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October 2021

  1. Pavan Kulkarni

    Countless lives have been lost in India since February 2021, exacerbating the social and economic destruction brought by COVID-19's second wave. The significant increase in cases across the country has wreaked havoc on the health system, with individuals battling for hospital beds, life-saving medications, and oxygen. Infections in urban areas began to decline in May 2021. In rural regions, though, the second wave's impacts lingered. It was the country's worst humanitarian and public health disaster since independence. COVID-19 mutations' ongoing propagation has regional and global ramifications. With slow vaccine disposal and high health infrastructure, it is necessary to examine India's response and recommend measures to further arrest the current spread of infection and to prevent and prepare for future waves. This diagnostic study is a review and analysis of the second wave of COVID-19 in India. It highlights the emerging reports, literature and research expertise to examine the causes of the second wave, explain its impact, and highlight the systemic issues that have hampered response. This diagnostic study presents important considerations for local and national government, civil society and humanitarian actors on a global and national level, impacting the future wave of COVID-19 in low- and middle-income countries.

  2. Dr. Davinder Kour

    The paper aims to analyse impact of online teaching in rural areas of India based on experiences of the Covid-19 pandemic. A qualitative research method was undertaken in two steps. In the first step, a thematic analysis of an online discussion forum with experts from different sectors was carried out. In the second step, both the data and the statements of opinion from secondary online sources, including web articles, statistical data and legislation, were analysed. Though Government of India has taken several online teaching initiatives, several technological, pedagogical and social challenges exists in rural areas of India. The technological challenges are mainly related to the unreliability of Internet connections and many students’ lack of necessary electronic devices. The pedagogical challenges are principally associated with teachers’ and learners’ lack of digital skills, the lack of structured content versus the abundance of online resources, learners’ lack of interactivity and motivation and teachers’ lack of social and cognitive presence. The social challenges are mainly related to the lack of human interaction between teachers and students as well as among the latter, the lack of physical spaces at home to receive lessons and the lack of support of parents who are frequently working remotely in the same spaces. The open challenges emerging from this health crisis may prove crucial in improving the capability to provide effective online learning, in evolving educational models to overcome inequalities and isolation in emergencies and in preventing social exclusion. Policymakers, enterprises, experts, schools, students and families should collaborate closely to develop accessible and smart learning environments, educational resources and tools additionally able to maintain the sociality, inclusiveness and accessibility of education across India.

  3. Richard S. Toledo and Jhon Paul P. Regadeja

    Several studies regarding the implementation of Mother tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB - MLE) and Disaster Risk Reduction Management implementation in the school point out the issue of lack of instructional materials that suit the needs of 21st-century learners. There are limited studies conducted that measure the relevance, usability, and effectiveness of some materials used in teaching MTB-MLE. Here, animated videos were developed and validated using Hiligaynon (a dialect in the Philippines) as supplemental materials to get the interest of learners and help teachers deliver the required curriculum content innovatively. The videos increased the learners' acquisition of knowledge, skills, and values, as shown in their pre-test and post-test performance. The development of Mother Tongue animated videos in other indigenous and tribal groups is necessary to achieve inclusive education and Education for All (EFA) and preserve linguistic and cultural diversity. Further development on how to overlay voice in different languages may also be considered for duplicating these videos as a learning tool.

  4. Tunjung Atmadi

    Along with the development of science, the glass is now used as the main structural element that carries the burden of the structure and used on the floor as an element of forming space. The application of a transparent glass floor does not cover a whole room, just in the upper part of the room with a view of the floor below.In this research, the author wants to know the response from the user at the time of crossing the transparent glass floor at Plaza FX Jakarta. Activities across the floor from the glass material need courage because the user still assumes material form glass not safety in application. The presence of glass as the floor is still considered risk.Especially many people assume the glass has a more than potential hazard, even though the material transparent glass the floor is from a type of laminate. This is interesting from this research because it is necessary to prove laminated glass as a structural element capable of making safe, comfortable, and own styles in the appearance of the interior design. This research used method is a case study, where the data collected through participant observation, interviews, etc. For explain, the condition learned through "Field Study' or "case report" in the social behavior of the society that is seen as they are obtained in the field.The result of this study are expected, can give experience to society there is no need to afraid of crossing the floor from glass materials. Because of the transparent glass floor can provide a sense of safety, comfort, and own uniqueness psychological.

  5. Santosh Chhetri, Sonia Sharma, Prem Kumar Singh Preeti Sharma and Suma Ganesh

    Background: The aim of this study was to review the incidence of Accommodative dysfunctions, Clinical features, and their association with Binocular Vision disorders at a Binocular Vision Therapy Clinic of a tertiary Eye centre in North India. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with review the record of 527 symptomatic patients with binocular vision and/or accommodative dysfunction related problems who were referred between march 2019 to march 2020, to a binocular vision therapy clinic. Patients with any ocular surgery, manifest strabismus, amblyopia, anisometropia (more than 2.00 dioptres), ocular pathology, neurological disorders &Prepresbyopic patient were not included in the review. Accommodative dysfunctions were defined and results of each of test in the record were compared with the normative values and diagnostic criterion used by F Lara et al specified in Clinical Management of Binocular Vision, by Scheiman and Wick. Results: Of the 527 symptomatic patients examined, 103 patients (19.4%) presented some kind of accommodative dysfunctions. Among the 103 accommodative dysfunction patients, 59 were females and 44 were males. Most of them diagnose with accommodative excess (37%) followed by accommodative in facility (29%), accommodative insufficiency (28%), ill sustained accommodation (5.8%) and no patients had paralysis of accommodation. Conclusion: Incident accommodative excess was more than accommodative insufficiency. A diagnosis of accommodative and/or binocular disorder depends not only on a few clinical findings of some accommodative and binocular investigations but on a whole battery of tests, in order to produce diagnosis of the type of dysfunction of the patient.

  6. Pachauri Avtar, Chaudhary Monu and Vasudevan S.

    An Adrenal Ganglioneuroma (AGN) is an extremely rare, hormonally silent benign tumor. It is common for AGNs to be erroneously diagnosed, considered as other adrenal malignancies. Therefore it is imperative that, in work-up of adrenal incidentalomas, other less common aetiologies such as ganglioneuroma should be considered, and the latter should be suspected in adrenal mass on imaging without associated hormone hyper production. Here, the present authors report a case of giant adrenal ganglioneuroma in a 25-year-old female presenting with vague right side abdominal pain, after abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning, the patient underwent an open right adrenalectomy and histopathological examination further confirmed the lesion as giant AGN, which measured 16 cm * 13 cm* 10 cm.

  7. Sihem HAJJAJI, Sirine LIMEM, Hayet HAJJEMI and Abdellatif BOUGHZELA

    The introducing of zirconia in dentistry has generated considerable interest, which has manifested itself in strong industrial, clinical and research activity. The technology contributes to the fabrication of novel "all-ceramic" zirconia-based restorations with improved physical properties and biocompatible for a wide range of promising clinical applications. Especially with the development of computer-aided design and assisted manufacturing systems, we now have a multitude of zirconia-based materials, each of which has a different microstructure and properties, making it possible to diversify their indications. This is how zirconia has amply deserved its place in prosthetic and implant restorations.

  8. Dr. Surbhi Priyadarshi, Dr. Pradeep Tangade, Dr. Najmus Sahar, Dr. Rangoli Srivastava and Dr. Sasmita Dalai

    Tobacco consumption has led to devastating effects all over the world. Nicotine in tobacco is considered as one of the major addictive component that leads to long-term dependence on tobacco. Tobacco use is continuing in India since ages, despite of numerous tobacco control policy. Tobacco in India is used in two forms: smoking and smokeless form. Smoking form includes cigarettes, bidis, etc. whereas smokeless tobacco includes ghutka, khaini etc. Quitting tobacco is the most important interventional strategy that has to be practiced to improve the oral health status and quality of life of individuals. Government sector can help in this issue by increasing the price of tobacco products through taxation, and should also ensure that health professionals routinely advise smokers to stop and offer assistance for quitting, and make available pharmacological and behavioral support for cessation.

  9. Sushilkumar Sonawane, Prakash Kharat, Mune Swati B. and Pandit G.A.

    Introduction: Timely transfusion of blood saves millions of lives, but unsafe transfusion practices puts millions of people at risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Monitoring of the magnitude of TTIs in blood donor is important for estimating the risk of transfusion. Aims and objective: To estimate seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria at tertiary care centre of Western Maharashtra. Methods and material: This was a retrospective study conducted in blood bank attached to tertiary care centre, Solapur of Western Maharashtra over a period of November 2017 to June 2020. All blood bag units were screened for commonest TTIs such as HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria. Results: HBV infection (1.38%) was the commonest infection among blood donors followed by HCV (0.44%), HIV (0.17%), and Syphilis (0.08%). Conclusion: Safe blood is the universal right of every person and availability of safe blood for transfusion is a must for all recipients. Encouragement of voluntary donors along with stringent donor eligibility criteria and effective high sensitive screening methods can bring down the prevalence of TTIs.

