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April 2022

  1. Farouq Ahmad Dar, Dr. Malkhan Singh and Dr. C. S. Armo

    This article explores interaction between the natural disasters and socio-economic development. This study depicts the impact of natural disasters on the dwellers of Jammu and Kashmir. It also examines the resilience mechanism followed by people and measures implemented by the government in response to these natural disasters. The broad objective of this paper is to examine the various contributors of natural disasters which are related to Socio-economic development of a region. To know about the role of dynamic natural disasters on socio-economic development both offline and online available literature was examined. The analysis of available literature depicts that there are links between disasters and resource management. The cross examine geographical literature suggests that Jammu and Kashmir is a disaster prone area which is affected by multiple natural disasters like earthquakes, avalanches, floods, climate change and landslides. These destructive disasters generally affect the different spheres of life and particularly the socio-economic development of a region. In order to diminish the disaster risk, the disaster risk reduction and management system, infrastructure and early warning system need to be strengthened. The need of the time is to develop the technology in such a manner to understand and cope the climate. The government should form an agenda that will help to reduce the frequency of natural disasters by implementing development policies and strategies to reduce the people’s vulnerability. Government should design a sustainable development policy to meet the urgent needs as well as minimize the long term negative consequences of disasters. The analysis conclude that natural disasters have diverse socio-economic impacts depending on nature, intensity and type of disaster.

  2. Dr. Navin Hadadi Krishnamurthy, Dr. Arya Radhakrishnan, Dr Umapathy Thimmegowda and Dr Nagarathna C.

    Introduction: A detailed knowledge of root canal morphology and comprehensive understanding of different root canal configurations are needed to avoid any failures or retreatments and also to improve the success of endodontic treatments of primary teeth. Inability to identify the root canals is generally found as the major cause of failure of root canal treatment. The classification of root canal morphology of permanent teeth was given by Vertucci (1984). However, after a detailed search in the literature, very few results were obtained which classified Primary mandibular second molars using Vertuccis classification. Aim: To investigate the root and canal morphology of primary mandibular second molars (PMSMs) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) by applying Vertuccis classification in Pediatric Indian population. Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 15 children (30 images) belonging to the age group of 5-8 years were obtained from the institutional database. The CBCT images were reconstructed by using On-Demand software, evaluated and the data was analyzed using SPSS version for windows. Results: All the primary mandibular second molars had two separate roots. In the mesial root, two root canals were observed in 86.7% of the cases and a single canal was seen in 13.3% of cases, whereas in the distal root, a single root canal was seen in 76.7% of cases and two canals were seen in 23.3% of the cases. Vertuccis Type IV configuration was most common in the mesial roots followed by Type I and Vertuccis Type I configuration was most common in the distal roots followed by Type IV. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the results of the present study showed different root canal configurations in both mesial and distal roots of primary mandibular second molars in the studied patients of the Pediatric Indian population.

  3. Mohammed Khalid Alam

    Background: Academic libraries of this age have embraced the user-centric approach and introduced learning commons (LC) for interactive learning of its users. They are redesigning their resources and services to meet the diverse learning needs of the Techie Gen LC users. It is an out of class group learning space where users are sharing and acquisitioning knowledge for solving learning problems. Group learning is supported by Problem-Based Learning (PBL) cycle phases where users play a knowledge transformer role. This study checks the relation and the ways that knowledge sharing and acquisition supports PBL phases and thereby confirms a new PBL phase. Objective(s): The main aim of the study is to investigate the relation and support of knowledge sharing and acquisition in problem-based learning (PBL) phases and thus determine a new PBL phase for LC. Methods: The research used a quantitative approach and included a survey design in its methodology. The online surveys were conducted in three university libraries of Japan and statistical analysis of simple percentage, mean and standard deviation were adopted to analyze the data. Results: The Cronbach's alpha score of the construct of knowledge sharing and acquisition was 0.750, skewness -0.531 and kurtosis was 0.651, which reveals it`s strong validity. Moreover, 77.5% of participants perceived that knowledge sharing and acquisition has a positive influence on them in PBL supported group learning at LC. Conclusion: The results of the study has revealed that knowledge sharing and acquisition is a new PBL cycle phase for LC group learning. Therefore, LC must combine resources and services in order to foster knowledge sharing and acquisition in PBL supported group learning and thus leverage users' out of class activities.

  4. Dr. Sahil Bundele, Dr. Suryakanat kumar, Dr. Arun Kumar Sajjanar, Dr. Dishika Bhagwani, Dr. Pratima Kolekar and Dr. Anand Deo

    Background: Dentists are subjected to mental stress since they work closely with patients. Increased stress may impact dentist’s work and pose a serious threat to patient’s physical and emotional health. While performing Paediatric dental procedures which require experience and without this general dentists, dental students would lack self-confidence. As a result, General dentists and dental students will be unable to deal with difficult patients. In Central India, there has been no research paper published on mental stress while performing Paediatric dental procedures in dentistry students, general dentists and Paediatric dentists. Aim: To evaluate the stress level in dentistry Students, General Dentists, and Paediatric Dentist while performing Paediatric dental procedures. Methodology: A cumulative total of 300 dentistry students, general dentists, and paediatric dentist, will be participating in this study. The information including, demographic information, will be gathered utilizing a questionnaire which will be distributed through google forms in all the 3 groups. After checking theparticipant’s comments, the data will beanalyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: According to the findings, 113 (37.7%) and 178 (59.3%) of the 300 participants were male and female, respectively, while 9 (3%) of the participants did not complete this section. The participants' stress levels were highest and lowest after anesthesia injection in the jaw for an anxious child and amalgam restoration in the mandible, respectively. Furthermore, as compared to males, females showed a considerably higher level of stress (P=0.001). Conclusion: Anesthetic injection into an anxious infant was found to be the most traumatic practice in pediatric dentistry,we found that,pediatric dentist were less stressed than students and general dentists.

  5. Charu Sharma* and Prof. (Dr.) Shailja Jain

    Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the problems associated with academic stress as transitions occur at an individual and social level. It therefore, becomes imperative to understand the sources and impact of academic stress in order to derive adequate and efficient intervention strategies. Academic anxiety has become part of students’ academic life due to the various internal and external expectations placed upon their shoulders. The study employed a quantitative research design where participants were screened using examination stress level from adolescent boys and girls of government and private schools. Understanding the sources of stress would facilitate the development of effective counselling modules and yoga strategies by school psychologists and counsellors in order to help students alleviate to examination anxiety.

  6. Dr. Noor Shagufta (Postgraduate Student), Dr.N. Ravi Kumar (Professor, Dept. of Prosthodontics) and Dr. Malathi Dayalan (Head of Department, Dept of Prosthodontics)

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the dimensional accuracy of splinted and unsplinted impression techniques for the multiunit abutment. Methods and Material: A 3D transparent acrylic model with 4 implants (2 straight and 2 angulated) and 4 multiunit abutments was fabricated. A total of 26 polyether (aquasil ultra monophase) impressions of this model were made with pick-up type multiunit impression copings. Out of this, 13 impressions were made by splinting the copings and the remaining 13 impressions were made without splinting. The horizontal distance between the abutments on the casts obtained by both techniques was measured using a digital vernier caliper. These measurements were then compared with the master model measurements. Results: The dimensional accuracy of splinted impression technique was almost similar to that of the 3D die whereas the dimensional accuracy of the non-splinted impression technique was less when compared to that of the 3D die. This difference in the dimensional accuracy of splinted and non-splinted impression techniques was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: The study concluded that the splinted technique produced more accurate master casts than the non-splinted technique for multiunit abutments.

