permanent neurological disorders and death.A 60-year-old male patient, who applied to the emergency department with complaints of olfactory and speech disorder, was diagnosed with top of the basilar artery syndrome after neurological examination and cranial imaging, and reperfusion therapy could not be performed due to contraindications. In the following time, the neurological symptoms progressed and the patient was intubated due to the development of respiratory failure. The patient died in the 12th hour of his admission to the emergency department. Impaired sense of smell may be the presenting finding of top of the basilar artery syndrome, especially in patients with risk factors for cranial ischemia. Emergency physicians should be careful in this regard and provide early diagnosis and treatment.

  48. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Tajamul samad, Dr. Aamir Hussain, Dr. Bilal Yousuf Mir, Dr. Mehraj-ud-din Ganaie and Dr. Fatima Farooq

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has gained momentum over the last one and a half decade and has become the standard procedure for both colonic and rectal tumors. Colorectal anastomotic leak is one of the most feared post operative complications after any anastomosis made on the bowel. However different techniques of anastomosis have been studied viz a viz the bowel anastomosis leak rate. The various techniques performed for restorative bowel anastomosis are End to End (EE), End to side(ES) and Side to Side(SS). The physiological and anatomical anastomosis however, difficult to perform is End to End anastomosis as it maintains the continuity of the bowel and less leak rate is reported thereby. We took up a study and became interested in evaluating the techniques of anastomosis with the objectives of technical feasibility, return of bowel sounds and time of completion with each technique. Our results were quite satisfying as only one patient (3.8%) in our series developed leak in the technique of Side to Side anastomosis which is the most favoured and commonly performed bowel anastomosis in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Due to small sample size we could not better evaluate the return to bowel sounds in each technique.

  49. Dr. Pujar, C. R. and Dr. Alaekhya, P.L.

    Gata Vata comes under the category of Vata Vyadhi where the vitiated Vata gets located in a particular Sthana (site) resulting in manifestation of specific Lakshana related the Shana where it is located. The Brihatrayee and Acharya Yogaratnakar have thoroughly elaborated on Gata Vata with clarity and objectivity in their works. Acharaya Charaka while explaining about treatment for Asthimajja Gata Vata, emphasizes to consider both Asthi and Majja for treating through Snehana (Oleation) in both Bahya (externally) and Abhyantara (internally). Avascular necrosis (AVN) is Osteo-necrosis (dead bone) caused due to the injury or any occlusion in the blood vessels nourishing the bone tissue. It may be classified mainly into two types: 1) Post traumatic 2) Idiopathic. The arteries supplying to the femoral head are very narrow and hence are easily liable to injury resulting necrosis. It may be asymptomatic in the beginning but in advanced stages that lead to painful arthritis and in extreme cases, it may result in the collapse of a section of bone. Ayurveda has been playing the vital role in curing chronic and untreatable conditions of AVN. But principles of Ayurveda Chikitsa must be applied clinically to diseases which are not described in Ayurveda texts which are termed as Anukta Vyadhi (unmentioned disease). An effort was made to evaluate the efficiency of Panchakarma (five therapeutic procedures) treatment along with the conservative managements of AVN.

  50. Ziyad Tariq Ibrahim

    Objective: A lot of Recent This study was conducted for the detection of IgG antibodies using a rapid serological diagnosis technology (IgG) rapid immunochromatography (IgG) test for Helicobacter pylori to detect IgG antibodies, 50 venous blood samples were collected from patients with stomach and colon diseases in the endoscopy unit of Hospital Baquba Education, 10 venous blood samples were collected for the control group for the period from 15/11/2016 to 15/3/2017 the study showed that the infection rate in males is higher than females, as the percentage of infection in males constituted 58.33% (30 samples), while the percentage of females constituted 41.7% (20 samples), and the test group was divided into different age groups ranging fromBetween (15-25), which constituted 32% (16 samples), and the second age group (26-46), which constituted 68% (34 samples).

  51. Das Kanhu Charan Prof., Dr. Dinesh M., Dr. Dobhada Akash and Mr. Smruti R. Swain.

    Most of the cases with gastrointestinal Strongyloides infection are quite asymptomatic. Whereas mild symptoms isusually bearable, not specific to the particular to G. I. tract. Some of the patients have abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, intermittent episodes of diarrhea and constipation, a dry cough, and skin rashes except immune compromised individual they have severe form of life threatening infection.We are reporting a case of immune competent person with febrile illness and severe G. I. infection with Strongyloides.

  52. Ramesh, A.

    Defamation in CyberSpace is an intentional act to injure the reputation of a person in the eyes of right thinking persons in the society. The emergence of the internet towards the end of the 20th century has brought in the revolution in the technological sector. The internet has the unique potential to promote free expression and access to information. Compared to all previous media, the Internet is defined by its global and decentralized nature, low barriers to entry, openness, and relative affordability. These developments led the people across the world to communicate with each other easily and at the same time became the platform to defame the reputation of others. The Cyber Space provides new means by which people can engage in defamation, whether via an e-mail message, a message posted to a newsgroup or bulletin board, or an available file via file transport protocol or through social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter etc. The author made an attempt to analyze the definition, concept of defamation in Cyberspace and Constituents of defamation in CyberSpace.

  53. Nasrine Siham MEHTARI, Mohammed SAHRAOUI and Isma BRAHAMI

    The Kabuki syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, mainly associating an intellectual deficit, a polymalformative syndrome and specific morphological variations of the face allowing the diagnosis. It is also a rare cause of syndromic deafness. The aim of our work is to draw the practitioner's attention to the ENT manifestations of this syndrome as well as the clinical and therapeutic particularities of the hearing loss associated with it. We report the case of 3 children seen in consultation. Each child has an ENT and general clinical examination, impedancemetry, ABR and ASSR exploration. Due to its characteristic facial dysmorphism, ENT clinical manifestations are almost constant in Kabuki syndrome. Deafness is one of the handicaps frequently encountered in these patients and must be systematically screened. The early and adequate management of ENT manifestations contributes to reducing the significant morbidity presented by these patients. Kabuki syndrome should be kept in mind when evaluating an individual with syndromic hearing loss.

  54. Sahrish Tariq, Pooja Thakur, Nidhi Gupta, Preety Gupta and Aditi Sharma

    Background: One of the emergent global challenges is managing the novel Corona virus 2019, as it has an extremely high infectious rate and relatively high mortality. Apart from reducing the transmission rate, considering an individual’s fear is an important aspect of their psychological well-being and may also influence the manner in which an individual may adhere to preventive measures and thereby determine the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Aim: To assess the fear of COVID-19 among patients visiting satellite centers of dental college in Panchkula, Haryana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire among 200 patients visiting satellite centers of dental colleges in Panchkula, Haryana from January 2021 to March 2021. To assess fear among patients using the fear of Covid-19 Scale, which was also translated into Hindi. Results: There was a highly statistically significant difference (p<0.001) found between a fear score of COVID-19 during (March 2020-May 2020) and after lockdown (June 2020). Conclusion: It was concluded from the present study that in a resource-challenged country like India, Precautionary and preventive health advisories are crucial to controlling the transmission of COVID-19.


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Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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