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A six months observational study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and its pattern among the rural population of Chengalpattu India

Author: 
Joseph Pushpa Innocent, D.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Aim: The aim of the study is to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among the rural population and to analyze the pattern of infection (pulmonary and extra pulmonary) in various age and sex wise distribution of the disease. Methodology: A total no of 1,31,600 patients attended Out Patient Department (OPD) of Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre (KIMS-RC), over a period of six months between October 2015 and March 2016 and were clinically examined. Among them, 273 tuberculosis suspected cases were identified and included in this study. Specimens were collected from pulmonary and extra pulmonary suspected cases. Sputum samples were collected as per CDC guidelines collection procedure and the procedure was clearly explained to the patients and the collections were made under the supervision of a trained technician. Mucus and purulent part of the sputum samples were used to prepare the AFB smear. For extra pulmonary cases, body fluids and urine samples were collected. Smears were prepared as per the standard method and were stained by Zeil-Neelson’s procedure. Stained smears were studied by using oil immersion objective and the acid fast bacilli (AFB) were identified and graded as per standard guide lines. Results: Results were analyzed and it was found that the incidence of tuberculosis among the OPD attended cases (general population) it is only 0.21%. Among the tuberculosis suspected cases, 20.15% were positive for AFB and the pattern of infection was as follows. 52.7% were belonged to pulmonary tuberculosis and 47.3% were extra pulmonary cases. Conclusion: It is concluded that our study results revealed an alarming level of increase in extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection in this study population. Further our report indicated, as the age increases the rate of tuberculosis infection also increases. Male patients are found to be more prone for tuberculosis than females.

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