  7. Dr. Anjum Malik, Dr. ZahidahAkhter and Dr. Tanveer Ahmad Yatoo

    Background and Objectives: Incisional hernia is the most common complication following abdominal surgery that requires reoperation. Incisional hernia is more common in females following obstetrics and gynaecological surgeries. Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair has been gaining popularity for small and medium sized ventral hernias.The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical details of incisional hernia following obstetrics and gynaecological surgeries and early outcomes of laparoscopicintraperitonealonlay mesh hernia repair using composite mesh. Methods: A prospective hospital based observational study in which 36 females with incisional hernia following obstetrics and gynaecological surgeries were enrolled and clinical details were taken. Laparoscopic intraperitonealonlay mesh hernioplasty using composite mesh with or without primary closure of defect was done. Results: Thirty six females with a mean age of 49.2years with incisional hernia through previous midline (63.88%), pfannensteil(36.12%) incisions presented with swelling(80.5%), pain(16.6%) over incision sites. There was previous history of previous hysterectomy(47.2%), caesarean section(38.8%),myomectomy(5.6%),ectopic rupture(5.6%) and ovarian cyst rupture(2.7%) with comorbidities like obesity(19.4%),diabetes(11.1%),COPD(2.7%),smoking(2.7%) and history of postoperative wound infection following previous surgery(5.6%).Patients underwent laparoscopic intraperitonealonlay mesh hernioplasty using composite mesh with introduction of mesh in 4-170 sec, adjusting and fixation of mesh in 30 -60min using tacks and transfascial sutures. Hospital stay was a mean of 2.1days with complications of seroma formation(8.3%) and recurrence(5.6%). Conclusion: Incisional hernia following obstetrics and gynaecological procedures is a common problem which can be effectively treated with laparoscopic onlay mesh hernioplasty.

  8. Sylvester Onuegbunam Nweze, *Malachy Nwaeze Ezenwaeze and Ngozi Rita Ani

    Introduction: Providing options for couples who are having difficulty conceiving represent an important part of solution to the rising rate of infertility. Objective: to access the awareness, acceptance and practice of egg donation among female Nigerian population. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study which involved 200 females that attended Eke-Akiyi Market in Umulokpa, Uzo-Uwani LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria. A minimum sample size of 200 was calculated for the study and a structured self-administered questionnaire employed in gathering information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and willingness to participate in egg donation. Simple random sampling was employed in selecting participants from different wings of the Market. Data was analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the results which were presented with the aid of charts and frequency tables. The level of significance was set at 95% probability level (p < 0.05). Result: Most of the research participants were within the age group 18 – 27 years (34.0%), with mean age of 24.2+ 1yrs. The study population comprised mainly of people who had formal education (93.0%). There was high level of awareness of egg donation in the studied Nigerian population (81%). However, the willingness and practice of egg donation was generally poor. Only 16% of the participants have donated egg in their life-time and only about 33%of the research participants agreed to donate egg incase of need. Financial benefit was mainly the reason for accepting to donate egg as noted in 68.8% of research participants. Religious inclination, cultural factors, and fear of pain constituted the bulk of the reason for refusal to be involved in egg donation. On perception of the respondents concerning egg donation, they were more in support of widows and divorcees donating egg than they were of singles and the married. Conclusion: The low level of acceptance and practice of egg donation observed in this study in the phase of rising rate of infertility calls for heath education of the populace, especially the prospective donors.

  9. Kangate Kartik, Pawar Ramesh, Zope Piyush, Deshmukh Pranav and Choutmal Vaibhav

    Background: Genetic diseases forms sizeable portion of diseases which being an important cause of morbidity and mortality, they impose a heavy burden on families and the health sector in our country. Thus Awareness about genetic diseases is crucial in today’s world. Aim and Objectives: To study awareness about genetic diseases among youth population in Akola city and to gain an insight into their understanding about it. Methodology: The cross-sectional study was conducted among 130 youths of Akola city in the month of March and April 2022. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to collect information on socio-demographic profile, knowledge, attitude and practices about genetic diseases was observed through interviews. Results: Majority of participants were male, 88.46% were in the age group of 20-30 years, 80% were studied graduation and above, 61.54% were students, 82.30% participants were aware about genetic counselling, 67.69% disagree that late marriages increases the risk of genetic diseases, 85.38% participants were interested to screen both themselves and their partner before marriage, 71.53% participants inquired about presence of genetic diseases in the family of person they wish to marry and 63.85% participants check blood group of partner before marriage, 91.53% participants accepted consanguineous marriage as a cause of genetic disease. Conclusion: Although majority of participants were educated and aware of genetic diseases, very few translated it in their daily practices. Pre-marital counselling and Screening should be made mandatory which in turn can reduce genetic diseases. Practical Application: This study can help to train and formulate policies and create awareness about Genetic diseases and can help them make better choices in their lives.

  10. Sr. Nentaweh M. Wakger and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    The growth and development of a child is influenced by primary and secondary factors. Primary factors include heredity, the condition of the mother during pregnancy, nutrition, illness and physical environment. Secondary factors include social and psychological factors, social factors are socio-economic class, parental level of education, family size, position of children in the family (birth order) and spacing of children. The psychological ones include; love, tenderness, joy, zest, elation, pleasure, humor, laughter, anxiety, fear, anger, tolerance, empathy, sympathy and many others. It is generally accepted that primary factors are precursors of secondary factors. All these factors affect physical growth and development of children. For instance children brought up in harsh homes or homes with little love and in institutions and orphanages where affection is wanting may suffer retarded growth and development. Participant observation revealed that orphaned children from deplorable environment, dilapidated dwellings improved dramatically in Notre Dame Children’s Home (NDCH) in which guidance and counseling services were provided besides good environment. This was also noticed in some children, that is, graduates of Notre Dame Children’s Home who returned to their various homes from boarding schools, where they have not been properly taken care off after a period of being in orphanage. It is against this backdrop that this study sought to establish the influence of guidance and counselling services on psychogenic needs of orphans and vulnerable children of Notre Dame Outreach. The study established that Guidance and Counselling (G&C) services impacted positively and significantly on Orphans and Vulnerable Children’s psychological needs. Thus, most Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) did not find it hard to adjust after receiving guidance and counseling services. Normally, children aged between six and ten years often suffer from restlessness, sleep disturbance, lack of appetite and loss of weight in the first three months of school life because of tension of adjusting to the transition from home to school. For the children who have proceeded to secondary schools, middle level colleges and universities, the expectations are that they should have adjusted accordingly though some factors may have long lasting effect on them. For instance, if a child lives with security, he learns to have faith in himself; if a child lives with hostility, he learns to fight; if a child lives with acceptance, he learns to love; if a child lives with fear, he learns to be apprehensive; if a child lives with approval, he learns to be like himself and if a child lives with recognition, he learns to have a goal. In effect the OVCs who have graduated from Notre Dame Children Home were found to have developed strong personalities acquiring the desired skills, knowledge and attitudes which they benefited from the guidance and counselling services and thus were found to be striving to excel, being creative, innovative, economical and independent in their undertakings.

