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Dental occlusion pattern among the ika speaking people in delta state, Nigeria

Author: 
Ese Anibor, Chukwuedu Ojebor, Charity Inikoroand Nicholas Asiwe
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Dental occlusion is the connection between the masticatory surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth. The occlusion types include the edge to edge bite, the moderate overbite, the extreme overbite, and the negative overbite. This study offers important information for exploit in orthodontics, anthropology and forensic science. Objectives: To investigate the pattern of tooth occlusion among the Ika people, to investigate if there is a significant gender difference, and to provide a baseline data on the dental occlusion pattern for the Ika ethnic group. Methods: Data was gotten from 384 subjects fromIka Kingdoms in Delta State, Nigeria (Agbor, Owa-Ekie and Owa-Alero). Data was collected via observation as subjects were asked to bite, swallow saliva, occlude and open their mouths, while the association between the upper maxillary and lower mandibular teeth was observed and recorded. Record of occlusion pattern was taken as mild overbite, edge to edge bite, negative bite or severe overbite. The Chi-square test was used for inferential statistics and P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results:The mild overbite occlusion pattern had the highest frequency (Males 43.2%, females 42.3%). The negative overbite had the lowest frequency (Males 2.1%, females 1.0%). There was no significant association between sex and type of occlusion pattern (p=0.84), and between age and type of occlusion pattern (p>0.05). The second most common type of occlusion pattern in the age group range of 15-19 years was the severe overbite occlusion pattern (28%), but in the other age groups (20-24years, 25-30 years) it wasthe edge to edge bite occlusion pattern,28.2% and 32.8% respectively. Conclusion: The mild overbite occlusion pattern is the most prevalent type found among the Ika people, and there is no significant association between sex or age group and type of occlusion pattern.

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