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A study to assess the effectiveness of kangaroo mother care on growth, mortality and morbidity pattern in preterm and low birth weight babies

Author: 
Dr. Pankaj Narnolia, Dr. Vivek Arora, Dr. Pooja Yadav and Dr. Bhupendra K. Damor
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction:The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) method is a humane, low cost, standardized, protocol-predicated care system for preterm and ∕ or Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants and is predicated on skin-to-skin contact between the preterm baby and the mother and exclusive breastfeeding.1Compared with conventional neonatal care, KMC was found to reduce mortality at discharge, Severe infection/sepsis, nosocomialinfections, lower respiratory tract disease, Hypothermia and length of hospital stay, Improved weight, length and head circumference, increased breastfeeding rates, Better mother-infant bonding and maternal satisfaction with the method of care, as compared with conventional methods. Material and Methods: This was a hospital based randomized controlled trail study. We studied inborn and out born babies admitted in NICU of Bal Chikitsalaya, R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur with sample size of 100 in control group (who received conventional care in a radiant warmer) and 100 in KMC group after approval of Institutional Ethics committee. Result: Babies who were provided KMC achieved significantly better growth at the end of the study when their increase in the weight, length and head circumference was compared at the end of the study. The time to start breast feeding was significantly higher in KMC group. Most babies in KMC group were exclusively breast fed at 40weeks. A significantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia and apnea (<1500g).KMC significantly reduced the incidence of apnea in VLBW babies. Babies who were given KMC discharged earlier with significantly reduced duration of hospital stay by ≈5days. Conclusion: The low birth weight infants offered KMC demonstrated higher growth rates and were discharged earlier. KMC prevented or reduced almost all morbidities of low birth weight infant. It also promotes exclusive breastfeeding practice and increases mother's confidence in handling small babies and builds good mother-baby bonding. KMC should be promoted and mothers should be encouraged to start it as soon as their LBW babies are stable.

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