  11. Dr. Sangeeth Siddabasappa, Dr Varsha Patel G B, Dr. Shubha, C. and Dr. Ashok, L.

    Odontodysplasia is a rare nonhereditary developmental anomaly of dental hard tissue with unknown etiology, arising from both ectodermal and mesodermal components. Hitchin in 1934 first described it as a localized arrest of tooth development generally affecting one quadrant of the jaw. When it just affects one quadrant, it is referred to as “Regional Odontodysplasia,” but when it crosses the midline and affects more than one quadrant, it is referred to as “Generalised Odontodysplasia.” In this case, 10 year old female patient was diagnosed with Regional Odontodysplasia affecting the Maxillary Anterior Teeth on left side confirmed with Clinical and Radiographic Features.

  12. Mashhood Ul Haque Qazi and Noura Al Shaibani

    A 46-year-old male patient with a medical history of diabetes mellitus was diagnosed as ITP based on low platelet counts of 4 x 109/L. While being on oral prednisolone therapy, patient developed seizures and heavy speech. Imaging studies showed multiple small acute established non-haemorrhagic infarction in the left frontal and temporal regions. Patient was treated initially with aspirin 300 mg and subsequently continued on 80 mg aspirin daily for acute ischemic stroke. Further workup did not reveal any clear aetiology for the multiple non-haemorrhagic infarction. Patient had a short stay in ICU and was later transferred to the medical ward. Patient was thought to have had a complex partial seizure with secondary generalization secondary to hyperacute stroke. Etiology of stroke was thought to be most likely due to prothrombotic state.

  13. Shifan Khanday

    Aim: To review current articles advocating the integration of sustainable healthcare in medical education curriculum. Context: The concepts of innovation in healthcare sustainability are relatively new in medical education. It focuses on long-term health promotion, wellness, and wellbeing in order to lighten the burden on the healthcare system. Medical schools can serve as a breeding ground for the development of knowledge, skills, and innovation to address environmental challenges through innovative and collaborative approaches. Material and method: Few articles were reviewed for application of sustainability in medical education curriculum. Findings and inference: When the concept is integrated into the medical curriculum, young minds will embrace it and work toward attainable sustainability goals. Inference: The following are some of the topics that will be addressed in the curriculum and which future doctors should be able to do: 1.Evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of therapies and select investigations based on cost effectiveness. Work to make such approaches more innovative. 2.Procedures and infrastructure that are environmentally friendly. 3.Nutrition in connection to individual patients and societies, which may provide some possibility for sustainable healthcare education. 4. Recognize the effects of global and climate change. 5. "Seeking strategies to consistently enhance the usage and prioritization of resources" is part of patient safety and quality improvement. 6. Recognize how therapy and care can add to a patient's burden and make decisions to alleviate it where possible, especially when the patient has several diseases or is towards the end of life." 7. Diagnosis and medical management. Doctors who qualify should be able to apply sustainable healthcare ideas to their medical practice. Inclusion of teaching sustainability in medical education to add a new dimension to future learning. The concepts of innovation and sustainability are relatively new in medical education. It focuses on long-term health promotion, wellness, and wellbeing in order to lighten the burden on the healthcare system.

  14. Dr. Harshveer Kaur, Dr. Renu Bala Sroa, Dr. Baljeet Kumar, Dr. Mamta Katal, Dr. Parul Chauhan and Dr. Sukhpreet Singh

    Background: Sealer penetration increases the contact area between the dentinal walls and the sealer, thus improving the sealing and antimicrobial efficacy of the sealers. Objectives: Evaluation the maximum depth and percentage of AH Plus, Endoseal MTA and Bio-C sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules using single cone and warm vertical compaction (WVC) obturation techniques. Materials and methods: Ninety single rooted mandibular premolars decoronated at 13mm from apex. After instrumentation, samples were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=15) according to the sealers and obturation techniques used. The obturated samples were then kept in 100% humidity at 37C for 7 days and sectioned at 3mm, 5mm and 7mm from the terminus of filling. The sectioned samples were observed under confocal laser scanning microscope to determine maximum penetration depth and percentage of sealer penetration. Statistical analyses was performed using one way ANOVA with Tukey Post-HOC test for multiple comparison and independent t-test. Results: At all the levels, the maximum depth and percentage of penetration of Bio-C and Endoseal MTA were significantly better (p0.05) as compared to AH Plus when the samples were obturated with single cone and warm vertical compaction obturation techniques. However, Endoseal MTA and Bio-C sealers showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Irrespective of the sealer used, warm vertical compaction obturation technique showed a statistically significant (p0.05) difference in depth and percentage of sealer penetration at all the levels. Conclusion: Bio-ceramic sealer (Endoseal MTA and Bio-C) had greater depth and percentage of sealer penetration as compared to AH Plus with both obturation techniques at all the evaluated levels. Furthermore, warm vertical compaction obturation technique achieved greater depth and percentage of sealer penetration as compared to single cone technique.

  15. Dr. Aishwarya A.P., Dr. Amit Kumar Sharma, Dr. Atal Bihari Meena, Dr. Gunjan Sharma, Dr. Dipanshu Jain, Dr. Varsha Raj Meena, Dr. Ashish Ranjan and Dr. Anil Saxena

    Background: Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) is a common reason for hospitalization and a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Intravenous MgSO4 has shown benefits in acute severe asthma by producing bronchodilation. However, the use of intravenous MgSO4 in acute exacerbations of COPD alone or as an adjuvant to bronchodilators is lacking and more studies are needed to establish its usefulness. Aim/Objectives: To study the role of serum magnesium in acute exacerbation of COPD. To study the role of intravenous magnesium sulfate in acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods: A non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, comparative prospective interventional study, where 100 subjects were allotted into 2 groups (group M and group P) of 50 each to receive either 2g of intravenous MgSO4 or a similar amount of normal saline as placebo along with nebulized salbutamol. The efficacy of MgSO4 was evaluated by measuring PEFR a primary outcome parameter at 0,15,30 and 45 mins. Irrespective of the group serum magnesium of all 100 patients are monitored at the time of admission Statistical Analysis: The statistical software SPSS V.16.0 was used for all analysis of the data &MS Word & Excel have been used to generate graphs, tables, etc. All the results are presented as mean ± SD & the range values for the continuous data. The categorical data are presented as numbers & percentages. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: The mean difference in the MgSO4 group at every observation was higher than the placebo. The mean change in PEFR (193.04± 43.47) in the MgSO4 group at 45mins observation was Significantly (p=0.0170) higher than in placebo (172.4± 41.47). The serum magnesium level was also monitored but our study was not able to prove a significant correlation between hypomagnesemia and acute exacerbation of COPD. Conclusions: The benefits of intravenous MgSO4 as an adjuvant to bronchodilators in AECOPD resulted in improvement of clinical condition and PEFR. The improvement in PEFR was significantly higher with MgSO4 than with placebo MgSO4 enhances the early bronchodilator response of other drugs and has significant efficacy.

