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Hand grasps in the kitchen -occupational performance during the activity

Author: 
Elisabete Roldão, Jéssica Ferreira, Mafalda Santos Neves, Mariana Vinagre Anacleto, Tânia Margarida Leal and Augusto Gil Pascoal
Subject Area: 
Physical Sciences and Engineering
Abstract: 

Backgrounds: Grasp is defined as the static posture of the hand, through which an object is securely grasped regardless its orientation. Daily living activities are carried out using different types of grasps. Feeding is one of these activities where grasps are carried out on objects, utensils or products. It is associated with the "process of preparing, disposing of and bringing food or fluids, from the dish or glass, to the mouth". Objectives: With this study we intend to characterize the grasps used in activities of daily living, namely in the preparation of meals. Methods: As a descriptive-correlational study, relationships between variables are described to understand the use of grasps configurations and establish relationships between grasps, frequency, duration and types of objects. Four participants (two females and two males) selected by convenience, without pathology of the hand, with 18 to 64 years, who cook four times a week, were filmed performing the tasks in question. Data confidentiality and blind analysis of investigators were guaranteed. Results: Were found that in cooking activities, which elapsed for 18786 seconds, the most frequently used hand and for longer periods, was the right one. Thirty-one different types of holds were used and those that stood out for frequency and duration were the "Extension Indicator", "Thumb Adduced" and "Quadríade". Thus, force holds (with palmar and digital contact with all sets of force vectors, mostly with the thumb adduced), intermediate (with lateral contact, with all sets of forces except when the thumb is abducted) and precision (with palmar and lateral contact with all sets of force vectors) were used. Thus, we found that the greater the weight and diameter of the object, the greater the number of force vectors involved, which means more fingers in contact with the object. Therefore, we conclude that it is the prehensile object that influences the apprehension to be adopted, regardless of the sex and age of the individual. Conclusion: This work allows health professionals to know this activity considering the hand grasp and anticipate difficulties in occupational performance, make decisions about the intervention to be implemented, support assistive devices to be use, tasks to be adapted or training to be developed.

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