Study of the food habits of the large mammals is a prelude to any conservation strategies. Tiger is an endangered species of the country and is also considered as a flagship species in conservation. It occupies highest position in the Food Pyramid. Keeping this in mind, an attempt has been made to study the prey base of Tiger and the food habits of the prey base in Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR), India. Standard methods for field survey were adopted to ascertain the prey base of the Tigers in PTR. Enumeration of most common flora and fauna of the Tiger Zone of PTR was carried out. The results of field survey revealed that, of the 8 most preferred common prey of tigers, 3 belong to vulnerable, 4 belong to least concern and 1 belongs to endangered categories of species. It was observed that 23 % of the prey base was herbivorous. The most common flora (43 numbers) and fauna (54 numbers) of the Tiger zone of PTR were also documented in the present study. The Present work highlights the importance of prey base as well as associated flora and fauna in the conservation of Tigers in PTR.