  16. Gunjan Sharma, Atal Meena, Amit Sharma, Aishwarya, A.P., Dipanshu Jain, Ashish Ranjan, Varsha Raj Meena and Anil Saxena

    Background: From the last few years, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has come up as a new diagnostic modality to diagnose emphysematous and chronic bronchitis components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). IN this study was undertaken to evaluate for HRCT features in patients with COPD, which include various qualitative and quantitative features of HRCT and to detect patients' characteristics that correlate with these HRCT features. HRCT allows direct visualization of areas of lung destruction, and allows detection of parenchymal changes 0.2-0.3 mm in size. HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography and lung function tests in the detection of early smoking related lung damage and also to see disease progression in COPD. It is also help to identify the presence and to quantify the amount of emphysema present. Material and Method-after taking ethical approval informed consent is taken from 100 patient of COPD from OPD and IPD in GMC KOTA in a span of one year is selected by simple non purposive sampling spirometry done and HRCT done and various parameter is calculated. Result-in this study various parameter like age, DOI, pack year, spirometric parameter quality of life is taken as a study variable of patient and HRCT various quantitative and qualitative parameter is taken to find out relation between them in our study age, duration of illness, pack year, shows correlation with various CT features shows disease progression p value is below 0.01 (which is extremely significant).in this study %FEV1,AQ30 shows association with few CT features not all . Conclusion: In our study variable in COPD patients are shows significant relation with Various quantitative and qualitative HRCT features were found to correlate with patients’ characteristics, spirometric indices, and health-related quality-of-life score, suggesting that HRCT is useful not only in detecting emphysema and its various subtypes but also in predicting the extent and severity of COPD and find relation between high resolution computed tomography features and patients characteristics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .

  17. Bommareddy Radha Geethika, Kalyan Chakravarthy, A., Veerendra Prasad Budige, Ramavarapu Avinash, Bhanu Chander, V. and Satya Sri, L.

    Bone grafting replaces a patient's missing bone with both natural and artificial materials. Biocompatibility, bioresorbability, structural stability, availability, ease of handling, and cost are all factors to consider when choosing an augmentation material for grafting. Osseointegrative ability refers to the graft's ability to integrate and bond with the host. There is currently no complete bone substitute that meets the requirements for biocompatibility, bioabsorption, and volume maintenance. The bioabsorbability of leftover bone substitutes and the volume maintenance of the augmented tissue are inversely related over time. An allograft is a type of human tissue obtained from someone other than the recipient of the graft. Fresh or frozen bone, FDBA, DFDBA, and cortico-cancellous bone allografts are the three types of bone allografts available. The mineral to organic matrix ratio of hydroxyapatite (HA) is similar to that of human bone. The granular form is sterile and ready to use in periodontal and other bony defects treatment, as well as bone maintenance. Cancellous bone is resorbable, and new bone will gradually replace it. Alloplastic grafts can be made with bioactive glass or hydroxyapatite. When calcium sulphate deteriorates, it loses a lot of its mechanical properties, making it a risky choice for load bearing applications. To supplement residual alveolar ridges, porous tricalcium phosphate ceramic could be used. In apical resection areas, cystic defects, extraction sockets, and alveoli, bioactive glass particles with a narrow size range promote osteogenesis. Synthetic polymers, like natural polymers, are resorbed by the body. PRF is a fibrin matrix that traps and releases platelet cytokines, growth factors, and cells over time. PRP has been shown to help with periodontal and oral surgery outcomes. PRP may aid the body's natural wound-healing mechanisms when used in dentistry.

  18. Varsha Raj Meena, Suman Khangarot, Atal Meena, Amit Sharma, Ashish Ranjan, Aishwarya A.P., Gunjan Sharma and Dipanshu Jain

    Background: In COPD patients the systemic inflammatory cytokines were increased and these inhibits the synthesis or secretion of TSH and peripheral conversion of T4 to T3, this leads to endocrine dysfunction in the form of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism causes alveolar hypoventilation, upper airway obstruction, Diaphragmatic dysfunction and respiratory failure. Altered endocrine function worsen the clinical manifestations of COPD and increases exacerbation frequency. Aims/Objectives: To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and clinical features of thyroidin COPD patients and to measure the relationship with COPD severity. Methods: 100 patients were collected from NMCH Hospital Kota. undergo Pulmonary function test, for 3 times at every 15 minutes interval and best of 3 readings were taken. The Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), (FEV1), FEV1/ FVC ratio were recorded. Blood sample was sent to check thyroid profile. Result: Out of 100 cases male patients (n=78), female (n=22). Most of patients in the age group of 51-70 (n=80). Hypothyroidism found in (n=53). overt hypothyroidism in 38, subclinical in 15. The mean TSH value is 10.35±1.72 and P-value is 0.0021. The correlation coefficient of FEV1 and TSH is -0.8305. that is good negative correlation. Means hypothyroidism was found in more severe COPD patient. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is present in COPD, especially in severe form of COPD. Hypothyroidism not only increases COPD exacerbation but also affects the quality of life. Hence COPD patients should be regularly monitored for abnormal thyroid function and managed accordingly to improve their quality of life.

  19. Abhishek Rathod

    Kanamycin is one of the injectable second line anti-tubercular drug used in multidrug resistant tuberculosis. It caused renal electrolyte wasting causing dyselectrolytemia in our patient presenting with carpopedal spasm `which resolved after discontinuation of kanamycin.

  20. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Aizul Khursheed Wani, Dr. Tajamul samad and Dr. Mehraj-ud-din Ganaie

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology. The main manifestation of sarcoidosis is due to involvement of the pulmonary system, in which it presents as a noncaseating granulomas and generalized lymphadenopathy. It is generally a multisystem disease that presents with a wide spectrum of differential diagnosis including infectious,autoimmune,neoplastic conditions of spleen. However, isolated granulomatous disease confined to spleen is rare. The approach to isolated splenic nodules in a patient with nonspecific abdominal symptoms should be focused on exclusion of malignancies and infections, and may require computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography imaging; scintigraphy; bone marrow biopsy; breast and genital examinations; and endoscopies. We report a rare case of isolated sarcoidosis of spleen which was treated laparoscopic ally.

