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Water quality variation of selected open wells and boreholes in tolon district of northern Ghana

Author: 
Abagale, F. K., Osei, R. A. and Antwi, P. K.
Subject Area: 
Physical Sciences and Engineering
Abstract: 

Previously, water was regarded as a free commodity, considered unlimited in quantity and available as required, however, with continued population growth and diversified demands, the resource is becoming increasingly scarce and often of inferior quality due to pollution. The study assessed the water quality of open wells and boreholes in Tolon District. Data was taken at 6 days intervals for a period of twenty-two (22) months. Mean salinity level of open wells and boreholes were in the range of 0.02 ppt to 0.15 ppt and 0.55 ppt to 0.82 ppt respectively. The results indicated that salinity in all open wells was below 0.50 ppt considered standard for good drinking water whilst the boreholes were above the recommended standards. Turbidity of open wells was between 32.75 to 369 NTU and above the WHO acceptable standard of 5 NTU for drinking water but with borehole turbidity ranging from 0.61 to 2.65 NTU. Aside geology, seasonality was identified as a factor affecting water quality as salinity and other parameters were higher in the dry season than the wet season. A positive correlation existed between salinity and reduced water levels in open wells with source as groundwater and a coefficient of correlation (r) ranging from 0.511 to 0.876. The study noted that water quality monitoring is very important in delivery of the desired and acceptable potable water for human use as local climatic factors with associated water withdrawals and recharge rates greatly influenced the water quality of boreholes and open-wells.

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