Land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) is a key driver of global environmental change and has important implications for many national and international policy issues (Nunes and Auge 1999; Lambin 2001). Rani-Garbhanga Reserve Forest is located in Kamrup East Division of Assam. It has witnessed significant decline in forest cover. The growing population pressure on the forests for timber, fuelwood, fodder and other forest products, poor management on the part of the forest department, smuggling of trees are some of the major factors for accelerating the degradation process. The result of the study shows that land use changes in the study area are primarily responsible for the decrease of forest area and wild habitats in and around the reserve. This study addresses relevant issues on land use and land cover changes and its causes related to degradation of forest cover.