  21. Dr. Ruchita Talreja, Dr. Pratik Gond, Dr. KN Dandekar, Dr. Jorwekar, G.J. and Dr. Gangwal, M.

    Objective: The objective of our study was to document the histological type and morphology of neoplastic lesion found concomitantly with renal calculi. Background: Renal calculi is one of the most common urological condition. Chronic irritation induced by predisposing factors superimposed by infection is believed to induce squamous metaplasia. Subsequent development of leucoplakia and neoplasia in the urothelium stimulated RCC. The dismal prognosis of renal malignancy in patients with long standing calculi compelled us to study the clinicopathological presentation. Methods: In our series, we retrospectively examined records of about the nephrectomies done for long standing calculi with nonfunctional kidney in Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni during a span of 3 years from January 2018 to March 2021. Results: We analysed 30 cases of nephrectomies considering pre-op factors like age, gender, laterality of disease, radiological investigations ,method of determination of non functional kidney(USG,CT-IVP,DTPA), signs and symptoms of distant metastasis, type of nephrectomy and histopathological report of the nephrectomy specimens in patients with long standing renal calculi. 62.5% were males and 37.5% females. Right side malignancy was reported in 75% patients where as left side reported in 25% patients. 75 % patients underwent Simple nephrectomy whereas only 25% patients underwent radical nephrectomy for the same. Histopathological study 62.5% of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma 25 % of the patients had clear cell carcinoma,12.5% had urothelial Carcinoma with squamoid differentiation. Lymphovascular invasion was found in 37.5% of the patients. Conclusions: Our study has shown that malignancies associated with stone disease have insidious onset of clinical symptoms and there is a fair incidence of squamous malignancies. The possible way to improve prognosis is early diagnosis by screening patients of long standing urolithiasis with a CT scan in order to detect the associated malignancies. So the planning of appropriate early surgical intervention can be done and to improve the prognosis .

  22. Dr. Shreya Dadhich, Dr. Harshit Srivastava, Dr. Deepak Raisingani, Dr. Ridhima Gupta, Dr. Vaishali Moryani

    Awareness of anatomy and variations in the configuration of a root canal is essential to ensure successful endodontic treatment. Mandibular incisors generally demonstratethe presence of one root with one canal. But in some cases, they depict anatomic variation in terms of the number of root canals wherein an additional root canal might be present lingually. Appropriate diagnosis of such anatomic variation is key to success for root canal therapy. This case report describes endodontic management of a mandibular lateral incisor with 2 root canals exhibiting Vertucci Type 2 configuration. Identification of this variation was done thorough clinical examination along with the aid of multiangled radiographs, and an accurate assessment of this morphology was made with the help of cone-beam computed tomography imaging.

  23. Razaz A Falemban, Taghreed k Alhetairshi and Khalid A Almasudi

    Background: Makkah Al-Mokarramah, Saudi Arabia has a special consideration in Islamic religion as millions of people came to perform Umrah and Hajj during the year, gathering multi ethnicity and nationality. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of COVID-19 in suspected patients and close contact with confirmed cases in Makkah Al-Mokarramah, 2020. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study included all high score suspected patients and those confirmed contact with positive cases that were screened in 5 primary health care centers assigned as COVID-19 screening centers in Makkah Al-Mokarramah. Self-administration secondary data, that were uploaded from Health Electronic Surveillance Network were utilized. Results: A total of 143288 individuals were included. The overall difference between cases and control subjects as regards age distribution was statistically significant, p<0.001. Males represented 70.1% of cases and 66.8% of controls, p<0.001. The prevalence of COVID-19 among the study participants was 56.6%. Both cases and controls were more reported in June, 2020 compared to May, 2020 (70% and 59.8% vs. 30% and 40.2%). The prevalence of confirmed and suspected cases was 44.9% and 29.9%, respectively. Regarding the outcome, majority of cases (82.1%) recovered whereas case-fatality rate was 2%. Concerning symptoms, the most frequently reported were fever (88.4%), cough (88.3%), sore throat (73%) and running nose (56.7%). History of patients `admission was observed among 36.5% of them. Concerning the initial reason for admission, respiratory reasons ranked first (58.9%). Conclusion: COVID-19 was commonly reported among suspected patients and close contact with confirmed cases. Their hospital admission was relatively common and the case fatality rate was lower than others.

  24. Landry Martial MIGUEL, Archange Michel Emmanuel MBOUNGOU MALONGA, Didier Gesril NJILO TCHATCHOUANG, Childérick LÉKANA, Choupette Ravelle DOBHAT-DOUKAKINI, Emmanuel Grace NKOUNKOU MATONDO, Ruphin Bertrand BOLANGA, Etienne MOKONDJIMOBE, Donatien MOUKASSA a

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate behavioral and histological abnormalities of valproic acid in non-pregnant adult mice. Materials and methods: 18 of the non-pregnant adult rats were divided into 3 groups; (1) distilled water group, (2) VPA 200 mg/kg group and (3) VPA 400 mg/kg group. The products were administered orally daily for 30 days. 24 hours after the end of the treatments, the animals were sacrificed, the blood and the ovaries collected for the hormonal assays (progesterone and estradiol) and the histological analyses. Serum progesterone and estradiol levels were determined using ELISA techniques. The histological analysis was made on the sections of the ovaries, under the electric microscope, after staining with hematoxylin eosin. Results: No change in the weight of the organs studied was observed. Exposure to VPA resulted in depletion of ovarian hormones (progesterone and oestradiol). Progesterone concentrations were 15.3 ± 21.3, 1.2 ± 1.6 and 17.4 ± 21.3 respectively for control animals, VPA 200 and 400 mg/kg. Histological analysis revealed the presence of subcostal hemorrhages and ovarian pseudocysts in animals treated with VPA. Conclusion: VPA, at the doses studied, causes a depletion of ovarian hormones and induces histological alterations of the ovaries.

  25. Mrs. Rekharani Singh

    COVID-19 pandemic has changed the living of people of all ages throughout the world. While it led to fear and restricted movements of all, it also resulted in the problems related to least movements such as overcrowding in small houses, increased domestic violence, joblessness, addiction, etc. Most of these had detrimental effects on the lives of people including preschool children. Normally preschool children attend anganwadi/ Balwadi or the pay group nursery in India. This is the time to prepare the children for schooling in next few years, normally. The preschool phase lasts for two to three years. The phase emphasizes separation individuation of the child from the primary caregiver, - the mother in most cases. It is also a phase of social skill training like learning to mix, talk, share and play with other children. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought these activities to absolute standstill in last one and a half year. Naturally the children today with lockdown lifted and school opened offline are poorly prepared for the schooling. The foregoing article gives and account of the multiple dimensions in which this lockdown might have influenced the preschool children.

  26. Kennedy O. Atien, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Joyce W. Boke

    The safety of the learner is paramount to the provision of quality education in any country. While this is true for learners at all levels of education, it is particularly critical for learners at the basic education level in view of their relatively tender ages. Major concerns to schools is the increasing problem of drug abuse among learners. Although several studies worldwide have revealed that there is some relationship between Drug Abuse and pupil discipline, the same has not been established in areas like Homa Bay Sub County. It is against this backdrop that this study sought to establish the effect of drug abuse and substance on pupil discipline in primary schools in Homabay Sub County. Therefore the objective of the study was to establish the effects of drug and substance abuse on pupil discipline in primary schools. The study established that abuse of alcohol had a low effect on pupil discipline, Bhang had high effect, spirits had low effect, cigarettes had low effect, piritons had low effect and Postinor-2 pills had low effect. The Pupil discipline was in terms of failure to do homework, lateness, cheating in examinations, absenteeism, truancy, sexual harassment, pornography, bullying and insubordination which in most cases have culminated in arsons and stampedes in which pupils have lost their lives. The study recommends that all stakeholders in education should participate in eradicating drug and substance abuse among youth both at school and out of school.