  10. Dr. Sreelatha M. and Dr. Usha Kiran, C.

    A study to assess the on “Effectiveness of Panel Discussion on Nursing Informatics Among 4th Year B.sc Nursing Students, SVIMS, At Tirupati” Objectives • To assess the level of knowledge on nursing informatics among 4th Year B.Sc nursing students. • To evaluate the effectiveness of panel discussion on nursing informatics among 4th Year B.Sc nursing students. • To find the association between demographic variables and the level of knowledge regarding nursing informatics among 4th Year B.Sc students. Methodology: By using Non-Probability Convenient sampling technique, a pre experimental research design was adopted, 50 B.Sc (N) 4th year students were taken as a samples. Data collection was done by using a self instructed questionnaire. Results: the results revealed that out of 50 students majority 20 (40%) had in adequate knowledge, 18(36%) had moderate adequate knowledge and only 12 (24%) had in adequate knowledge in pre test, where as in post test 33 students had adequate knowledge, 12 (24%) had moderate knowledge and only 5(10%) had in adequate knowledge. Conclusion: Due to increase in day to day advancement every field is gaining its importance even the educational field also gaining its importance in order to improve the educational status and to increase the concentration of students it is needed to change the method of teaching and panel discussion had proven to be one of the best method of imparting knowledge.

  11. Ana Caroline Araújo Aguiar Macedo, Henrique da Silva Oliveira Araujo, José Eduardo de Azevedo Gomes Rodrigues, Ângela Lima Pereira, Julliany Lopes Dias and Domingos de Oliveira

    Estudos sobre a imagem da enfermagem veiculada nos meios sociais ainda são escassos. Objetivo: analisar a imagem da enfermagem a partir das matérias veiculadas por jornais virtuais do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil.Método: trata-se de documental, no qual foram incluídos arquivos de três veículos de comunicação online de grande visibilidade local, sendo: Jornal do Tocantins, T1 Notícias e Cleber Toledo. Durante a busca nos referidos sites jornalísticos, foram utilizadas as palavras-chaves “enfermagem”, “enfermeiro” e “enfermeira”, sendo incluídos arquivos jornalísticos publicados no período de outubro de 2018 a setembro de 2019. Resultados: forma identificadas 241 reportagens relacionadas, sendo a maioria sobre divulgação de editais de concursos, vestibulares, vagas para estágio e para empregos. Seguido da divulgação de serviços oferecidos por hospitais da região e, em menor quantitativo, matérias que abordaram supostos erros cometidos por profissionais de enfermagem, e uma matéria sobre capacitação de equipe de saúde. Conclusões: o estudo identificou que a imagem da enfermagem na imprensa tocantinense é neutra,com inclinações negativas e que o maior número de notícias veiculadas sobre a área se encaixa como “jornalismo de serviço”.

  12. Dr. Wilhemina Ashishkumar Asari, Dr. Sipra Engineer and Dr. Aneri Modi

    Background: To study the safety and efficacy of sub tenon (parabulbar) anaesthesia by blunt 23-gauge cannula in cataract surgery. Method: A Prospective study of sub tenon anaesthesia, 30 patients were examined for sub tenon (parabulbar) anaesthesia for cataract surgery. One single surgeon has evaluated some parameters like pupil dilation preoperative and during operation, intraocular pressure before anaesthesia, just after anaesthesia and 2 minutes after anaesthesia. Akinesia, anaesthesia, subconjunctival hemorrhage and preoperative complication has been recorded. Results: In our study mean IOP measured before anaesthesia was 16.58. means IOP just after anaesthesia was 11.2 and after 2 minutes was 6.2. 83.22% patients were painless and 16.66% complained of mild pain during operative procedure after anaesthesia. No patient was having total akinesia just after the anaesthetic injection and after the surgical procedure 60.67% had moderate movement. Chemosis was the frequent side effect with sub tenon anaesthesia. 60% patients had chemosis in one quadrant. Only 13.3% patients had subconjunctival hemorrhage. Conclusion: Sub tenon anaesthesia is considered to be a safe technique. Also, it is more comfortable for patients. Sub tenon (parabulbar) anaesthesia is quick, safe and effective method of anaesthesia.

  13. Ravinder Kumar Mudgil, Radhika Ahuja and Raveena

    Background: Physiotherapy is a form of rehabilitation science which helps to make a difference in an individual’s ability to live an active and healthy lifestyle. For many physiotherapists working in India, the primary source of reference is a physician. An aware physician can timely refer patients for physiotherapy who can in turn plan an effective management without making the rehabilitation journey taxing. This article will serve us to know about the knowledge and acceptance of physiotherapy and also to determine the extent of awareness and their perception among medical practitioners. Method & Methodology: The study sample consisted of 98 subjects who all are from Delhi from which 16 were excluded and 82 were included in a study. A detailed self-administered questionnaire including close ended questions was given to practitioners through online creating Google Form and generating its link , then asked them to fill and submit the form for assess the perception of physiotherapy among the medical Professionals. Result: There is significant lack of referral rate to different specialized field of physiotherapy among Delhi’s Medical practitioners. Various factors have been identified as a possible reason for low awareness among them as low level of education about Physiotherapy profession, its working criteria, protocols, new advancement in electro modalities, manual therapy and so on. Conclusion: Medical practitioners have great insight about the Physiotherapy profession. But it is observed that they are aware of different approaches but their referral rate to Gynecological, pediatrics and Geriatric care physiotherapist are less. The factors noted in this survey for low awareness were in accordance with most literature findings. The significant decrease in awareness requires more amount of knowledge to be given in the Medical field.

  14. Saidan, D. and Uday Kumar Gundagani

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is an effective tool in business strategies to improve the customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Improving the customer relationship helps to improve the customer satisfaction and profit of the companies. Many researches involves in applying the various CRM model and methods to analyze the important factors in CRM. In this paper, the recent researches in the CRM model were reviewed to analyze the advantages and limitations. The regression analysis in the CRM model shows the effective performance in investigating the customer satisfaction and relationship. Some researches uses only positive comments for the CRM model and negative comments were also need to include for effective performance. Social media data are observed to improve the efficiency of the CRM model in terms of customer satisfaction.

  15. Ronald Brisebois and Apollinaire Nadembega

    With the existing challenge in education industry reinforced by theconsistent pandemic situation, adapting the educational resources in order to help to personalize and accelerate the usage of digital content used by teacher is an emerging topic in this sector. New generation of student needs evolving multimedia resources that are easy to use, assemble and personalize, adapted to the subject and time of learningin a digital and mobile world. In addition, the quality and relevancy of resources is one of the key factors to increase the value of education and speed up digital learning for all kind of students. Also, identify the best resources for a specific knowledge domain and educational level is another challenge. Machine Learning could be efficiently used to increase the knowledge assessment for a specific student with the most valuable digital resources. In this paper, we proposed MLM-based educational recommender system (ERS) named EKRAM. The Educational Knowledge Resources Assessment using Machine Learning &linked Networks (Part I), whose objective is to assess content using machine learning models that analyze educational and classification metadata in order to identify the most relevant content and organize them to produce an educational resource for a specific usage in a set of progressive levels. Using simulation prototypes, we tried to demonstrate that EKRAM may improves accuracy and efficiencyof the educational process. This article is the firstpaper of Educatio project using EKRAM.

  16. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes user’s opinion

  17. Vanga Achyuthanwesh, Chandra Shekhar, T. and sandeep, N.

    Breast cancer has become a growing concern nowadays for global countries. In 2020, there were 2.3 million women diagnosed with breast cancer and 685,000 deaths globally. It is mostly associated with women. In addition, it is observed that doctors use various techniques such as X-ray based observation - Mammography, MRI, ultrasound, biopsy to diagnose this deadly disease. From the technical point of view, different technologies emerged such as Machine Learning and Deep Learning, subfields of AI for easy and early detection of breast cancer. Many kinds of research were conducted on machine learning algorithms such as KVM, SVM, KNN classifier etc to predict breast cancer. In our research, we used an approach called CNN (convolutional neural networks) in deep learning. It extracts the best features of the images with accuracy far greater than the machine learning models. Our research is based on How accurate a CNN model can be in detecting breast cancer, the model is RESNET9 in PyTorch and also predicting what type of breast cancer it is, like Benign or malignant type of breast cancer. We also considered various performance evaluation metrics such as F1 scores, Precision, Recall for accurate classification of data.

  18. Mariana Bruno Rocha e Silva, Paulo Sérgio Rangel Cruz da Silva, Roberto P. Cucinelli Neto, Pedro Jose Oliveira Sebastião, Maria Inês Bruno Tavares

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and organophilic Clay (Viscogel B8) were added to poly(3-hydroxid butyrate) (PHB) matrix in some proportions. The nanocomposites containing both nanoparticles were obtained from solution casting method using chloroform as solvent. The films obtained were mainly analyzed by time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) to obtain answers about the interactions, dispersion, distribution of nanoparticles and, consequently, the homogeneity of both nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Combining relaxation data of 1H measured at 23 MHz and from the longitudinal relaxation dispersions measured among 100 KHz to 300 MHz, it was also obtaining information on the influence of both nanoparticles in the polymer characteristics and if there was a synergic effect of ZnO nanoparticle and organoclay, using them together. The results obtained showed that the incorporation of only 0.1% of ZnO caused a great impact in the polymer PHB matrix and in the system obtained.

  19. Rexton F. Chakas, Ph.D., Mark Preston S. Lopez, Ph.D., Rhoda B. Galangco, Ph.D., Susan A. Lopez, Ed.D., Rogelio K. Balcita, Jr., Ph.D., Annie Grail F. Ekid, Ed.D., Dexter C. Lingbanan, MPA. and Elvin P. Rosario, MBA.

