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Origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, genetic diversity and breeding of pointed gourd (trichosanthes dioica roxb)

Author: 
Swamy, K.R.M.
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is one of the most important cucurbit vegetables in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in India and Bangladesh. Pointed gourd is morphologically distinct from other cucurbitaceous species due to its well-established dioecism, perennial nature, and vegetative means of propagation. The pointed gourd having the common Indian names of “Parwal”, “Parmal”, “Panal” and “Patal”. This important crop is widely grown in the eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, in some parts of Maharashtra and Gujarat and some hilly tracts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. This perennial vine crop survives for long time through giving rise to sprouts from the tuberous roots even left uncared. The estimated area and production of pointed gourd in India during 2018-19 are 55,000 ha and 7,40,000 MT respectively. Fruits of pointed gourd are rich in proteins and vitamin A and also possess medicinal properties that can lower blood sugar and serum triglycerides. Fruits are consumed in a variety of ways, including vegetable curry, pickled, and as various confections. They have prolonged market availability, and the high nutritional and medicinal values of pointed gourd fruits make them a wholesome vegetable. Seed propagation of pointed gourd is undesirable due to poor germination and unpredictable variation; thus, pointed gourd is multiplied through stem and root cuttings. Hybridization followed by selection among segregating progeny and clonal selection are promising approaches for genetic improvement of this species. In this review article, origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, breeding, uses, nutritional value and health benefits of pointed gourd are discussed.

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