  27. Lillian E. Ogono, Maurice A. Ndolo, Marciana N. Were and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Teacher performance is a quality matter of great consideration in institutions of learning and in particular basic education institutions. It is for this reason that measures have been put in place to enhance teacher performance worldwide. In Kenya programmes such as strengthening of Mathematics and Science in secondary Education (SMASSE) have been undertaken. In fact SMASSE was a major joint venture between the Kenya government through Ministry of Education and government of Japan through Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), 1998 to 2003. Later on Centre for Mathematics, Science and Technology Education in Africa (CEMASTEA) was created in 2001 to implement SMASSE programmes aimed at capacity building of teachers for quality curriculum delivery. These programmes were extended and changed to strengthening of Mathematics and Science Education (SMASE) to accommodate both primary and secondary school activities. In all these programmes the central factor is headteacher’s leadership. This is because the headteacher is the accounting officer and implementor of government policies at school level. Teacher performance is a product of headteacher’s leadership, hence headteacher’s leadership style is critical. In this regard, studies have provided contradicting revelations, some posit autocratic leadership style as critical in teacher performance improvement while others indicate that autocratic leadership style has negative influence on teacher performance. The objective of this study was therefore to establish the influence of head teachers' autocratic leadership style on teacher performance in public primary schools. The study established that autocratic leadership style significantly influences teacher performance with regard to schemes of work preparation, lesson planning, preparation of teaching /learning resources, content delivery, formative evaluation and summative evaluation. Since autocratic leadership style accounted for only 17.7% of the variation in teacher performance, the study recommends that autocratic leadership style should be used sparingly or cautiously so as to enhance teacher performance optimumly.

  28. Idrissa Guisso Maïga Djibril, Yacouba Ali Razinatou and Soumana Boubacar

    Description of the subject: In an eternal instinct for income diversification, farmers in the communes of Imanan and Tagazar practice winter gardening for its profitability. This work analyzes the economic performance of market gardening as well as its determinants. Method: The sampling concerns 102 market gardeners surveyed randomly. The probitFractionnal Regression Model using STATA 14.1 software was used. Results: The data analyzed reveal a net operating result of 897 FCFA / m2 for tomatoes, 1043 FCFA / m2 for peppers and 902 FCFA / m2 for cabbage. The average net margin rate is 56.80% for tomatoes, 66.30% for peppers and 60.92% for cabbage. The cost benefit analysis shows a coefficient of 2.59 for tomato, 3.53 for pepper and 2.61 for cabbage. The economic efficiency level is 0.3219 for tomato, 0.3587 for pepper and 0.4601 for cabbage. In addition, the size of the farm, the sales-to-gross product ratio, the proximity between the field and the market garden plot, positively influence the efficiency of market gardeners. Experience, education and access to credit improve the economic efficiency of pepper and cabbage producers. Conclusions: It is possible to improve rainy market gardening in rainy season and farmers must have this important information.

  29. Prof. Pratima Kadam, Ms. Ashwini Patil, Ms. Sakshi Kale, Mr. Devesh Vaidya and Mr. Kunal Bhadane

    Road accidents and various other form of accidents are common nowadays which causes deaths. According to the data received from WHO approximately 1.3 million people dies in road accidents every year. Not only in India but also in other countries the number of accidents is very high. Most of the time road accidents happens due to driver’s sleep. In this paper, a good intention to implement the driver drowsiness detection system which will help to reduce road accidents. This system is based on deep learning and with an accurate android application. We are tried here with lightweight structure of application which will get easy to handle to everyone.

  30. Arc. Dr. Usen Udoh and Arc. Daniel Etteh

    Nigeria holds the record as the most populous, fastest urbanizing and largest economic nation in Africa. Nevertheless, multidimensional effects of mounting population growth, marked internal rural-urban migration and widespread use of inappropriate housing development approaches have resulted in the emergence of urban sprawls, slums and squatter settlements in and around the country’s cities. The Sustainable Housing Development (SHD) initiative remains a welcome panacea to ameliorating the intricate problems hindering housing development in Nigeria. The success of the application of the actions and plans of the SHD initiative significantly depends on sustainable planning, design, financing, construction and cultural blending. This study identified the government, the private sector and the citizenry as major drivers and the Land Use Act (1978) as the most significant factor hindering SHD performance in Nigeria. Other highlighted barriers are housing affordability and accessibility, lack of sustained political will to consistently prosecute coherent policy frameworks and enablers as well as the poor state of dependable, in-country research and development data. In spite of these hurdles, the prospects of SHD are considered high as evidenced by Government’s interest in engaging construction industry professionals in line with the provisions of the National Integrated Infrastructure Master Plan for improved service delivery in the housing sector.

  31. Jaeyeon Kim

    How do people visit museums and inspire themselves? Existing papers focus almost entirely on the digital exhibition or marketing perspective, while other researchers have studied social media with a specific focus on how to increase the number of followers. Unlike these papers, this work puts emphasis on the digital-familiar generation, whose social media usage is among the top across age groups. With Covid-19 widespread, online information influences offline behaviors, possibly indicating the role of social media as an alternative to museum visits. To examine this idea, we provide survey evidence that consists of four parts - demographic, social media usage, museum visiting during Covid-19, and others. In short, Covid-19 has influenced museum visiting patterns but did not have much impact on the followings of museums’ social media accounts. Specifically for students whose majors are art-related, they find it necessary to visit the museum in-person, suggesting that the role of social media as an alternative to museum visits is insufficient.

  32. Keita, N. S., Mehel, A., Murzyn, F., Taniere, A., Diourte, B.

    This report aims to make a state the nanoparticles resulting from transportation systems lead to degradation of air quality causing damage to human health. The dynamics of these ultrafine particles is strongly related to the flow characteristics. The present work is devoted to numerical simulation of the two phase flow (air + nanoparticles) which develops downstream of a circular cylinder of a diameter d=2. 5cm. The goal is to provide a better understanding of the influence of turbulence and vortex structures created in the wake of a cylinder on the dispersion of the carbon nanoparticles. The studied flow (Re = 9300) was solved with the URANS model coupled with a lagrangian particle tracking. On the one hand, the results show that the nanoparticles tend to be located in the street of the vortices created by the wake of the cylinder. On the other hand, it is shown that the turbulence allows a wider dispersion compared to the case where no turbulence was considered.