    The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease or COVID-19 across the globe yielded significant and critical impact to the lives of millions of people. In the Philippines, the national and various local governments have implemented the Enhanced Community Quarantine (ECQ) and lockdowns in April 2020 to minimize the spread of the virus among Filipinos. To help the government enforce the regulations prescribed by the Inter-agency Task Force (IATF), medical and non-medical frontliners were deployed in various areas within a community. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the lived experiences of non-medical frontliners, particularly the challenges that they encountered in the discharge of their duties.This qualitative study examined the experiences of six non-medical frontliners in Bontoc, Mountain Province during the implementation of the ECQ and the lockdown period.Findings of the study disclosed that the challenges encountered by non-medical frontliners in the performance of their duties during the ECQ were classified as social, political, and economic challenges. The benefits that they gained in the discharge of their functions were categorized into (a) professional enhancement and (b) personal satisfaction.

  20. Dhevasenaa P.R. and Jayaaruna, S.S.

    This paper presents the validation of experimental investigation on Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) strengthened high strength concrete columns. A total of 14 test specimens of 150mm diameter and height of 600 mm were cast and tested. The level of corrosion-damage was 0%, 15% and 30%, glass fibre reinforced polymer wraps with different configurations such as Chopped Strand Mat (CSM), Uni Directional Cloth (UDC) and Woven Roving (WR) each of 3 mm and 5 mm thickness are used in this study. All the test specimens were tested under monotonic loading up to failure, in a loading frame of capacity 2000 kN. The ultimate stress and ultimate strain levels reached by the FRP confined concrete columns have been validated with the existing models. The validation results concluded that Xia and Wu (2000), Fardis and Khalili (1981) and Kono et al. (1998) showed reasonable agreement with the experimental ultimate compressive stresses and strains.

  21. Visalakshi. H . Subramanian, Anshu Prabha Shrestha and Vijay Krishna Kumar

    Background: Chest expansion is the important tool to determine the patient’s status and the respiratory function. The stretching technique performed on foam roller (self-myofascial release) helps in lengthening the muscles by releasing its tightness and soreness and hence enhances the chest expansion. This study concentrates on the immediate effect of foam roller stretch on chest expansion. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the immediate effect of foam roller stretch on chest expansion. Methods: Cross- sectional study of 50 convenient sampling based on gender distribution. Results: The results were obtained using foam roller and individual chest expansion. Statistical analysis shows that there is significant increase in upper level (p=0.000), middle level (p=0.000) and lower level (p=0.000) in the thoracic region. Conclusions: There is significant increase in chest expansion after foam roller stretch.

  22. Alimjanova Kholiskhon Alimjanovna, Jumaeva Diloram Sardalovna and Rajabova Mamura Saparovna

    In the article, the authors highlight "The state of solid household waste of the population of Tashkent in the period 2018-2021." They raise about the problem of solid waste and their ways of disinfection, as well as their use as secondary raw materials. In Uzbekistan, 9 million tons of solid household waste is accumulated, and only 9% is recycled, in developed countries the rate of recycled waste is much higher - from 40% to 60%.The problem of solid household waste has grown so much in the republic that a regulatory document was created on April 17, 2019 for NPP-429 and a Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh.Mirziyoyev was issued "On the approval of the strategy for handling solid household waste in the Republic of Uzbekistan for the period 2019-2028. ”, Where it was established that the Strategy should be implemented in two stages.The authors propose that in order to improve the sanitary condition of the environment, to improve the quality of the educational process in the school, in their region where they live, and mainly in the family.

  23. Dr. Usha Kiran C. and Dr. Sreelatha

    A study to assess the on “Effectiveness of role play on extended and expanded role of nursing Among 2nd Year B.sc Students in selected nursing college Tirupati Ap India” was undertaken by M. Sc (N), in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science, College of Nursing, SVIMS University, Tirupati during the year 2019-2021. Objectives of the Study: 1. To assess the level of knowledge on extended and expanded roles of nursing among 2nd year B.sc nursing students in nursing college. 2. To assess the effectiveness of role play on extended and expanded role of nursing among 2nd year B.sc nursing students in nursing college. 3. To find association between level of knowledge and selected socio demographic variables of second year B.sc nursing students. Methodology: By using Non-Probability Convenient sampling technique, a pre experimental research design was adopted, 50 B.Sc. (N) 2nd year students were taken as a samples. Data collection was done by using a self-structured questionnaire. Results: the results revealed that out of 50 students in Pre-test majority 23(46%) had inadequate knowledge, 16(32%) had moderate knowledge and 11(22%) had adequate knowledge where as in post-test majority 35(70%) had adequate knowledge, 10(20%) had moderate knowledge and only 5(10%) had inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: Due to increase in day-to-day advancement every field is gaining its importance even the educational field also gaining its importance in order to improve the educational status and to increase the concentration of students it is needed to change the method of teaching and roleplay had proven to be one of the best method of imparting knowledge.

  24. Helin Duygun and Dr. Serdar Epözdemir

    When it comes to pain, patients resort to complementary methods as well as pharmacological treatments. Among these methods, phytotherapy is the most widely used. The aim of this mini-review is to identify the herbs used in the treatment of pain-related disorders in the world and to review the available preclinical and clinical information about these herbs. For this mini-compilation, we discussed the plants used in traditional medicine in the treatment of pain in the world; We reviewed scientific databases of herbs (Pubmed, CINAHL; Web of Science, Ulakbim, EBSCOHost MEDLINE; Ovid and Bibliothecal digital) analyzed in preclinical studies and used in pain treatment using related terms, and obtained information from published books.

  25. Jackson K. Mutai, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Maurice A. Ndolo

    Concerns have been raised globally that human resource management practices do influence employee performance. In Kenya the performance in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education mean scores in Rachuonyo North Sub County in comparison with neighboring sub counties of Homa Bay County for the past 3 years has been below average (3.11 in 2017, 4.07 in 2018 and 4.36 in 2019) Rachuonyo East (3.4940, 4.672, 4.9468), Rangwe (5.24048, 5.0257, 3.416), Suba (3.5722, 4.4310, 4.3097), Mbita (3.5983, 4.4706, 4.860) and Homa bay sub county (4.2920, 4.860, 4.7904). At the same time, the Teachers Service Commission still deploys various human resource practices to manage teachers. Concerns have been raised that these practices have a hand in the deteriorating performance hence a study was necessary to establish the extent and degree to which these practices influence teacher instruction performance. The objective of the study was to examine the extent to which Teachers Service Commission compensation practices influence teacher instruction performance in public secondary schools in Rachuonyo North, Kenya. The findings revealed that Teachers Service Commission compensation practices moderately influenced teachers’ instructional performance. The study recommended an improvement on positive practices and reduction on negative practices in order to realize full potential of the teachers as they affect teachers’ instruction performance. The study findings are significant to stakeholders in education as they inform policy formulation, review and implementation on Teachers Service Compensation transfer, compensation and career progression practices.

  26. Elly N. Kisulu, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Maurice A. Ndolo

    Competency based curriculum is a planned learning experiences in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes based on the objectives a system of education. Competence based curriculum emphasizes learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes to be applied by learners to their benefit and the society at large. It is a departure from the traditional curriculum that emphasizes achievement of the objectives of a system of education that prioritize subject content. Successful Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) implementation must be cognizant of various teacher factors that are most likely to influence it. In 2013, partner states in the East African Community agreed to put in place a harmonized curriculum framework which is competency-based and one that matches global trends. The Competence Based Curriculum was rolled out in Kenya in January 2017 and is currently being implemented in lower primary schools in phases from grade one to four. As at the end of 2018, eighty nine thousand teachers of the total 160, 000 teachers of lower primary imparting basic education in Kenya had been inducted on the Competence Based Curriculum. Teachers are the implementers of the curriculum hence they play a significant role in developing and transforming learners. Rangwe Sub County was facing low primary to secondary school transition rates. Recent statistics indicated that 52% of pupils sitting Kenya Certificate of Primary Education every year score less than 250 marks. The pupils are left disoriented and demoralized causing some to either drop out or repeat as per the 8-4-4 curriculum. With the CBC in place all learners have a chance to develop their competencies and skills for nation building. It is against this back drop that the current study sought to establish teacher factors influencing implementation of Competence Based Curriculum in Public Primary schools. The objective of the study specifically was to determine the extent to which teacher’s technical skills influence the implementation of CBC in public primary schools. The findings were that teacher technical skills accounted for 12.4% of the variation in implementation of CBC as signified by the coefficient 0.124. Teacher technical skills were found to influence the implementation of CBC more than any other factors and thus the study recommended that efforts should be made to ensure that teachers have technical skills in CBC in order to enable the pupils also to develop a liking towards the contents of CBC. The findings of this study will be significant to stakeholders in education as it will inform policy making and amendment.

  27. Elly N. Kisulu, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Maurice A. Ndolo

    Successful Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) implementation must be cognizant of various teacher factors that are most likely to influence it. In 2013, partner states in the East African Community agreed to put in place a harmonized curriculum framework which is competency-based and one that matches global trends. The Competence Based Curriculum was rolled out in Kenya in January 2017 and is currently being implemented in lower primary school in phases from grade one to four. As at the end of 2018, eighty nine thousand teachers of the total 160, 000 teachers of lower primary imparting basic education in Kenya had been inducted trained on the implementation of the Competence Based Curriculum. Teachers are the implementers of the curriculum hence they play a significant role in developing and transforming learners Rangwe Sub County who found to be is facing low primary to secondary school transition rates. Recent statistics indicated that 52% of pupils sitting Kenya Certificate of Primary Education examinations every year scored less than 250 marks. The pupils were left disoriented and demoralized causing some to either drop out or repeat as per the 8-4-4 curriculum. With the CBC in place all learners are believed to have a chance to develop their competencies and skills for nation building. It is against this back drop that the current study sought to establish teacher factors influencing implementation of CBC in Public Primary schools. The objective of the study was to specifically establish the extent to which teacher perceptions influence implementation of CBC in public primary schools. The findings were that teacher perceptions accounted for 34.0% of the variation in implementation of CBC as signified by the coefficient 0.340. Therefore teacher perceptions were found to have a moderate influence on the implementation of Competence Based Curriculum. The study recommended that efforts should be made to ensure that teachers have a positive attitude towards CBC in order to enable the pupils also to develop a liking towards the contents of CBC for effective implementation. The findings of this study are significant to stakeholders in education as they inform policy making and amendment.

  28. Dr. Pralitha Madhuri, G., Dr. Rajaram, G. Dr. Srinivasa Rao, CH.

    Opportunistic fungal infections (OFI) following respiratory viral infections has been recognized since 1918 Influenza pandemic. Major risk factors for OFI include neutropenia, hematological malignancies, transplantation, prolonged treatment with corticosteroids, diabetes, prolonged stay in ICU, major surgery. POST COVID 19 associated fungal infections like candidiasis Mucormycosis, Aspergillosis are on the rise during the second spike of corona, as they exihibit immunosuppression with decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. CORONA is associated with an increase in pro inflammatory markers such as IL1,IL-6 TNF alpha which predisposes to bacterial and fungal infections. CORONA in diabetic patient leads to immune dysregulation and with steroid usage leads to immunosuppression and high risk for OFI.

  29. Karishma M.D. and Dr. Ram Chandra

    Maize is the most important cereal and it is mostly used as grain, feed, fodder, starch and industrial products. In the present study, an attempt was made to know about the socio-economic characteristics of maize growers, to calculate the cost of cultivation and profitability of maize per hectare in different size of farm group for hybrid maize in the study area. The study area selected was Manchal, Yacharam and Shakerpalli blocks of Rangareddy (dist.). A multi-stage sampling method involving a combination of purposive and random sampling procedures were employed in drawing up the sample block, villages and farmers for collecting primary data. Ninety farmers (42 Small, 29 medium and 19 large) were selected at random by proportional probability sampling technique.

  30. Harmanjot Kaur, Dr. Gitanjali Goyal and Jagroop Singh

    Background: The Concentration of total proteins in urine is a good index of renal function, but its determination is found to be unreliable. The pyrogallol red molybdate (PRM) method for urine total proteins is being widely used in most of hospitals because of its high sensitivity, better precision and its practicabilty. Material and Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted in department of biochemistry in the collaboration with department medicine in Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot. Out of 60 patients, 31 were males and 29 were females. Result: A statistically significant correlation was found between Pyrogallol red molybdate with Turbidimetric methods was highly significant with p value of ≤0.0001 and r value of 0.68, 0.86, 0.97 respectively. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that turbidimetric methods are correlated with pyrogallol red molybdate but there is significant difference in mean. So, pyrogallol red molybdate is method of choice for detecting proteinuria

  31. Hery Yufrizal, M.A., Ph.D.

    The objective of this research is to find out whether there is any significant diiference in the students’ mastery of discourse analysis taught by three kinds of challenge based appraoch at higher level of education. The sample of the research are the third year students of the English Study Program at the University of Lampung The students are both as the population and sample of the research. The results showed that there is a significant difference of students’ achievement in three challenge based learning activities. RWP (read, write, and present) challenge produced better result of learning compared to RRP (read, relate, present) challenge. There is no significant diefference between RRP challenge and RIPA (read, illustrate, present, and argue) challenge, while there there is a signiicant difference of achievement between RWP challlenge and RIPA challenge.

  32. Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda, Dr. Praveen Malavalli Nagaraja Shetty and Dr. Ashwini Chikkanayakanahalli Prabhakar

    An accessory cusp-like structure seen protruding from the cingulum of anterior teeth labially or lingually is termed as occlusal anomalous tubercle or talon cusp and it is seen in primary or permanent dentition. This usually consists of enamel, dentin and a variable amount of pulp tissue. During morpho differentiation the hyperactivity of the enamel organ attributes to its formation.Talon cusps may causevarious problems like occlusal interferences leading to trauma, difficulty in cleaning the area between the nodule and thetooth leading to dental caries. A case with prominent occlusal anomalous tubercle in the maxillary arch is documented in this article.

  33. Jackson K. Mutai, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Maurice A. Ndolo

    Concerns have been raised globally that human resource management practices do influence employee performance. These concerns have been noted in studies conducted in Ghana, Tanzania Nigeria and other countries of the world. In Kenya the performance in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examinations mean scores in Rachuonyo North Sub County in comparison with neighboring sub counties of Homa Bay County for the past 3 years had been below average (3.11 in 2017, 4.07 in 2018 and 4.36 in 2019) Rachuonyo East (3.4940, 4.672, 4.9468), Rangwe (5.24048, 5.0257, 3.416), Suba (3.5722, 4.4310, 4.3097), Mbita (3.5983, 4.4706, 4.860) and Homa bay sub county (4.2920, 4.860, 4.7904). At the same time, the Teachers Service Commission (TSC) still uses various human resource practices to manage teachers. Concerns have been raised that these practices influence the deteriorating performance hence a study was necessary to establish the extent and degree to which these practices influence teacher instruction performance. The objective of the study was to determine the extent to which Teachers Service Commission disciplinary practices influences teacher performance in public secondary schools in Rachuonyo North Sub County, Kenya. The findings revealed that Teachers Service Commission disciplinary practices had a moderate influence on teachers’ instructional performance. The researchers recommended a thorough refinement of these practices in order to realize full potential of the teachers as they negatively affect teachers’ performance. The study findings are significant to stakeholders in education as they inform policy formulation, review and implementation on Teachers Service Commission transfer, compensation and career progression practices.

  34. Gabriel de Brito Fogaça, Joana Gabriela Rodrigues Lopes, Maria Eduarda Cirqueira Brito, Wanna Paula Eufrásio Moreira, Ingrid Gomes Alencar, Mariana Reis Chaves, Nassandro Júnior Machado Garcia, Carlos Augusto Farias Bicalho Valenzuela and Emanuell Felipe

    Phantom lung tumors, also known as evanescent tumors, are peculiar radiological aches observed in heart disease patients with clinical decompensation or with a teaching that occurs with volume overload. In this case report, we seek to demonstrate the characteristics of this incomuminate patient with congestive heart failure, a carrier of mural thrombus and significant hepatomegaly.

  35. Ardhendu Kumar Mandal and Anindita Joardar

    Compromised immune individuals are chiefly affected by transmitted infectious agents or toxicants reflected by the annual demise of over 17 million globally. The conventional chemotherapy suffers from its high-dose requirements, poor bioavailability, low therapeutic indices, adverse side effects, development of multi-drug resistance, disability of crossing the biological barriers, and non-specific targeting. To overcome all the barriers, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have attracted attention as probable nanomedicine for the treatment of diseases. Manganese nanomaterials (MnNMs) such as manganese, manganese oxides and phosphate nanoparticles have gained interest owing to their suitable nanosize structures, easy surface modifications capability, cargos-vectoring ability, oxidative and non-oxidative microbicidal and anti-carcinogenic activities, photothermal effectivity and easy membrane penetrating ability to damage the cells. This review illustrates the recent advances regarding their synthesis, functionalization, mechanism of action, therapeutic efficacies, toxicity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and elimination for the application in targeted delivery as potential therapeutics against infectious diseases and cancer.

  36. Emmadi Priyanka Vikram Singh and Shruti G. George

    The experiment was conducted during the period from December to March, 2020-21 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj to study the effect of organic manures and different varieties on growth and yield of chickpea. The treatment consists of three organic manures (Farmyard manure-5t/ha, Vermicompost-2t/ha and Poultry manure-2t/ha) and three different chickpea varieties (GNG-2144,GNG-1958and Radhey). The experiment was conducted by following a randomized block design with nine treatments and were replicated thrice. The results revealed that significantly higher plant height(52.25cm), plant dry weight(19.65 g/plant), pods(40.53/plant),seed index(27.37g), seed yield(2.70 t/ha) and stover yield(4.63t/ha) were recorded in a treatment combination with the application of Vermicompost 2t/ ha +Radhey Variety.

  37. Chatadi Rohini, Kavya Thurai Arasan, Jagadeeshbabu, V., and Saritha, M.

    A new efficient and environmental friendly procedure for the synthesis Chalcone linked Isatin derivatives -Based Schiff Bases under microwave irradiation method also. The method is compared with the conventional method also. A series of novel Chalcone linked isatin derivatives were investigated for anti-inflammatory related activities such as cyclooxygenase inhibition. The results also showed that the chalcone derivatives with isatin moiety seem to be significant for inhibition of enzymes. Molecular docking experiments were carried out to elucidate the molecular aspects of the observed inhibitory activities of the investigated compounds. Present study findings increase the possibility that these newly synthesized chalcone linked isatin derivatives might act as a useful starting material for the design and synthesis of improved anti-inflammatory agents and synthesized compounds were characterized by IR spectroscopy.

  38. KOUAKOU Yao Kouman Nestor, YAO Guy Fernand, GALA Bi Trazié Jérémie, KOUADIO Kouassi Gérard, BAKA Derving et YAO-KOUAME Albert

    Un versant pénéplané d’une superficie de 10ha dans la localité de Brobo, au Centre de la Côte d’Ivoire a fait l’objet d’une caractérisation physique et hydrodynamique au niveau de sa couverture pédologique. Sept (7) points de mesure ont été créés dont un (1) à chaque sommet de la parcelle, un (1) au milieu des côtés situés en amont et en aval et un (1) dernier au centre de la parcelle. Quatre paramètres physiques que sont la densité apparente, la porosité totale, l’humidité pondérale et la réserve utile en eau ont été déterminés dans les tranches de profondeur 0-20 cm et 20-40 cm. La densité apparente a été déterminée par la méthode au sable et la perméabilité des sols a été réalisée par des essais Porchet à côté des fosses ouvertes. Les échantillons de sol issus de la méthode au sable, ont été traités au laboratoire pour la détermination de l’humidité pondérale par la méthode gravimétrique. La moyenne de la perméabilité du site est de 80mm/h et les valeurs de la densité apparente maximale à 1,96 g/cm3, minimale à 1,01 g/cm3 sont en deçà des valeurs critiques indiquant des propriétés hydrodynamiques et physiques de sols dégradés. Les valeurs de la porosité totale varient de 36,67 % à 61,85% dans les horizons compris entre 0-20 cm de profondeur et de 25,86% à 55,23% au niveau des horizons compris entre 20-40 cm de profondeur. L’humidité pondérale varie de 1,97% à 8,22% et la réserve utile en eau varie d’un point d’observation à un autre dans les horizons 0-20 cm. En définitive, les sols étudiés présentent un bon état physique au plan hydrodynamique.

  39. Ahmed R.M. Ali, Howida A. El-Sayed and Wahid A. Ragab

    Background: The production of processed cheese in Egypt has recently received much attention. Due to both economic reasons and the increase of consumer’s awareness on the impact of food on health, the food industries are interesting to produce processed cheese with cheaper price, healthier, more appropriate and meet consumer requests. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is low in fat and readily available at a low cost. Besides being a carbohydrate and energy source, they are also rich in micronutrients like vitamin C, B and potassium, as well as carotenoids and antioxidant phenols. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to incorporate sweet potato for the development of processed cheese to enhance the nutritional and textural values and minimize the cost without affecting the overall quality. Materials and Methods: Chemical, rheological, textural, microbiological, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), antioxidant properties (RSA %) and sensory evaluation were evaluated in processed cheese supplemented with sweet potato puree. Results: Results showed that adding sweet potato puree to cheese resulted in lower total solids (T.S), fat/DM, total nitrogen (T.N), ash, salt and TVFA contents, while pH values, S.N, meltabilty, oil separation and total bacterial count (log cfu/g) increased with increasing the level of sweet potato puree. Incorporating sweet potato puree to cheese increased the TPC, TFC and RSA (%) of all the resultant cheese. In addition, increasing sweet potato puree incorporation tended to decrease the measured textural parameters, except springiness, which increased with increased sweet potato puree level. The flavor of all cheese treatments were preferable to the panelists especially up to 30% sweet potato puree added. All cheese treatments were sensory acceptable but the most acceptable were T1 and T2 as compared with the control, the cheese blend with 10, 20, 30 and 40% sweet potato puree decreased the cost by 5.78,12.54,19.17and 29.13 %, respectively. Conclusion: Incorporation of sweet potato up to 30% had no significant effect (p≤ 0.05) on the sensory and textural parameters of the processed cheese. Sweet potato puree improved the rheological and microbiological properties compared to regular processed cheese. Moreover, the use of sweet potato puree in cheese can be improving its antioxidant activity and decreased the cost.

  40. Sanya, S. A. O., Akowanou, C., Fannou, J. L., Moussa, A. D. and Sanya E. A.

    The present study deals with the problem of transient film condensation on a vertical surface embedded in a thin porous medium with anisotropic permeability filled with pure saturated vapour. The principal axes of anisotropic permeability are oriented in a direction that non-coincident with the gravity force. On the basis of the flow permeability tensor due to the anisotropic properties and the Darcy-Brinkman’sflow model adopted by considering negligible macroscopic and microscopic inertialterms and boundary-layer approximations in the porousliquid film momentumequation, the energyequationissolvedanalyticallyusing the method of characteristics. The previous analysies have been extended to take into account the influence of the time variable which is involved only in the energy equation.Thus, the analytical solution of the governing equations of the problem is obtained and shown that the expressions of the dimensionless thickness of the liquid film and the Nusselt number didn’t depend on anisotropic parameters in the transient regime, but the increasing of the anisotropic parameters improved the characteristic limit time of the transition from transient to steady state.

  41. Dr. Nilam U. Sathe, Dr. Ashwini Mustud, Dr. Saad Ahmed and Dr. Kamini Chavan

    Introduction: Branchial cleft cysts are the most common congenital neck masses which originate from remnants of the branchial arches or pouches.The term branchial cyst was first given by Ascherson in 1832. Clinically they can present as a cyst, sinus, or fistula. 7The classical presentation of second branchial cysts are painless neck mass along the anterior border of the upper third part of the sternocleidomastoid. Case Report: The branchial cysts are usually Here we present report of a rare case of infected congenital branchial cyst type II in a known case of congenital pulmonary airway malformation.A10 days old male child who had a swelling below the right side of lower jaw presenting like neck abscess. On ultrasonography and computer tomography of neck it was diagnosed as infected congenital branchial cyst type 2. It was managed with incision and drainage under general anesthesia. The postoperative histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst. The most common presentation of branchial cysts are in young most commonly present in second to fourth decade, rarely present in neonatal period. Conclusion: The branchial cysts can get infected very rarely & present like neck abscess in a neonate. Any congenital infected mass one of the differential diagnosis is infected branchial cyst should be kept in mind and such cases should be treated promptly.

  42. Dr. Sreelatha, M., Gowri Devi, P. and Dr. Sudha Rani, P.

    The aim of the study is to assess the level of knowledge regarding heat stroke and its management among school teachers. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: • To assess the knowledge regarding heatstroke and its management among school teachers • To find the association between knowledge regarding heat stroke and its management among school teachers with their selected socio-demographic variables • To distribute information booklet regarding heatstroke and its management Methodology: By using Non probability-Convenient Sampling Technique,Non experimental-Descriptive Research Design was adopted, 100 school teachers were taken for the study and data was collected by using a self structured questionnaire and analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results revealed that out of 100 school teachers majority 67(67%) had inadequate knowledge, 33(33%) had moderate knowledge and none of them has adequate knowledge regarding heat stroke and its management, significant association was found between level of knowledge and socio economic status. Conclusion: Every year we can find many changes in the environment, due this even the health is being affected very much one among the health affects is considered to be heat stroke, where even the children are being affected, the researcher found that educating school teachers can minimise this and so, education was given to the school teachers.

  43. Amina Thaj and Sheeba S.

    Background: Spalgis epius, the ‘Ape Fly’ is a small butterfly that belongs to the lycaenids or blues family. The powdery stuff sheathing their wings are called scales which are the main factor for wing coloration. Ape fly on appearance shows blue color on the dorsal wing area and ventral wing area shows ash color. The wing scales forms vivid or indistinct patterns and helps the organism to protect itself by camouflage, mimicry and warning. Wing scales perform a great role in the natural history of Lepidoptera. Objective: To examine the various types of wing scales, their morphology and dimensions (Length and Width) in Spalgis epius. Methods: The Standard method of Grodnitsky and Kozlov (1991) is used. Several hundreds of scales were scrapped off from the dorsal and ventral wing separately into a glass slide. The sample is fixed using xylene and studied under light microscope. The dimensions are measured with micrometry. Results: A wide variety of scales has been observed from dorsal and ventral wing area. A total of 175 scales were studied which include 88 varieties from dorsal side and 87 varieties from ventral side. On analyzing the blue coloured dorsal wing area several colored scales including dull brown, cream, pale black colored scales are identified. Many broad, flat and short sized scales are observed in this area. Here the majority of scales are devoid of dendations. Flat, thin, glassy type scales are also observed. For most of the scales, the abwing and adwing are broad. The length and width of the scales vary. Transverse lines in scales are not clearly seen. The blue color of dorsal wing is not due to blue scales instead it is because of structural colors formed when the light passes through the other colored scales. The dimensions of dorsal wing scales ranges between 82.74µ-110.32µ in length and 55.16µ-74.86µ in width. The ventral wing scales shows several long scales unlike the dorsal side. Several grayish white colored scales are identified. Long narrow scales are the major scales. In the ash colored ventral wing some reddish brown scales can be seen in the strigae. The scales are darker towards the upper lamina and colorless towards the lower lamina. Thin transparent glassy type scales are observed. The wing scale dimensions ranges between 90.62µ-130.02µ in length and 47.28µ-78.8µ in thickness. Conclusion: Studies focusing on butterfly wing scales are important as the scientific works based on the above is only minimum. A wide variety of scales are been observed in Spalgis epius with varying dimensions. Structural and coloration aspect of wing scales lead to the development of new ideas in science and technology.

  44. Dr. Sibasankar Dalai, Dr. Aravind V. Datla, Dr. B.V.R.N. Varma and Dr. (Maj) Sreekanth Matcha Retd

    Background: The transmission of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in new challenges across all medical specialities. A hypercoagulable state is being observed in many patients with SARS-CoV-2 and is a predictor of a worse prognosis. Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a limb and life-threatening condition with high morbidity and mortality. It is a relatively rare manifestation of the spectrum of COVID-19 related coagulopathy. Methods: A single centre, prospective, interventional study was performed from JUNE 2020 to JUNE 2021 in post-COVID recovery patients who developed ALI using endovascular therapy for revascularisation. Data collected included demographics, anatomical location of the arterial occlusion, treatments, and outcomes. Results: Over the 13 months, a total of 38 patients participated in the study. The mean age is 64.45 years, ranging from 16-75 years. 25 (65.78%) are men. 30 (78.94%) participants had lower limb involvement, and 8 (21.06%) had upper limb involvement. Pain and pulselessness were present in all the patients. However, only four patients (10.52%) presented with paresis. Tibial arteries (most commonly) were affected in 24 (63.15%) patients. Radial arteries were involved in only 5.26%. 55.26% of presentations were Rutherford stage IIb. We used a combination of transluminal balloon angioplasty, thromboaspiration, Catheter-directed thrombolysis and stenting. Revascularisation was achieved in 35 (92.1%). Two (5.26%) patients were amputated. One (2.36%) patient died. Conclusion: A thorough understanding of endovascular techniques, associated pharmacology, and perioperative care is paramount to endovascular management success in patients presenting with AIL.

  45. DOUMBOUYA Mohamed, BROU Kouassi Guy, Adama COULIBALY, KOFFI Kouakou Zimmin Martial and KONE Daouda

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a staplefoodthatoccupies a prominent place in the diet of the Ivorian population. However, its conservation isprey to numerousattacks due in major part to fungi. The objective of the studywas to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous plant extracts on the growth of fungal pathogensresponsible for storage rots of yam tubers. The approachconsisted of sampling yam stocks at the Bouaké wholesale market followed by identification of the microfloraassociated with rots and theirpathogenicity. Antifungal tests were performed with different concentrations of aqueous plant extracts to evaluate the irantimicrobial potential against fungal strains isolated and identified from symptomatic yam tubers. The identification results revealed that the identified fungal species consisted of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium oxalicum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Rhizopus microsporus. Pathogenicity tests were performed with the major fungal strains (Isolation Frequency ≥ 12%). The tests highlighted the susceptibility of the variety "Kponan", with a rot volume of 78.70 cm3. Penicillium oxalicum species showed high pathogenic activity resulting in an average decay volume of 74.64 cm3. Aqueous extract tests of Zingiber officinale and Hyptis souaveolens showed more than 50% inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of most fungi (Penicillium oxalicum, Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum gloesporioides and MBF). Extracts of Z. officinale and H. suaveolens could thus constitute a possible solution against agents involved in yam rots in stock.

  46. SAIDOU Salifou and AMBOUTA J-M Karimou

    The recent anthropization of the peripheral zone of Niger W biosphere reserve has resulted in an advancing of the agricultural front towards its central portion. Therefore, the stabilization of crop areas requires a better understanding of the relationship between the level of integrated soil fertility management practices’ utilization and the importance of agricultural migrants in the area. For this purpose, a perception survey coupled with soil parameters record was carried out along the gradient of proximity to the central core of the reserve. The results obtained show that the non-native populations composed mainly of sedentary transhumants and farmers in search of fertile land (91%) are concentrated in the buffer zone contiguous to the central area of the reserve. These agricultural settlers (88%) acquired land through clearing (purchase, donation and loan). The sedentarization of transhumants has resulted in a more intensive and integrated management of organic matter through the rotating livestock to fertilize the fields. On the other hand, typical farmers from the Northern East of the country favor shifting cropping practices to improve soil fertility. Consequently, the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the soils show a relative abundance of the phosphorus content ranging from 37.7 ppm in the transition zone to 136 ppm in the buffer zone. In the two zones, the rate of organic matter is similar (0.62%). The Cationic Exchange Capacity values are distributed according to an increasing concentration gradient as one approaches the central core, going from 12.6 Meq / 100g of the soils in the transition zone to 15.5 Meq / 100g of soil in the buffer zone. These results underline the need to promote integrated diversified soil fertility management practices with an in order to stabilize the agricultural front in the peripheral zone of the W reserve in Niger.

  47. Anil Kumar Yadav, Nikita Gour, Kalpana Pantawane and Vikas Choudhary

    The pottery industry is one of the major industries which generate employment for the people in rural and urban areas. There are thousands of pottery units scattered all over India and the yearly production of pottery products from one unit is slated to be around ₹ 85 crores. However, during the course of production and transportation, a huge amount of pottery items get damaged or broken. It imparts negative effects on the environment as the baked clay products are non-biodegradable. Thus, an attempt has been made to characterize the various Physico-chemical properties and micro/macro nutrient levels in earthenware pottery waste (EPW). So that it could be used as wealth from waste for soil quality improvement. The bulk density of EPW is in the range of 51.20 to 60.63%, pH 7.5 to 9, electrical conductivity 212.70 to 239.90 µs/ppm. From the analysis, it was found that the level of micro and macro nutrients is low to medium except for iron content which is in the medium range in EPW collected from different districts. EPW contains most of the micro and macro nutrients and has significant bulk density. Thus, it may be assumed that EPW will help to improve the soil quality by enhancing the nutrients.

  48. Erick O. Ochungo, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Maurice A. Ndolo

    Biology as a discipline is a pre-requisite field of study at O-level for very many professional careers in the realm of Medicine, Agriculture, Forestry, Teaching, Sociology among others. This means that is a critical subject that requires proper teaching and learning at secondary school or O-level it is a concern to note that in Kenya from 2016 to date the in biology is wanting. The following data attest to this. The performance in Biology at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) level is very low nationally and even at Sub County level despite provision of educational resources or inputs by the government. Thus, in the whole country candidates who sat KCSE examinations in the year 2016 only 71,348(13.99%) out of 509,822 scored C+ and above, in 2017, only 11,503(2.1%) candidates out of 546,014 scored C+ and above and in 2018, only 33,126(5.66%) candidates out of 584,924 scored C+ and above. In Ndhiwa Sub County, the performance of Biology was been far much below the average for the last four years registering mean scores of: 4.83 in 2015, 2.90 in 2016, 2.27 in 2017 and 2.90 in 2018. The objective of this study was therefore to determine influence of school factors on students’ performance in Biology in Ndhiwa Sub-County. The study established that school factors accounted for 7% of the variation in students’ performance in Biology but the influence was not statistically significant at the p-value of 0.05. This means that there is serious wastage in utilization of educational resources such as finance, library, Biology laboratory, revision materials in Biology and use of ICT in teaching and learning provided by the government and parents. This is signified by the negative relationship between most school factors and students performance as revealed by multiple regression analysis. The study recommended that Quality Assurance and Standards Officers and principals of secondary schools should ensure optimal use of educational resources to remedy the situation. The findings of this study will inform policy formulation and decision making with a view to enhancing student performance in Biology.

  49. Erick O. Ochungo, Maurice A. Ndolo and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Performance in Biology at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) level is very low nationally and even at Sub County level despite provision of educational resources or inputs by the government. Thus, in the whole country candidates who sat KCSE examinations in the year 2016 only 71,348(13.99%) out of 509,822 scored C+ and above, in 2017, only 11,503(2.1%) candidates out of 546,014 scored C+ and above and in 2018, only 33,126(5.66%) candidates out of 584,924 scored C+ and above. In Ndhiwa Sub County, the performance of Biology was far much below the average for the last four years registering mean scores of: 4.83 in 2015, 2.90 in 2016, 2.27 in 2017 and 2.90 in 2018. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of students’ factors on performance in Biology in public secondary schools in Ndhiwa Sub-County. The study established that students’ factors in Biology accounted for 11.6% of the variation in performance in biology however, the influence was not significant because the p-value was greater than 0.05. The study recommended that: Schools to intensify use of guidance and counseling to address student factors like punctuality, discipline, consulting teachers, and other factors that lead to poor performance; Quality Assurance and Standards Officer to regularly visit schools and monitor effective learning in schools and encourage provision of more learning resources while parents to devote their time to monitor learners and provide learning resources. The findings of this study will inform policy formulation and decision making with a view to enhancing student performance in Biology.

  50. Namburi Nireekshana, Pullareddy, K., Archana, A. and RajiniKanth, P.

    The new inventions in technology lead to more power consumption by more number of nonlinear loads, which in turn effecting the quality of power transmitted. The power transmitted in a line is needed to be of high quality. The flow of power basically depends on the line impedance, sending end and receiving end voltage magnitudes. Nonlinear loads create harmonic currents which in turn creates system resonance, capacitor overloading, decrease in efficiency, voltage magnitude changes. The DPFC is a new FACTS device, employs the distributed FACTS (D-FACTS) concept, which is to use multiple small-size single-phase converters instead of the one large-size three-phase series converter in the UPFC. The large number of series converters provides redundancy, thereby increasing the system reliability. The DPFC has the same control capability as the UPFC, which comprises the adjustment of the line impedance, the transmission angle, and the bus voltage. The principle and analysis of the DPFC are presented in this research and the corresponding experimental results are shown.

  51. Saptadip Samanta, Naba Kumar Das and Ankita Ghosh

    Tulsi (holy basil), “Queen of herbs” is the blessing of our nature. There are different types of tulsi plants. Among them, the Ocimum sanctum is very popular in the culture of the Hindu religion and the perspective of ethnomedicine. The medicinal uses of tulsi were started in ancient times. Its medicinal values were described in the Indian classical herbal medicinal book “Charaka Samhita”. The modern civilized society still uses this valuable plant as alternative and complementary medicine. The aqueous or alcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum contains flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenolic compounds, eugenol, ursolic acid, carvacrol, linalool, etc. Different parts (leaves, seeds, stem), or extract (herbal tea, juice) of tulsi are used for medicinal purposes. The biopotential compounds of tulsi are active for the prevention and cure of many illnesses like cough, bronchitis, asthma, common cold, fever, hepatic diseases, skin diseases, arthritis, and digestive disorders. Applications of tulsi as herbal medicine improve the various pathological conditions without any major complications or side effects. The present paper is related to the botanical description of the Tulsi plant, its bioactive components, their pharmacological activities.

  52. Kitwa Ngoy Mwabuya, Nkulu Wa Ndalamba Lancel’eau, René Nongo Mbuya, Nkulu Wa Yumba Gédéon, Kayembe Tshikala Juma, Ilunga Kabole Médard, Mutonkole Mayanga Kiyana, Ngoy Kajingu Wa Nkulu Ndombasa et Ngoy Kajingu Hayford

    Le choix d’une filière d’étude reste un point capital sur la détermination de ce que fera l’individu plus tard après ses études. Ensuite, il est un outil qui, fondamentalement, permet à l’individu de préparer avec aisance son avenir et qui indique sa vie future. Il est vrai que c’est une voie qui amène tout intellectuel à l’intégration sociale la plus meilleure et la plus adaptée et lui facilitant ainsi, le contact avec ses semblables. Tout étudiant (e) cherchant à exceller facilement et rapidement dans son cursus universitaire doit opérer un choix sur la filière en conformité avec ses aptitudes et selon ce qu’il préfère être dans la société.

  53. Dr. Amod Pramod Patankar, Dr. Sudhir Pawar, Dr. Swapna Patankar, Dr. Reshmi Sharma, Dr. Krishnanunni Nair and Dr. Richa Sharma

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI), first reported by Krompecher in 1918, is an uncommon pigmented tumour affecting predominantly the craniofacial bones of the newborn infants 1. Although classically benign, it is rapidly growing, locally aggressive and can follow a malignant course2. Infants in the first year of life are usually affected, compelling prompt diagnosis and treatment as well as close monitoring 3. According to Krompecher, this tumor derives from epithelial nests evolved at the time of embryonic fusion of the facial processes. It has also been suggested that the tumor arises from the retinal anlage by a pinching-off process of neuroepithelium during the formation of embryonic eye7. Recurrences can be expected primarily because of incomplete excision, tumor dissemination during surgery, or multicentric nature . Approximately, a few hundred of these tumors have been reported in medical literature. We describe the case of a 3-month-old boy who presented with an enlarging swelling of left maxillary alveolus since 1 month of birth.

  54. Dr. Smitha, A.

    The present paper is aimed to study if there is a significant difference in the level of life skills and tolerance of preadolescents in relation to their pet ownership on implementing life skills education programme. The study was based on single group design. The sample was comprised of thirty-six preadolescents of age thirteen years from Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kasaragod, Kerala for the present study. Simple random sampling method was used to select the sample. The life skills scale, tolerance scale and tolerance situational test were the tools used for the study which were self-developed and standardized by the researcher. Interview and discussion were conducted among preadolescents to measure their level of life skills and tolerance concerning to their pet ownership. The statistical techniques used were mean, standard deviation and t-test. The qualitative data obtained from interview and discussion were analyzed using content analysis. Triangulation was adopted to cross check the results obtained from qualitative method with quantitative method. The result was found that there was no significant difference in the level of life skills and tolerance between the preadolescents who have pet at home and those who do not have pet at home.

  55. Dr. Deepak C. Koli, Dr. Rashmi D. Gujaran, Dr. Sulekha Jain, and Dr. Hemant H. Mehta

    Cervical spine injury can pose great challenge to the medical team due to involvement of neurologic, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Airway management in an unstable cervical spine injury can be the most challenging part for an anaesthesiologist as it can have serious implications if not well managed. In our patient with unstable cervical spine, airway management had to be altered from the ideal method of using fiberoptic bronchoscope. Overall idea is to prevent deterioration of previous injury without inciting any new injury besides maintaining other vital parameters. With anterior fixation of cervical spine, extubation was equally critical. Here we present the anaesthetic management of an unstable cervical spine injury posted for emergency anterior discectomy and fixation.

  56. Heri Gunanti Surbakti, Safruddin Nasution. Adi Muradi Muhar and Atikah Najla Rodhiah

    Background: Complicated intra-abdominal infection is an infection that requires more attention associated with a poor prognosis and a fairly high mortality rate and has the second highest mortality rate in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). This study was to assess the relationship between the extent of peritonitis, abdominal fluid characteristics, and organ source of infection with mortality in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections. Methods: Meta-analytical study, retrospective cohort method, data taken from online literature search. Analyzes followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and used Review Manager 5.4 software. Results: There were 9 literatures that matched the inclusion criteria. The relationship between the extent of peritonitis and mortality analyzed showed an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% CI 1.77-5.38), the relationship between abdominal fluid characteristics at the time of surgery and the analyzed mortality showed an odds ratio of 7.65 (95% CI 1.06-55.06), and the relationship of the source of infection from organs to mortality showed an odds ratio of 2.54 (95% CI 1.77-3.63). Conclusion: There is a relationship between the extent of peritonitis and mortality in the incidence of complicated intra-abdominal infections, there is a relationship between the characteristics of abdominal fluid and mortality in the incidence of complicated intra-abdominal infections, and there is a relationship between the source of organ infection and mortality in the incidence of complicated intra-abdominal infections.

  57. Joël Prince BIDOUNGA, Rachel MOYEN and Christoffer MOUNKALA

    The preservation and conservation of foodstuffs are steps that ensure better food safety. Indeed, in our countries, the storage of fruits, vegetables and seeds maintain temperature and humidity conditions favorable to the emergence of several microorganisms including molds. These moulds develop mechanisms that allow them to adapt to the support and the food stored. In order to assess the food safety of stored peanut seeds, peanut samples were analyzed for molds in their microbiological quality. Four strains of moulds of the genus Aspergillus isolated were analysed in their capacity of production of exopolysaccharides and the formation of biofilms. The production of exopolysaccharides was detected by colorimetric methods by culturing the moulds on Sabouraud medium with Congo Red added. Screening of biofilms was carried out on microplate wells by staining with crystal violet of the culture. Quantification of biofilm production was done by following the kinetics by spectrophotometric method. The results obtained from the phenotypic screening showed exopolysaccharide production in all strains. The kinetics of biofilm formation showed a better quantity in the sucrose supplemented medium. The adaptive mechanisms developed by molds in food can be the cause of the formation of toxic compounds that constitute a public health problem, hence the need to take $preventive measures for the conditions of food preservation and storage.

  58. Achanta Anjali Sowgandhini, Vikram Singh and Shruti G. George

    The experiment was conducted during the period from November to March, 2020-21 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj to study the effect of spacing and phosphorus levels on growth and yield of linseed. The variety Neelam was used as test crop during this experiment. It consists of two factors: Factor A: Spacing (3 levels); 20cm×10cm, 30cm×10cm, 40cm×10cm and Factor B: Phosphorus (3 levels); 20, 30 and 40 kg/ha. The experiment was conducted by following a randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that treatment combination of Spacing at 20cm×10cm + Phosphorus at 40 kg/ha obtained highest in plant height (62.43 cm), dry weight (12.60 g), crop growth rate (5.00 g/m2/day), relative growth rate (0.013 g/g/day), seeds per capsule (8.46), capsule per plant (52.47), test weight (6.40 g), seed yield (0.82 t/ha), stover yield (2.36 t/ha) and oil content (38.47%) respectively. It may be defined that spacing and phosphorus had a significant influence on the growth and yield of linseed and spacing 20cm×10cm and 40 kg P per hectare can be the optimum dose for attaining higher yield.

  59. Dr. Anil Humne, Dr. Disha Rama Harikanth and Dr. Nikita Agrawal

    Background: Uterine inversion is the descent of uterine fundus and corpus to or through the cervix, so that the uterus is turned inside out. The non-puerperal type of uterine inversion is rare accounting for only 17% of all uterine inversion cases. Case Report: We present a case of 70 year old multiparous female who came with fibroid polyp and foul smelling discharge. Clinical findings and Ultrasonography revealed uterine inversion with fundal fibroid. Patient was treated with inject table antibiotics and local antiseptics. She was taken up for hysterectomy under spinal anaesthesia via Abdomino-perineal approach. Intra-op Myoma was resected out and uterine reposition done vaginally. It was followed by total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy. Histopathology report showed fibroid. Patient was stable post operatively and thus the case was managed successfully. Conclusion: Awareness of non-puerperal uterine inversion and its complications along with good surgical knowledge and skills will permit a successful outcome.

  60. Rajesh Kumar Upadhyay

    Protein is one of the main building unit of the cell and ultimately the life. It is abundant in nature. The cheapest and omnipresent natural source of protein as grain is Cicer arietinum commonly called as gram. It is consumed by the people as a main food items as well as the food supplement, the health supplement. The people of the world like it as the protein rich food grain. At the end of September the farmers of Ramgarh start to cultivate the gram in their field. The pestAgrotis ypsilon Rott, destruct the cropalso hatched at the time ofappearing of seedlings of Cicer arietinum. The pestis found around the world. In India the infestation on rabbi crops by this pest is common in winter season. Ramgarh (Jharkhand)is a plateau region where lack of proper irrigation restricts the cultivation of gram. Only few farmers cultivate the gram at restricted and irrigated field and earn a handsome money. This important and commercial crop is infested and destructed by the pest Agrotis ypsilon Rott, it damages the crop as well as the financial condition of farmers significantly.The present author deals with the study of the biology of the pest Agrotis ypsilon Rott. (Lepidoptera, noctuidae):Its infestation and destruction on the crop Cicer arietinum. A case study at Ramgarh (Jharkhand, India). It was observed that the experimental pest was a cold weather pest, its activity was maximum during September to March and completed 03 to 04 over lapping generations. The Caterpillar was the only destructive stage its activity was maximum during night. Only larvae damage the standing crops at night, it cut the foliage more than it devour. During day time they hide in cracks and crevices in soil. After fertilization the female moth oviposit creamy white dome shaped eggs singly or in cluster of about 20 to45 eggs. During night on the under surface of leaves of the host plant or on the moist soil under the host plant. After incubation of 02 to15 days eggs hatched out to small caterpillars feeding on their own egg shell and move like a semilooper. After disturbance the larvae turns C shaped and motionless for few minutes. The larvae attains its maximum size in 12 to 30 days and enters into cracks or crevices and form their earthen chamber and pupate underground. The pupal period varies from 08 to 30 days and the moth emerges out at night. The life cyclegets completed in 35 to80 days. The farmers of Ramgarh cultivate vegetables and crop throughout the year, they cultivate different types of vegetables and crops asper demand of the market. The crop Cicer arietinum is a cash crop, whole parts of the green plant is edible as green leaves, green soft pods, mature pods all the stage of cropattracts the people and always make it in the demand, the farmers use to sale it and get handsome price. The life cycle was studied during the year 2018 -2020 at Ramgarh .During the studyit was found that the life-cycle of the pest Agrotis ypsilon Rott.(Lepidoptera, noctuidae) was very simple. In summer season the pest pupa hidesunder 25 to35 mm incracks and crevices in the soil. There was an observation that the moth migrates towards cold region of hillsduring hot climate. Destruction of host plant by pest was 50 to 80%.Prevention from the pest was very difficult. The farmers were advised to control the pest by spraying the chemical pesticides as lindane 02% etc. The field should have been often flooded moderately. Various natural enemies e.g. moles, grubs, wasps, predaceous and parasitic flies destroyed the larvae of the pest were natural control of the pest population.

  61. Richa Saini, Sanjula Arora, Ekta Jha and Dr. Nimisha Kumar

    Background: With COVID-19 cases on the rise again in India, the practice of health-protective behaviours is critical to prevent the third wave. The current study examined the socio-psychological factors affecting indulgence in health protective behaviours and social media influence among Indian young adults. Methods: To identify the role of psychological traits acting as barriers to health-protective behaviours in India, researchers conducted semi-structured interviews which were thematically analyzed. Results: Overall, the paper unveils the psychological roots of individual differences in practicing health protective behaviours. The researchers found the ‘chameleon effect’ theme as an important socio-psychological factor affecting health protective behaviours that had previously not been investigated in relation to COVID-19. Responses obtained from the interview also stated the need for regulation of information on social media, thus making broadcast media as people’s ultimate source of media. Conclusion: Findings from this study may be used to guide health-protective behaviour promotion in times of the third wave of COVID-19 or pandemics/epidemics that may arise in the future. We urge other researchers to engage in an in-depth study of the themes found in the current study and explore them individually.

  62. Mudra Eknath Kadam and Jayaraj R Mhetri

    Background.Menopause is one of the major mile stone in a woman’s life, a woman under goes many changes that are both physiologic and psychosocial changes A large proportion of women undergoing menopause experience various abnormal symptoms such as, vasomotor symptoms. the vasomotor symptoms include hot flashes and night sweats; they are also considered as predominant menopausal symptoms. Multiple studies have shown that the increased risk of depression in the menopausal age group. Objectives To assess the prevalence the depressive symptoms in women aged 40 to 55 years , residing in urban area. Methods The present study is a cross sectional study, Assessment of Depression of women was done using Beck’s Depression Inventory, it is a validated instrument for measuring depression. This tool is a self-rated scale, where individuals rate their own symptoms of depression. Results: The results of data collected from 120 women in the age group of 40 to 55 years. Mean age of the participants in the present study were 49.92 ± 4.01 years. In the present study a total of 53 women i.e. 44.1 % of the total study population had depression where mild depression was seen in 32 i.e. 26.6% and moderate depression was seen in 15 patients i.e. 12.5 %. Severe depression was seen in 6 patients i.e. 5 %. The age of the study participants was positively with the depression score with person’s correlation coefficient of 0.725 and p value of 0.032 which was statistically significant. The education level of the study participants was positively with the depression score with spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.247 and p value of 0.522 which was non statistically significant. The duration of comorbidities of the study participants was positively with the depression score with spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.451 and p value of 0.048 which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Majority of the women i.e. 44.1 % of the total study population had depression. The depressive symptoms were found to be higher in older women and those with comorbidities. The women in the age group of 40-55 years need special attention, these women should be screened for signs of depression, so that major depressive illness can be mitigated. The treating physician should consider the mental health aspect of the patients.

  63. Dr. Sawant Sharma, Dr. Neeraj Kumar Rathee, Dr. A K Pandey, Dr. Ajay Kumar and Dr. Brijdeep Singh

    Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) testes is a rare disease that comprises nearly 1% of all cases of NHl and around 9 % of all cases of testicular tumor. We report here a rare case of 56 year old male who presented with complains of pain and swelling in left testes. USg shows para aortic lymphadenopathy with raise vasculature on colour Doppler. Tumor markers were raised. MRI brain shows finding of Lymphoma. PET CT shows raised SUV uptake in left testes . Multiple positive pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. Left inguinal orchidectomy was performed and histopathology shows tumor cells arranged in sheets and on immunohistochemistry , it was negative for CD20 and CD45 and positivr for CD 3. The patient was started on chemotherapy i.e CHOP ( Cyclophosphamide, Oncovorin, Adriamycin and Prednisolone). The role of rituximab is linked to CD-20 positive lymphomas only as Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody agent against CD 20. The overall prognosis of NHL testes is very poor.

  64. Sivasushma Akula, Vasundhara Devi, B., Radhika Rani K.C. and Ashalatha, M.

    Background : Antibiotics are one of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine and are widely used against infectious diseases. In developing countries like India, the antibiotics are the highly consumed medicines, and irrational use of antibiotics is a common practice. Misuse of antibiotics has become even more during COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the prescription pattern of antibiotics is crucial in tackling irrational prescription and antibiotic resistance. Objectives: 1)To study the prescription pattern of antibiotics. 2)To compare prescription pattern with WHO indicators. Methods and Methodology: A retrospective, cross-sectional study.Total of 600 precrisptional data were studiedin the department of General medicine in a tertiary centre,Tirupathi,on in-patient basis. Inclusion Criteria:1)Prescriptional data of study sample with the age group greater than 18 years of both males and females.2) Prescriptions of common infectious diseases such as enteric fever, malaria, dengue ,Acute gastro-enteritis, Pyrexia of unknown origin, URTI, LRTI, dysentry has been included .3) Prescriptions with diagnosis. Exclusion criteria:1) Prescription papers in which the handwriting of prescriber was illegible to identify medication clearly.2) Prescription papers that did not contain medication.3)HIV/HbSAg /TB /Auto-immune diseases.4)Chronic renal disease (CKD).5)Cancer. Study Method: A total of 600 prescription papers were studied. Specific prescriptions papers were selected randomly.A detailed checklist containing patient-related information, medication related with diagnosis has been prepared.WHO prescribing indicators with their standard values were utilised to measure rational use of drugs with due focus on antibiotic prescribing patterns with study period of 6 months.No culture and sensitivity tests are done before starting antibiotics. Approval of Instituitional ethics committee has beentaken before starting the study. Results: Socio-demographic characteristics have been recorded prior to the study. Drug dose, frequency of administration, route of administration, duration of treatment have been recorded. WHO-prescribing indicators :1)Average number of drugs per encounter is 4.2.(optimal value 1.6-1.8).2)Percentage of encounter with antibiotics is 126.1%(optimal value 20.0-26.8%) 3)Percentage of encounter with injectionsis 94.33%(optimal value 13.4-24%).4)Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name is 100%(optimal value 100%).5)Percentage of drugs from Essential medicine list is 100%(optimal value 100%). Frequently prescribed antibiotic injectable was CEFTRIAXONE constituting 49.2% Conclusion: Our study concluded that prescribing pattern of antibiotics deviates from and is non-complaint with standard endorsed the WHO.“SUPERBUG-infections” are great threat to the world, due to irrational use of antibiotics.This problem may be reduced by developing an ANTIBIOTIC STEWARDSHIP PROGRAMME, introducing practice of antibiotics with the aid of culture and sensitivity tests and developing institutional guidelines.

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