  33. Keita, N.S., 1Pellarin, T., Diedhiou, A. and Rome, S.

    This report aims to make a state of the art of the evolution of heat waves during the period 1982 to 2014 in the Sahel and to try to establish a link between heat waves and precipitation as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This will allow a better predictability of future changes in heat waves, the only way to minimize the damage because the models predict that warming will continue even beyond the 21st century. Estimation of heat waves was made on the basis of the heat index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to get a value which determines the temperature felt by the skin. The threshold is set at the 90th percentile of the heat index for a period of at least 3 days together with a minimal spatial extension. Heat waves appear seasonally, with a maximum during the month April-May-June (WAN) and they had a high inter-annual variability during the period 1982-2014. The years 1998 and 2010 have been severe heat waves extensions while those of 1982, 1984 and 1985 recorded low. The study on the severity of episodes of summer heat waves carried on the threshold of the intensity of the heat index and duration. It appears that the years 1998, 2001 and 2010 were severe. The correlation between heat waves in spring and summer precipitation in the same year give a correlation coefficient r = 0.30. This result was impacted by the effect of El Nino Southern Pacific (Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI)) and lowered r=0.10. The MEI is correlated with heat waves of spring and summer precipitation for respective values of correlation coefficient r = -0.20 and r = -0.17. Then the correlation coefficient of the precipitation of the year (n-1) and the heat waves of the year (n) was r = 0.29. This correlation value is found to be very strong by eliminating the abnormally hot years (1998 and 2010), with a coefficient r = 0.56.The studies also try to link heat waves and the last year normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) a correlation coefficient equal to r = 0.28 was found and correlation between NDVI and summer precipitation gave r = 0.67.

  34. Mor Cissé; Mamadou Guèye and Makhtar Guène

    The search for good electroactive materials for electrochemical applications is attracting increasing interest in the field of electrons chemistry. It is in this context that we have developed the nanocomposite PANI / Ni0.6 Co2.4O4 in order to reinforce the properties of polyaniline. We synthesized nickel and cobalt mixed oxides nanoparticles with spinel structure Ni0.6Co2.4O4, films of polyaniline and polyaniline / Ni0.6 Co2.4 O4 nanocomposite. The mixed oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method via propionic acid route, the polyaniline and polyaniline / Ni0.6Co2.4O4 nanocomposite films were prepared electrochemically via cyclic voltammetry. Physical and electrochemical characterizations were made by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. XRD, FTIR and SEM confirmed the structure of the synthesized products and the incorporation of Ni0.6Co2.4O4 in the nanocomposite films. Electrochemical analyzes of the films revealed a higher conductivity of PANI / Ni0.6 Co2.4 O4 nanocomposite films compared to the PANI films.

  35. Dr. Bishnupriya Mohanty, Yukta K.Gawas, Yashdeep Yog and Dr. Sangram Keshari Das

    Food is the basic requirement of the human life. It is said that an individual's personality can be judged by the type & amount of food taken by him or her. Many people suffer from various disorders due to the insufficient or excess nutrition. It become little sensitive; when we think about school going children. This article is mainly focused on Nutritional Disorders in school going children. A survey was conducted by which nutritional disorders like obesity, vitamin B deficiency problems were detected among children.

  36. Dr. Renu Sroa, Dr. Baljeet Kumar, Dr. Mamta Katal, Dr. Harshveer Kaur, Dr. Parul Chauhan and Dr. Gaurav Sroa

    Background: The microorganisms play an important role in pulpal and peri-radicular disease pathogenesis, their eradication by mechanical instrumentation is the ultimate goal of endodontic treatment. Objective: To evaluate the mechanical reduction of Enterococcus faecalis by Rotary ProTaper Gold instrument and Reciprocating Reciproc Blue instrument in apical third of root canal by microbiological culture analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Material and Methods: Sixty mandibular premolars were selected and randomly divided in two groups i.e., Group A (ProTaper Gold) and Group B (Reciproc Blue). The teeth were decoronated at 14 mm from the apex to standardize the length. All the samples were sterilized using autoclave, followed by contamination with Enterococcus faecalis. Contamination was confirmed by SEM evaluation. Pre-instrumentation samples were taken for microbiological evaluation. Instrumentation was done in Group A by ProTaper Gold and in Group B by Reciproc Blue. Post-instrumentation samples were taken for microbiological evaluation. The root canals were then split longitudinally into two halves and apical third of each specimen was examined under SEM. Thus collected data were statistically analyzed using paired ‘t’ test, unpaired ‘t’ test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Both techniques showed statistically highly significant difference from pre-instrumentation value to post-instrumentation value (p<0.001). The instrumentation in Group B resulted in somewhat better bacterial reduction than in Group A, however no statistically significant difference was found (p>0.05). Statistical analysis by Mann-Whitney test showed no statistically significant difference in mean of SEM scores for bacteria at 1 mm and 3 mm level in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Both instrumentation techniques were effective in reducing bacterial load after mechanical preparation with statistically insignificant difference between them.

  37. Rohith, K., Abhijit, B. and Das, I.

    Arterial disorders represent the most common cause of morbidity . Much of this is due to the effects of atheroma on the arteries supplying the heart muscle (coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction) and brain (stroke), although atheroma is also common at other sites. This clinical condition is typically an Emergency Medicine based diagnosis and the definitive management is the forte of vascular surgeon who also addresses diseases that are typically the province of the vascular surgeon, namely those affecting the peripheral arterial system. Vascular disease that alters the normal structure and function of the aorta, its visceral branches and the arteries of the lower extremity are quite common and often a missed diagnosis or a delayed diagnosis in places with resource limited workforce. Peripheral artery disease (PAD), which typically refers to atherosclerotic arterial disease of the lower extremities, affects more than 200 million people worldwide.1 PAD is considered a clinical manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and is often present with concomitant coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease.2–4 Multiple studies have demonstrated a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death, among patients with PAD.5–7 Beyond cardiovascular outcomes, patients with PAD are also at risk for ischemic limb events which can cause significant morbidity and reduce functional status and quality of life.8–10 In particular, acute limb ischemia (ALI) resulting from a sudden decrease in limb perfusion can lead to tissue loss and threaten limb viability.

  38. Vaishnavi, S., Dinesh Dhamodhar, Suganya, P., Prabu, D., Rajmohan, Bharathwaj, V.V, Sindhu, R. and Prashanthy, M.R.

    Background: Lateral thinking in general helps to find new alternate way for many problems and helps to solve the issues in the most simple and efficient way. Aim: This study aims to find out the lateral thinking skills for chairside decision making among dental professionals in Tamilnadu, India. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 159 dental professionals in Tamilnadu based on the simple random sampling method to evaluate the usage of lateral thinking skills for chairside decision making. A questionnaire consists of 15- itemssuch as demographic data andusage of lateral thinking were used to record the data. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant association was found in years of clinical practice concerning gender (P=0.043) and qualification(P<0.001). The frequency of lateral thinking usage was found to be statically significant with gender (P=0.009), years of clinical practice (P=0.008) and qualification (P=0.002). Conclusion: To date, there was only very little research about the usefulness of lateral thinking in dental clinics. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of lateral thinking to dentistry and this study also provided evidence for the presence of lateral thinking in dentistry. It also paves a pathway for researches to conduct further studies.

  39. Dr. Gaurav Mukhija, Dr. Yashika Bhatia and Dr. Sunil Chawla

    Background: Fetal monitoring during labour has been known as the most important tool in clinical practice. The stress of uterine contractions may affect the fetus adversely especially if the fetus is already compromised. Even a fetus which is apparently normal in the antenatal period may develop distress during labour. Hence fetal monitoring during antepartum and intrapartum periods is of vital importance for timely detection of fetal distress so that appropriate management may be offered. . EFM is defined as use of electronic monitoring of the fetal heart to ensure well being of the fetus during labour Methods: This study is a prospective observational study of 100 patients presenting to antenatal OPD and to Labour room at >34 weeks period of gestation and was performed over a period of two years . Delivery conducted was either by vaginal route, instrumental or by caesarean section depending upon the foetal heart rate tracings and their interpretations as per the case. At the time of delivery umbilical cord blood was taken for the ph analysis. All new born babies were seen by the paeditrician immediately after the delivery and 1 and 5 minute Apgar score assessed for the delivered baby. Babies having low Apgar score or any other complication as per Pediatricians advice were admitted in NICU. The various EFM Patterns obtained were compared with the neonatal status at birth using the parameters already mentioned. The false positives and false negatives if any were tabulated. Data so obtained was analyzed statistically thereafter. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 13.0 was used for the purpose of analysis. Results: Results revealed that among the 50 subjects of the case group, 03 subjects showed the absence of the beat to beat variability, 24 subjects showed early deceleration, 07 subjects showed late deceleration, and 20 subjects showed the presence of variable deceleration. There is a significant association between absent beat to beat variability and mode of delivery and low Ph. In parturients showing early deceleration the incidence of low pH was significantly higher whereas there is no association with remaining parameters. Variable and late deceleration showed a significant association with all the parameters. Conclusions: EFM should be used judiciously. Cardiotocography machines are certainly required in the labour room. Equally important is the proper interpretation of the CTG tracings so that unjustified caesarean sections can be minimized, at the same time picking up cases of fetal distress in time which is likely to improve fetal outcome.

  40. Siyu Huang, Xiangjin Chen, Yingying Wen and Zongliang Niu

    The adsorption isotherms of norfloxacin (NOR) by the spent coffee grounds (SCGs) was investigated. The adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model. This suggested that the strong interaction of NOR with the SCGs. Therefore, SCGs, as a green, environmental-friendly adsorbent, can be applied to the adsorption of contaminants in environment.

  41. Gauba Shilpi, Bhardwaj Abhinav, Gauba Rajat, Gupta Albee

    Cold agglutinin antibodies are autoantibodies causing hemolysis at a lower temperature which can be triggered by various infections like covid-19, mycoplasma pneumonia and numerous other virus causing flu like symptoms. Cold agglutinin antibodies cause multisystem immune mediated dysfunction;haematological and circulatory are the major ones affected. Presently, no definite treatment is available for immune mediated cold agglutinin disease secondary to covid 19 infection.

  42. Amelia Morgillo, Edoardo Marovino, Marcello Mazzarella, Ilaria Marotta and Emanuela Genito

    Introduction: Alemtuzumab is a new generation monoclonal antibody with anti-CD52 action and with specific indication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In recent years, however, "off-label" applications in the immunological field have begun, such as immunosuppression in transplants or the treatment of other dysimmune diseases. The purpose of this article is, starting from its characteristics, to describe these uses and the tolerability profile. Materials and methods: A computerized search was carried out for the articles inserted through the use of international databases such as pubmed, scopus, researchgate, google scholar, selecting articles about alemtuzumab with particular regard to pharmacovigilance and new off-label applications. The research was carried out by selecting recent articles, obviously also including those relating to authorized uses. We also use the AIFA site and some books for the chapter on pharmacovigilance together with the "codifa" site to evaluate the technical data sheet. Discussion and Conclusion: Alemtuzumab is an interesting drug, very potent and usable for both inducing and maintaining remission from highly active forms of multiple sclerosis. However, induced immuno-reconstitution has prompted researchers to test its use both in the transplant field, especially for the immunosuppression induction regimen in the immediate post-surgical period, and for immuno-manipulation in the management of autoimmune diseases such as some rheumatic forms. refractory to conventional treatments. However, it must be said that safety is not always favorable, as it is associated with two important risks; severe opportunistic infections (including PML) and induction of secondary autoimmunity, particularly on the thyroid gland.

  43. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    Sundarban is the largest delta in India as well as world’s largest delta, formed by the rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna., Extending about 260 km along the Bay of Bengal from the Hooghly River Estuary in India to the Meghna River Estuary in Bangladesh. Sunderban covers an area of 4262 sq. km in India. The name may have been derived from the word Sundari or Sundri, the local name of the mangrove species. Its mangrove forest acts as a natural flood barrier, protecting the coastal population from the devastating impact of cyclones that hit the region. However, increased deforestation and damage to the mangrove forests for extraction of resources is not only leaving the coasts progressively exposed and more vulnerable to storms, but also depleting the rich biodiversity of the region. Sundarban is the pride of Bengal for many reasons. The most important is the existence of the black-striped yellow tigers knows as the royal Bengal tiger. Even UNESCO is taking care of this tigers. Now-days the people of Sundarban is facing several severe problems like (1) Very crisis of the safe drinking water (2) Shortage of ground water (3) Saline of surfers and river water(4) Acute poverty (5) Poor health management and sanitation practices (6) gender discrimination (7) Inadequate transport facilities (8) frequent natural calamities (9) Limited livelihood options (10) Ignorance of Government services and many more. The possible solutions are (1) Supporting them in uplifting their income generation capacity and reducing their dependence on the conserved area (2) Need to include integrated efforts for restricting growth of population in the region(3) Policies targeted at universal education (4) Eradication of gender bias and women empowerment (5) To address the region’s conservation challenges, internalization of a development plan with strong components on land management, sustainability of natural resource base, disaster management and livelihood management in the context of climate change is imperative and many more. The Sundarban delta in India has been a priority region for WWF-India since 1973 and it is also an ecologically fragile and climatically vulnerable region that is home to over 4.5 million people. Securing the future of the Sundarbans, its biodiversity and people requires a long term vision that can integrate climate adaptation and conservation strategies. Water salinity simulation and modeling would be a proper tool for decision making and allow planners to protect the Sundarban ecosystems in future.

  44. Dr. Manasi Yewale

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic multifactorial sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by a partial or total obstruction of the upper airways resulting in a reduction of airflow during sleep. Undiagnosed OSA is closely associated with consequential health problems, including diabetes and cardiac related disorders. Periodontitis is characterized by local bacterial infection within tooth supporting structures which is previously unrecognized but vastly prevalent and clinically relevant disease associated with OSA. It also adversely impacts cardiovascular health by increasing the production of cytokines, promoting atherosclerosis, which is also highly associated with OSA. Further well-structured studies are needed to explore the role of these biomarkers on the progression of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea both from the research and clinical perspective.

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Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran