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May 2023

  1. VijayaKumar S Kulambi and Nithin Thomas George

    Introduction: Idiopathic congenital talipes equino varus is a complex deformity which is difficult to correct. The treatment of clubfoot is controversial and continues to be one of the biggest challenges in Paediatric Orthopaedics. Most Orthopedicians agree that the initial treatment should be non surgical and should be started soon after birth. We aimed to study a short term follow up of 75 patients treated by the Ponseti method at the Department of Orthopaedics, J.J.M. Medical College, Davangere to assess the efficacy of the treatment modality. Materials and Methods: 75 patients of idiopathic CTEV underwent the Ponseti method of treatment at Department of Orthopaedics in Chigateri Government Hospital, Davangere and Bapuji Hospital, Davangere attached to JJM Medical College, Davangere, during the period of from September 2020 to September 2022.Patients were followed up regularly every week during treatment and monthly after the completion of treatment. The severity of foot deformities were graded as per Pirani’s scoring system before treatment at follow up and after completion of treatment and results were assessed. Results: Out of 75 patients good results were obtained in 69 patients.6 patients developed recurrence of the deformity due to noncompliance with Dennis-Browne splint. Conclusion: The Ponseti method is a safe and cost effective treatment for congenital idiopathic clubfoot and radically decreases the need for extensive corrective surgery. There is high level of parent satisfaction regarding the correction of deformity. Non compliance with orthotics has been widely reported to be the main factor causing failure of the technique.

  2. Kalita M.C. and Kalita, A.

    Most of the rice growing field of Boko block was found as saturated soil during Kharif season and Ground water table goes below (>2.5m) the surface soil during the entire period of Rabi season. All the selected farmers has grown winter rice (cv-Ranjit) satisfactorily as rainfed crop. Only a few numbers of farmers has applied Urea fertilizers @25kg/ha. Dried FYM@4-5t/ha was applied by all farmers in their rice field before the final land preparation of soil. PH of the rice soil was mostly acidic. Except, K-other nutrients were found as low to medium range. Grain yield variations were recorded from 48.0-53.0q/ha. Highest net returns of rs.1,19,328.00 per hactre was received by a selected farmers of village-18.

  3. Yazheng Li and Lezi Zhang

    The Metaverse concept has been applied in many domains and attracted widespread attention from the Chinese academic community. In order to explore the research status, hotspots, and topics of the Metaverse in China, this study employed bibliometric and scientific knowledge mapping methods using tools such as COOC13.4 and VOSviewer. Cluster analysis was performed on 1117 Chinese metaverse-related research papers collected from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) since 2021. The findings suggest that the Metaverse and virtual reality, digital collections and blockchain technology, application scenarios and virtual spaces, digital technology and media convergence, digital twins and smart libraries, publishing convergence, and the digital economy, and artificial intelligence and digital transformation were the most studied metaverse-related topics in China. The research status of the Metaverse in China was analyzed to provide references for future studies.

  4. Maguatcher Jeremie and Ning Ru

    Technological innovation has rapidly transformed the global business and education landscape in recent years. Digital transformation strengthens not only companies' economic positions, benefits society and the environment but also brings about social and cultural changes. As a result, businesses are training their employees in digital skills to keep up with new trends, and higher education institutions (HEIs) must adapt their teaching methods to meet changing labor market demands. This paper examines the challenges facing Cameroon's higher education system in terms of digital transformation, focusing on the University of Maroua and the Universities of Yaounde I and II. The research methods used include questionnaires, interviews, and observation. The Strategic Approach of Digital Transformation theory is applied to facilitate the successful promotion of educational technology in Cameroon's higher education system. The study reveals that Cameroon's higher education faces several challenges in digital transformation, including a lack of digital infrastructure and internet access, and insufficient university budgets. The root cause of these challenges is the central government's lack of funding, lack of international cooperation, and poor governance. To address these issues and advance digital transformation in Cameroon's higher education sector, the study recommends increasing investment in digital infrastructure and internet access, strengthening international partnerships, and improving investment and governance for lifelong learning in the digital age. And finally, the authors draw insights from international experience to enhance digital transformation in Cameroon's higher education.

  5. Dr. Brajendra Pal Singh, Dr. Amit Mehra, Dr. Mamta, Dr Deepika Divan and Dr. Avinash Pastore

    Asmari is a most difficult disorder for the sufferings. The disease mootrashmari is the most common disease among various urinary disorders and has been described briefly in Sushruta Samhita and other Ayurvedic texts. This disease can occur in kidney, ureters and badder with renal colic pain, haematuria or dysurea. According to modern science Urolithiasis or Urinary calculus are typically classify by locate in the urinary system. Such as in the Kidney (Nephrolithiasis), in the bladder (Cystolithiasis) etc. Urinary stone typically live in the body and can be passed through urine stream by the help of diet and appropriate medicines. Here an attempt has been taken to observe and see the efficacy of Kushmanda swaras yoga in the management of Urolithiasis. The contents of the proposed medicine having proven diuretic effects with capable of bhedan (break) and excrete out the stone through urine.

  6. Mahesh Dave, Anuj Goyal and Manasvin Sareen

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia are the main clinical and diagnostic features and the result of an absolute or relative insulin deficiency or resistance to its action. Aims and Objectives: To study various inflammatory markers such as ESR, CRP, Serum albumin and Ferritin and their correlation in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out in 50 Diabetes Mellitus type 2 patients (cases) and 50 age and gender matched individuals (control) in MBGH hospital and RNT Medical College, Udaipur over the period of 12 months. Results: Mean age of patients was 59.50 ± 11.06 years. Females out numbered males 1.5:1. Patients of case group had dyslipidemia, total cholesterol (257.70 ± 49.49), triglycerides (203.52 ± 83.62), LDL was 124.30 ± 29.99 and HDL was 35.67 ± 7.62. Serum ferritin was found to be very high (511.09 ±390.37) in patients with diabetes mellitus as compared to control group (106.60 ± 30.19), the difference was statistically highly significant. Same was the case with ESR and CRP levels. This showed strong association of increased inflammatory markers with diabetes mellitus. Also, serum albumin was decreased in cases as compared to controls; which was statistically significant. There was a positive correlation between duration of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 with inflammatory markers (Ferritin, albumin). Also, inflammatory markers like ESR, CRP and albumin had coorelation with HbA1c values. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus type 2 has a close association with inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia such as raised ESR, CRP, Ferritin and decreased albumin. These markers are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and increased risk of various complications ; thus , they can serve as a prognostic marker

  7. Mahesh Dave, Heer Nath, Anuj Goyal

    Background: Snakebite is a major public health problem throughout the world and more so in tropical and subtropical countries, where people are more engaged in agriculture work have highest incidences of snake bites. Lipid profile at the time of admission can be helpful to predict severity, course as well as outcome of these snake bite patients. Methodology: This was a descriptive case control study which was carried out over all the patients of snake bite being admitted to various medical wards of Maharana Bhupal Government Hospital, attached to R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur (Rajasthan) from January 2020 to November 2020. Result: Maximum incidence of snake bite was found in males (58%), from rural area (88%) and farmer (54%) by occupation. It was observed that bite was common in monsoon and post monsoon season (90%), bite was common in lower extremities (72%) and at day time(54%). Among all bites, 12% were contributed by non- poisonous and rest 88% were poisonous bites, out of which 54% were haemorrhagic and 34% were neuroparalytic. The mean serum total cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P<0.034) in severe cases (133.65 mg/dl) as compared to moderate (147.30mg/dl) and mild (149.50 mg/dl) cases. The mean serum triglyceride levels were lower in severe cases (116.15mg/dl), as compared to moderate (120.07 mg/dl) and mild (133.92 mg/dl) cases. The mean serum HDL levels were lower in severe cases (31.95mg/dl), as compared to moderate (33.69 mg/dl) and mild (37.42 mg/dl) cases. The mean serum LDL levels were lower in severe cases (61.50mg/dl), as compared to moderate (69.07 mg/dl) and mild (69.83 mg/dl) cases. Conclusion: Lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL, HDL) were significantly decreased in snake bite patients both with hemorrhagic and neuro-paralytic. In our study, we found that a negative correlation exits between serum TC,TG, HDL, LDL and severity of envenomation. Hence,we can use lipid profile as a surrogate marker of severity of snake bite envenomation and predicting the complication and recovery.

  8. Elniema A. Mustafa

    The Holy Quran is the sole source of inspiration for the definitions of halal and haram foods. Halal refers to what is acceptable and permitted in Islam, whereas haram refers to what is unacceptable and prohibited. Furthermore, Muslims worldwide adopt eight different Schools of Thought(SOT) as reference materials recognized by the International Islamic Fiqh Academy (IIFA) of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).The halal food industry is one of the consumer industries with the fastest development in the world, reflecting its increased acceptance by Muslims and non-Muslims. One of the main factors preventing the development of a single, universally accepted halal standard is the various interpretations of Muslim jurists regarding halal animal stunning, slaughtering methods, and other Islamic requirements. This review sought to examine how differences across schools of thought (SOT) prevent the creation of a halal meat standard that is widely accepted.

  9. Wei Xu, Yingying Wen

    The adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by coconut shell biochar (CSB) was investigated. The effect of initial concentration of 2,4-Dwas studied. The optimum concentration was30 μg/mL. This suggested the strong interaction of 2,4-D with CSB. Therefore, CSB, as a green, environmental-friendly adsorbent, can be applied to the adsorption of contaminants in environment.

  10. Dr. Bishnupriya Mohanty, Umesh Vagare IV B.A.M.S., Laxmikant Kolte, IV B.A.M.S and Prof. Dr. Sangram Keshari Das Professor

    Grahani Chikitsa consists of three parts. The first part explains the concept of normal digestion process. The second part describes the abnormal digestion and third part is about diseases caused by abnormality of digestive factors

  11. Lili Lin and Zongliang Niu

    The adsorption of dicamba by coconut shell biochar (CSB) was investigated. The effect of initial concentration of dicamba was studied. The optimum concentration was 60 μg/mL. This suggested the strong interaction of dicamba with the CSB.Therefore, CSB, as a green, environmental-friendly adsorbent, can be applied to the adsorption of contaminants in environment.

  12. Mafele Jumanne Ihoyelo and Samwel Mchele Limbu

    Objective: Posterior teeth intrusion performed by means of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) offers the possibility of closing anterior open bite, but data on the long-term stability of the treatment effect are lacking. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the post treatment stability of anterior open bite patients performed by posterior teeth intrusion using temporary anchorage devices. Methods: The Pub Med, EMBASE, Web of science, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases were searched comparing effect of temporary anchorage devices on open bite treatment and posttreatment stability in studies performed using lateral cephalograms. No language restriction, authors were contacted and reference list screened. Screening and data extraction were performed by two independent investigators. Outcome measures were amount of changes in cephalometric variables measurement of upper and lower posterior teeth after intrusion using temporary anchorage devices. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Quality and risk of bias were assessed by using Newcastle Ottawa scale and methodological index for non-randomized trials (MINORS) respectively. Results: Studies involving 115 patients; (mean age, 24.8 years) were included. There were significant differences in amount of upper and lower molar intrusion with open bite correction (SMD -1.63, 95% CI -2.68 to -0.57; P = 0.003) and (SMD -2.67, 95% CI -4.33 to -1.00; P = 0.002), respectively. No significant differences existed between upper and lower molar relapse with open bite recurrence for one year (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -1.04 to 0.22; P = 0.02) and more than one year posttreatment (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -0.55to 0.64; P = 0.88). Conclusions: TADs produce greater amount of molar intrusions which results into autorotation of mandible along with open bite correction. Greater percentage of molar and overbite relapse seems to occur during the first year posttreatment than the next subsequent years but doesn’t result in relapse of open bite malocclusion.

  13. Aayushi Mahat, RN, RM and Ranjana Pal, RN, RM

    Aim: To assess the effectiveness of foot reflexology on the level of depression among older adults residing at selected old age home, West Bengal. Background: Older people are a valuable resource for any society. When a person gets old, he inevitably needs more care and affection. Ageing is a natural phenomenon with opportunities and challenges faced more when they are residing at old age home. It is estimated that approximately 4 million older people have suffered moderate to severe mental health problems mainly depression. It has been reported that reflexology helps to improve physical as well as psychological well-being in older adults. Method: The data was collected from 100 older adults residing at old age home. Foot reflexology is the intervention given to the group for 30 minutes for 5 times a week for consecutive 4 weeks (first 1 week by the physiotherapist and remaining 3 weeks by the researcher). Pre-test and post-test was done using Geriatric Depression Scale before and on the 30th day of intervention respectively. Result: The findings revealedthat before the intervention, majority of the older adults had moderate level of depression whereas after the intervention (foot reflexology) most of the older adults had mild level of depression. This shows that foot reflexology was effective in reducing the level of depression among older adults at p<0.001 level of significance. Conclusion: Hence foot reflexology is effective in reducing the level of depression among older adults.

  14. Shri Ram Bharat, Dr. Archana Suyal, Suman Kumar Jha and Dr. Rajeev Saini

    The impact of moisture content on yield and study of stability at 25±2 °C/60 %RH±5 % and 40±2 °C/75 %RH±5 % of mechanically cold pressed neem seed kernel oil collected from four different location was examined. The Matured neem seed was obtained and the initial moisture and oil yield was determined in samples (Bihar (B1nk) 37.0%, Rajasthan (R1nk)34.2%, Tamilnadu (T1nk) 35.2%, Uttar Pradesh (UP1nk) 40.4%)using solvent extraction method in laboratory. The initial data of stability generated including organoleptic, moisture (%), acid value (mgKOH/g), Iodine value (g/ml), saponification value (mgKOH/g) and Azadirachtin content (ppm).The recorded moisture and oil yield was compared with the initial oil content and moisture of the seed kernels for all the four location kernels. As the moisture decrease the yield increase and vice versa. Thestability data was generated at both the temperature conditions for6 month of oil extracted from cold pressing to study effect of temperature and humidityon thequality and stability of stored neem oil. All the test results showed that physicochemical properties of neem oil met the specification limit and the oil was best to use even after 6 months with all its goodness properties intact.

  15. Oscar GODONOU, Vincent PRODJINONTO, Jean-Louis FANNOU, IsdeenYAYA NADJO

    In this work, we were interested in improving the performance and durability of LiFePO4 batteries through the application of a constant magnetic field. To do this, we defined three paramanders: kinetic efficiency and coulombic efficiency for the assessment of performance, then internal resistance for the assessment of durability. We also defined three factors: the charging or discharging rate, the magnetic field, and the state of the process. With an experimental device, we tested the IFR 26650 battery according to an appropriate experimental. design. The analysis of the various results obtained shows among that the magnetic field increases the kinetic efficiency, coulombic efficiency and decreases the internal resistance. Thus, the magnetic field improves the performance and durability of LiFePO4 batteries. A search for optimal conditions of battery use shows that, during charging, a charging rate of 0.5 C and a magnetic field of 6 mT must be established and during discharge, a discharge rate of 1 C and a magnetic field of 3 mT should be recommended. These optimal charging conditions procur average 25 % of the increasing of kinetic efficiency, 5 % of increasing of coulumbar efficiency, and 58 % of reducing of internal resistance compared to a 0.5 C charge rate in the absence of a magnetic field. About the optimal discharge conditions, they procurs average 2.6 % of increasing of kinetic efficiency, 8.4 % of increasing of coulomb efficiency, and 26 % of reducing of internal resistance compared to a 1 C discharge rate in the absence of a magnetic field.

  16. Papa Touty Traore, Fatimata Ba, Seydou FAYE, Mor Ndiaye and Issa Diagne

    In this paper, the spectral response of an interdigitated back contact of solar is studied under different illuminations, sunlight, xenon lamp. The set-up model allows to determine the short-current density and the photon current of a solar cell under separate spectra. The spectrum generate is evaluated for each illumination. The external quantum efficiency related to the spectral response of the interdigitated back contact solar cell is also evaluated in this work. The model is computed under the powerful calculators PV lighthouse. The standard test conditions are applied to the model

  17. Mahira Firudinkizi Amirova, Shayman Ibrahim qizi Hasanova and Huseyn Azizulla oglu Abiyev

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely present in nature and play the role of self-protection of a living organism from the presence of foreign presenters. They are amphipathic, i.e. contain both charged and hydrophobic domains, however, they are divided into cationic and anionic, depending on the presence of positively or negatively charged amino acids in the active domains, which allows them to easily bind to the surface of the bacterial membrane, which has an advantage of phosphatidylserines different from eukaryotic cells on the outer surface of the plasma membrane, as well as with the surface of fungi and tumor cells. The mechanism of the killer action of AMPs is based on their ability to form pores according to the principle of a toroidal, mosaic and barrel model. But the mechanism of the immunomodulatory action of AMP does not end there. Along with the above action, which ensures the leakage of vital intracellular components into the external environment, AMPs act on DNA transcription, RNA and protein synthesis, sharply inhibiting their formation in a virulent cell, preventing colony development. Of course, a diet depleted in protein and antibiotics are undesirably introduced into the process of self-regulation of immune reactions in the body under the influence of AMP, which is the reason for the deterioration of the condition of patients after taking chemotherapy drugs. Simultaneously, the emergence of multidrug resistance cannot be ignored. On the contrary, increased AMP production due to thediet enriched by essensial, especially widely presented in AMPs hydrophobic amino acids has a beneficial effect on the outcome of an infectious disease. It has been shown that the supplementation of such essential nutrients as tryptophan and branched amino acids, as well as vitamins D and A, increases the host defense by increasing the expression of genes responsible for AMP synthesis.

  18. Umarudeen A. M, Khan F. and Ibrahim A.

    Alcohol and substance abuse in Nigeria is fast becoming a public health menace. The unregulated proliferation, sale and consumption of low-price sachet and other low-volume alcohol has accentuated the incidence of alcohol abuse in the country. The potential risks associated with this scenario are further aggravated by the habit of including medicinal plant extracts locally believed to have physical or sexual vitality-enhancing property in many of these alcoholic/non-alcoholic liquid brands. Despite the increasing prevalence of this problem and its attendant physical, mental, and social health impact, there has not been any scientific report specifically focused on the variety and the chemical constituents of these low-cost brands in the country. Theaim of this study, therefore, is to know the variety of the liquid brands available in major Nigerian cities, profile their chemical compositions – especially their alcohol and the medicinal extract contents. Surveys were carried out on convenient days starting from September 2022 throughMarch 2023 in randomly selected streets in Lagos, Ibadan and the federal capital territory, Abuja particularly market and motor park areas where alcohol-related activities were likely to be high. All sachet and other small-volume alcohol packaged brands encountered were inspected and relevant data such as brand names, name(s) and address(es) of the manufacturers/marketers, brand unit price(s), percentage alcohol content, inclusion or omission of medicinal extracts, and the presence or lack of the official (government) National Agency for Foods and Drugs administration and Control’s (NAFDAC) approval were captured. The surveys encountered a total of seventy-five (75) alcoholic and non-alcoholic brands (See table below). All the survey brands, except one (Alomo bitters), are manufactured in Nigeria with over 90 precent of these brands are produced in the South-western region of the country. Most of these brands existed in both sachets and in small-volume plastic containers. The sachet brands’ volumes ranged from 50 to 70 ml and sold for N30 to N70 per unit while the plastic container brands’ volumes ranged from 80 to 125 ml and sold for N60 to N200 per unit. Eleven brands were stated as non-alcoholic (zero %). Of the rest 64alcoholic brands, 54 had and 10 did not have their alcohol contents stated on their labels. The percentage (%) alcohol contents of the brands ranged from the minimum of 15% to the maximum of 45%. Over half of the brands exhibited high (more than 30%) alcohol contents. Two-thirds of the brands had about 60 different medicinal plant extracts and spices in various combinations, included in their contents. Only about 37did but 16 brands failed to disclose their medicinal extracts on their labels. A significant proportion of brands contain a variety of plant extracts (Asimina triloba, Lanneawelwitschii, Picrasmaexcelsa, Reglisse (Liquorice), Gentiane jaune, Rhubarb root, Guarana, etc.), food preservatives (sodium benzoate, citric acid E330), additives (aspartame, acesulfame-k etc.), flavours, colourants (Allural Red, Tartrazine E102) and supplements (Taurine, caffeine). Some these substances have toxicity concerns. More than half of these alcoholic and non-alcoholic brands did not indicate any therapeutic uses for their products. For those that did indicate their beneficial uses, these include physical and sex-related vitality enhancement, and alleviation of low back ache or menstrual disorders. Only eight brands failed to showcase the official approval (NAFDAC licence) to operate. It is worthy to note that 10 of the 14 brands which failed to specify their medicinal plant extract constituents were among those brands exhibiting government (NAFDAC) licence. None of the brands listed any adverse effectsagainst their products. Only 19 brands gave any form of general or specific warnings to those for whom their products are not recommended or are contraindicated. Potentially toxic chemical compounds such as plant-derived acetogenins, alkylated hydroquinones, Juniper berry, glycyrrizin, glycyrrhetic acid, quassin and neoquassin; and food additives Allura Red, tartrazine, aspartame, Acesulfame-k, citric acid (E 330), caffeine, several synthetic colorants and falvourings are included in many of the brands. These findings showthere is alcohol abuse risk in some Nigerian cities due to unregulated production, easy access and low cost of sachet and other small-volume packages. The %alcohol, some medicinal extract, and foot additive contents of some of these brands may not be safe for continued public consumption. There is a need for greater supervision/regulation of the production, sale and consumption of sachet and other small-volume alcoholic packages on one hand and for more effective alcohol-related public health awareness campaigns on the other.

  19. Dr. Femi Mariya Benny and Dr. Suhas Rao, K.

    The most frequent fracture in patients with standard acrylic resin maxillary dentures when placed against the opposing entire or partial natural dentition is a midline fracture. This happens due to excessive masticatory forces from the natural dentition against the opposing arch. A glass fiber reinforced denture benefitsin response to fracture of denture. This case report compact with the oral rehabilitation of completely edentulous maxillary arch opposing a dentulous mandibular arch with full complement of natural dentition by integrating a glass fibers mesh into the denture base to counteract the masticatory pressures from the natural teeth and lengthen the life of the replacement.

  20. Prakash B. Jadhavar

    Cyanophycean algae are also known as blue green algae or cyanobacteria. These were found in a wide range in India and worldwide. These are important contributors to aquatic biology of fresh and marine waters. Eleven species of cyanophyta bearing different orders were recorded from the study area. The study was carried out during present investigation to explore algal diversity. Present communication deals with cyanophycean species, observed at Mehekari water reservoir. A detailed report of present study is described in the present paper.

  21. Dr. Megha Rastogi, Dr. Urvashi, Dr. Kriti Ganguly and Abhya Rani

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant health concern, necessitating accurate identification of causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for effective treatment. Antibiotic resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burdenof these infections1,6 The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among uropathogens has become a global concern, leading to limited treatment options and increased healthcare costs. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of uropathogens and emphasize the importance of judicious antibiotic selection to minimize AMR and assist clinicians in effective treatment decisions. Most common organisms isolated causing UTI in present study were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the most frequently involved pathogen in the causation of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients, determine the common causative agents, and assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted at Healthians Lab, Gurugram, India, to determine the common causative agents and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of UTIs using microbiologic laboratory data from urine culture samples tested over a one-year period. Bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity is done by automated system BD phoenix. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antibiotic was determined and judged to be susceptible, intermediate, or resistant following the breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Institute (CLSI). Conclusion: The study provides important data on the most commonly isolated organisms from urine samples. The analysis and comparison of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of these organisms provide valuable insights for clinicians. Based on this information, they can choose the most appropriate empirical treatment options for UTIs.

  22. Kshilpa, KS

    The automotive industry has become one of the most important world-wide industries, not only at economic level, but also in terms of research and development. Increasingly, there are more technological elements that are being introduced on the vehicles towards the improvement of both passengers and pedestrians’ safety. In addition, there is a greater number of vehicles on the roads, which allows for us to move quickly and comfortably. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are gaining momentum due to several factors, including the price reduction as well as the climate and environmental awareness.

  23. Dr. Pradnya V. Bansode, Dr. M.B. Wavdhane, Dr. Seema D. Pathak and Dr. Janhavi Swami

    Esthetics is an increasing concern for patients, particularly for anterior teeth. Any flaw that disrupts a pleasing social smile demands to be taken care of with quick, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure. Composite resin restorations have become a life saver in such cases due to their excellent esthetic and handling properties. However from time to time they have proven to be technique sensitive, also getting exact proportion and symmetry right during restoration of anterior teeth is of paramount importance where Putty index technique comes into picture. This technique not only provides exact palatal base shelf to build on but also makes multiple restorations possible on same tooth possible at same time. This paper throws light on anterior esthetic restorations using Direct and Indirect putty index technique by composite resin.

  24. Deeksha Sharma and Monika Dutta

    vaccine. Concerns and apprehensions about the vaccine's side effects are widespread among people. The aim of this study was to explore the symptoms experienced and interventions used after the first dose of Covishield among health care personnel of northern region of India. It also aimed to assess fear of COVID-19 among health care personnel. Method: This was a cross sectional study carried out via an online survey on 400 health care personnel (who had received at least first dose of covishield) from August 2021 to February 2022. Results: The results include the responses of 400 vaccine recipients. Data analysis carried out using SPSS. Semi-structured questionnaire and seven item fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S) were used to collect information on study variables. Majority of the participants 334 (83.5%) had both local and systemic side effects. Pain at injection site 138 (34.50%) was the first symptom noticed; followed by fever 111(27.75%). 136(34%) experienced first symptoms after 4-8 hrs of vaccine and the symptoms lasted only for <2days among 238 (59.50%) subjects. Antipyretics 246(61.5%) were used to overcome side effects. 223(55.75%) did not use any home remedy to manage symptoms. Moderate level of fear of COVID-19 was reported by 42% of the participants. Out of 400 health care personnel only 222 had received both doses so the comparison of symptoms after first and second dose could only be done on them. There was significant improvement in the self reported health status after the second dose of Covishield (p<0.05). Conclusion: In this study it was identified that health care personnel had both local and systemic side effects after first dose of Covishield which were effectively managed by using antipyretics. Most of the health care personnel (HCPs) had a moderate level of fear of COVID-19.

  25. Japo M. Lukali, Merchris Mango, Ramadhan R. Kazema and Vicent Malika

    To determine Computed Tomography (CT) scanning parameters and radiation doses for pediatric patients according to age and body size. Methodology: This was a hospital based cross sectional study which was conducted at Radiology department, Muhimbili National Hospital from September 2021 to March 2022. One hundred and seventy four children underwent CT scan examination were recruited. Demographic information clinical indication and scanning parameters were obtained using structured questionnaires. CT doses estimation were calculated from CT dose calculator computer software supplied by Imaging Performance and Assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT). Results: Majority of children who underwent CT examination were males, from age group of 1-5 years. Head trauma was the commonest indication comprising sixty four percent. The tube potential and tube current for head examinations were higher than for the chest and abdominal examinations. The mean tube potential and tube current for the head were 115.4 kVp and 209.45 mA respectively. The doses for Head CT examinations were higher compared to the chest and abdomen, the mean CTDIvol (mGy) 11.78, DLP (mGy.cm) 231.42 and CTDIw (mGy) 16.6, but relatively lower than other international values. The calculated mean CTDIvol 11.8, 0.89, 1.79 and DLP 232.6, 36.5, 86.5 for head, chest and abdomen respectively were significantly lower than the values displayed on the console i.e. 36.7, 2.7, 2.6 CTDIvol and 731.7, 78.6, 114.8 DLPs. Conclusion: The use of large tube potential and tube current for head examinations has led to large doses for head examinations. The radiation dose mean values for CTDI vol, and DLP were significantly lower than those from other countries. We still have the chance to further reduce our doses to much lower levels.

  26. Nabila Mohammed Mortada, Batool Abdullah and Prof. Ali El-Husseini

    Learner autonomy (LA) is essential for successful language learning, but little is known about the beliefs of Lebanese EFL university instructors towards it. This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of Lebanese EFL university instructors towards LA and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on LA. A questionnaire was administered to Lebanese EFL university instructors to examine their attitudes towards the desirability and feasibility of LA and the relationship between their beliefs towards LA and online learning during the pandemic. The results showed that Lebanese EFL university instructors generally hold positive views on LA, but perceive it as partially achievable due to various obstacles. The shift towards online learning during the pandemic created new opportunities for LA to be practiced, but also presented challenges. The findings provide valuable insights for EFL instructors, program designers, and policy-makers to develop strategies and policies that promote LA in the Lebanese EFL context.

  27. Seema Sharma, Ritu Slathia, Owais I. Mir, Bhawna Sharma, Pallavi Sharma and Sarthak Sharma

    Objective: The expression of tibiofemoral angle (TFA) in adult males show variations with race. But data related with kashmiri and pahari population is not documented yet. Methods: We measured the TFA in 120 (60 kashmiri and 60 pahari) adult males aged between18 and 25 years. we used supine position for the measurement of TFA. Results: The mean tibiofemoral angle in adult Kashmiri male population as 171.8º, with standard deviation of 6.2º and the mean value in Pahari as 170.7º, with standard deviation of 5.4º with p value of 0.48 (non significant). Conclusion: Study was conducted on 120 healthy male adult subjects, 60 Pahari subjects and 60 Kashmiri subjects by using calibrated Goniometer with adjustable arms under standard conditions.

  28. Dr. Kanakappa Pujar

    Online and distance education refers to learning with the help of the internet and a computer. SWAYAM and other MOOC platforms are providing a very good opportunity for young learners throughout the world. the researcher has made an attempt to look into learner engagement in learning through these platforms. The study is of descriptive survey cum ex-post-facto in nature. Students pursuing Post graduation from different departments of Rani Channamma University, Belagavi, who are enrolled and completed the online courses in different subjects are treated as the population of the study. A convenient sampling technique is adopted for the study. The questionnaire used a five-point Likert- scale. 30 close-ended items have been selected to understand the learning experiences of the students towards the learner’s engagement in online learning. the findings reveal that online courses can incorporate Quality, Affordability, Scalability, Inclusion, and Employability in the Indian Educational Society. Indian MOOCs may also have subject topics that have not been explored yet, such as Classical Indian Music, Indian History, Yoga, etc. They can also be used to provide high-quality education to remote parts with subjects that require intensive graphics and visual illustrations.

  29. Dr. Seif Ayad

    Titanium used in dentistry as a material shaped in a shape of dental root and put in a jaw bone as a dental root replacement due to its properties of oseointegration and compatablity with bone and gingiva. Bone loss happened due to infection in dental pocket and after extraction of a tooth . Now we can use this properties of oseointegration and compatability with gingiva and bones to use the titanium as a material for restoration of lost dental bone by mixing the data taken from intraoral scanner and CBCT for making the titanium graft restoration which CAD/CAM in the machines according the special software restor the lost bone function and form. Digital impression with intraoral scanner which record the state of bone loss. The software relate this scanning data with cone beam x ray data then make an imagination for the lost part of the bone and add the mechanical mean of retention by making a hole or more in bone before scaninning to add a mean of mechanical retention to the graft and to make a graft with a guide and enhance healing and then give order to the milling machine to mill it . After graft the soft tissue will be managed according to the case from normal flap to the level of adding gingival tissue in cases with a big amount of titanium graft.

  30. Tawheed Lateef Rather and Saeed Abdur Rouf

    This study examined the difference in self-concept and academic achievement of male and female secondary school students. The statistical population of the study consisted of all the secondary school students of the Baramulla district of Jammu and Kashmir. A sample of 200 secondary school students was selected through a random sampling technique. Self-concept scale developed by R.K. Saraswat (2011) and the previous year’s annual examination marks of 10th-grade students were used to measure the self-concept and academic achievement of students. Results of the study revealed that both male and female secondary school students did not differ in self-concept; however, a significant difference was discovered between male and female secondary school students on the variable academic achievement. Further, the investigator found that self-concept and academic achievement were significantly and positively correlated with each other.

  31. Atta Ul Rehman Malik and Dr. Uzma Saleem Malik

    The partition of the Indian subcontinent began on a hostile note with the formation of India and Pakistan as two separate states. Since independence, Pakistan and India's relations have been strained by political differences, historical relics from the pre-Partition era, and contested territorial claims over the disputed territory of Kashmir. India and Pakistan's post-partition relationship has always been tense, hostile, suspicious, hateful, and characterized by mistrust. They have created static, unchanging, and competing images of one another. Numerous historical and political events, including territorial disputes and wars, have occurred between these two neighbors. However, they also have made concerted efforts to resolve disputes through agreements and Confidence Building Measures. This paper examines the relations between India and Pakistan since partition, witha special focus on Territorial Disputes, Wars, Agreements, and Confidence-Building Measures.

  32. Anyanwu J.C., Nwafor D.M., Ejiogu C.C., Iwuji M.C., Ulor C.O., Esomonu I., Uche C.C., Uyo C.N., Nmecha M.I., Amaku, G.E., Egbuawa, O.I. and Ugochukwu, P.C.

    An assessment of Physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton diversity in Nkisi River in Anambra State was conducted for a period of eight months from February 2021-September 2021. Water samples were collected from three sampling stations of the river every month in sterilized containers during the course of the study. The study stations are Trans Nkisi (S4), Omaga Phase II (S5), and Ozalla Layout (S6). The samples were analysed for both physicochemical attributes and phytoplankton diversity. Phytoplankton species were determined following standard procedures. A total of twenty three species of phytoplankton were encountered in Nkisi River. Chlorophyceae was the dominant group of phytoplanktons in the river, accounting for 38.3% in Nkisi River. The most abundant phytoplankton species in Nkisi River was Navicula spp accounting for 6.67 %. A total of 127, 144 and 119 phytoplanktons were recorded for Station 1 (S1), Station 2 (S2) and Station 3 (S3) respectively in Nkisi River. 20 phytoplankton species cut across the 3 stations in Nkisi River while none was entirely unique to the 3 stations. Nkisi River recorded high diversity indices value for Chlorophyceae = 2.24 and least value for Cyanophyceae = 1.557. The physico-chemical attributes of the river were investigated by measuring the degree of correlation with the phytoplankton diversity. The phytoplankton diversity of the river correlated positively with physico-chemical parameters. The result revealed a deterioration of water quality of the river due to industrial, commercial and anthropogenic activities. The status of phytoplankton diversity of Nkisi River was low indicating that the river is polluted and that the water chemistry has direct effect on plankton diversity. Cyanophyceae have shown less number of phytoplankton abundance in most of the sites in the river. The discharge of industrial effluents, domestic wastes and other anthropogenic activities has altered the structure of phytoplankton community of the river. There is need for legislation and conservation strategies to restore the water quality and protect the river from further degradation.

  33. Dr. Kiran Dilip Khalangre, Dr. Khan, A. I. and Dr. Suryawanshi, M. V.

    The livestock sector plays a multi-faceted role in the socio-economic development of rural households. Livestock rearing has a significant positive impact on equity in terms of income and employment and poverty reduction in rural areas as the distribution of livestock is more egalitarian as compared to land. In India, over 70 percent of rural households own livestock and a majority of livestock-owning households are small, marginal and landless households. The sheep is an important economic livestock species contributing greatly to the agrarian Indian economy, especially in arid, semi-arid and hilly areas. They play an important role in the livelihood of a large number of small and marginal farmers and landless laborers engaged in sheep rearing. Sheep’s are mostly reared to obtain meat and wool as commercial goods. Sheep skin and wool is used by a number of rural based industries as raw material. Sheep manure is an important source of organic fertilizer for increasing soil fertility. The entire investigation is based on field observation and secondary sources of data obtained from Socio-Economic review and District Statistical Abstract and livestock census hand book. The study concludes that from last a decade number of sheep population is decreased in throughout the district. The distribution of sheep population in Latur district is uneven. The district as a whole has a 100.15 density of sheep per 100-hectare land, but the spatial distribution varies from tehsil to tehsil. During period of investigation district as a whole has a -94.3 negative changes in the density of sheeps. The aim of present paper is to assess growth, distribution and changes in Latur district of Maharashtra (Dr.Kiran Khalangre, 2022).

  34. Prof. Dr. Mrs. P. Genesta Mary Gysel

    Background: The health of the children is the fundamental importance in every country. 0-5 age group of children are vulnerable to get any kind of infection. Under five children are in developing stage and all body system is immature. So they get frequently infected with infections like respiratory tract infection, Otitis Media, Diarrhea, Gastro enteritis etc. Fever is a common presentation of infection. In some children high grade fever can result in convulsions. Objectives: To find out the Pre-Test level of knowledge and to evaluate the effectiveness of video assisted teaching program on the knowledge regarding Febrile seizure among mothers of under five children. Methodology: A Quasi experimental research design with convenience sampling technique was adopted for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean percentage and standard deviation will be used to assess the knowledge regarding management of febrile seizures among the mothers of under five children. chi square test will be used to find out association between the Knowledge scores and practices scores and the selected demographic variables. Result: The result of the study showed that the mean knowledge score in pre-test control group mean was 8.10 and Standard deviation was 2.89 in experimental group mean was 7.26 and standard deviation was 2.98 and in post-test control group mean was 9.63 and standard deviation was 3.47 in experimental group mean was 13.63 and standard deviation was 2.45. So, management of febrile convulsions were significantly greater than their mean pre-test knowledge scores at P<0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: The outcome of our study will be supportive in designing program that will be of assistance in creating awareness about the management of fever for the under five children among the mothers of under five children.

  35. Md. Enamul Haq Hazary and Md. Kabirul Islam Khan

    Indigenous chickens such as non-descriptive deshi, Aseel, Naked Neck, and Hilly are available in Bangladesh. These chickens are the suppliers of protein and minerals and assist to create employment opportunities for rural people and reducing the poverty level. Their production potentialities in terms of meat and eggs are poor. Usually, a hen lays 50 to 90 eggs per year and their live weight varies from 1000 to 1500 g. There is no proper breeding and conservation strategy to increase their production potentialities that is these genotypes are underutilized. However, if a comprehensive conservation and breeding program is undertaken on these underutilized potential chicken genetic resources they could contribute to meet up the country's nutritional demand as well as it will assist to create opportunities for the unemployed rural people.

  36. Chaitra R.K., Harsha, T.S. and Rahman, M.F.

    The present paper was attempted to study the fish diversity in Tungabhadra River at Harihar Taluk, Davanagere District, Karnataka. The study was conducted for a period of three months from December 2022 to February 2023. The investigation was carried out to study the distribution and characteristics of the collected fish species and to determine the water quality parameters in the study area. The results revealed that the presence of 31 fish species belongs to 05 order and 10 families were reported in the study area. The Order Cypriniformes was dominant (14 species) followed by Siluriformes (9 species), Perciformes (6 species), Osteoglossiformes (1 species) and Synbranchiformes (1species).Hence,the study of water quality parameters and fish diversity cautions for proper utilization fisheries, monitoring, conservation and management of natural resources policies of aquatic environments in the region.

  37. Aruna, J. and Prof. Satyaveer Yadav

    Background: Success in teaching depends upon two prime factors -attitude towards profession and job satisfaction. Thus, if the teachers are well-informed, motivated, with a positive attitude and committed to their profession, learning will be enhanced. Teachers’ attitudes towards education of children are often based on practical concerns about how educational policies can be implemented, rather than be grounded in any particular ideology. Objectives: The present piece of research aimed to investigate the attitudes of primary school teachers towards certain strategies implemented under inclusive schools in the State of Telangana. Specifically, it probes into the levels of attitudes towards certain strategies viz, peer-tutoring; Self-instruction; Co-teaching and Direct instruction with special reference to gender, qualifications and experience. Methodology: Asample of 199 (63+136) Regular Teachers as well as Resource Teachers were selected under Inclusive settings in Rangareddy and Hyderabad districts of the State of Telangana, employing simple random sampling technique. A standardized tool related to teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion, developed by Galis and Tanner (1995), was used as a test tool. It lays emphasis on three areas – effective strategies for meeting the needs of all students, the support in their district for educational change, and inclusive education. The test tool consists of 24 statements. Results: It was revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the levels of attitude of Teachers at primary level in using various strategies in Hyderabad and Rangareddy districts of Telangana State with special reference to gender and qualifications On the other hand, a significant difference was found with regard to experience. Conclusion: Strategies used in the inclusive settings not only equipped all Teachers to achieve the international cherished goal of ‘Education For All (EFA). Educational implications along with suggestions for future research was also proposed.

  38. Alwin Anto, Meby Susan Mathew, Milagrin Xavier and Jeffin Thomas

    Background: The surgical ICU’s are the core areas in the hospital where antibiotics are frequently prescribed to treat number of infections. The consequence of irrational antibiotic use can result in drug resistance and associated rise in treatment expenditure. Aim: To study the impact of antibiotic stewardship program on antibiotic use in surgical ICU’s and surgical wards at tertiary care hospital in south India. Methodology: All the patients in surgical ICU’s and surgical wards who were prescribed with WHO watch and reserve antibiotics were included in the study regardless of sex. The data were collected retrospectively from October 2021 to January 2022 (pre-ASP) and prospectively, starting from February 2022 to May 2022 (Post-ASP). The consumption of watch and reserve antibiotics were compared in two time periods and drug use density is expressed as by anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC)/defined daily doses (DDD) and normalized per 100 bed days. Results: From a total of 363 prescriptions, 274 appropriate prescriptions and 89 inappropriate prescriptions were observed. The result shows an increase in appropriate use and also gradual decrease in inappropriate use of targeted antibiotics. An overall -18.46% decrease in antibiotic consumption was observed between the pre-ASP and post-ASP phases measured in DDD/100 bed days for target antibiotics. The consumption of the targeted antibiotics reduced at the end of study. The consumption of vancomycin increased and the consumption of cefixime was reduced significantly (P-value = 0.015). Conclusion: As a conclusion, antibiotic stewardship program in hospital surgical ICU’s are effective in reducing the antibiotic consumption.

  39. Dr. Manjunath,K.M. Dr. Kailash Kothari Dr. Rutvi Mody Dr.Yogita Bhargude andDr. Kunal Chari

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a frequently overlooked complex clinical condition. We are reporting a case of upper extremity radicular pain and motor weakness, mimicking cervical radicular pain due to disc prolapse. The patient failed to respond to the cervical epidural steroid injection. On re-evaluation of signs and symptoms, it was clinically diagnosed as neurogenic TOS and successfully treated with ultrasound-guided scalene muscle block. Clinicians must understand the pathology and types of presentation of TOS and should have a high index of suspicion when evaluating upper limb and shoulder region pain symptoms, as any diagnostic criteria for TOS are yet to be established so that the patients are directed to appropriate timely therapeutic interventions.

  40. Shivam Kumar Pandey and Raman Kanwar Rathore

    Nanotechnology is an innovation that will significantly alter how we create tools and materials in the future. The potential use of nano-sized and -composed building blocks is reshaping the field of material science. Many researchers are investigating nanotechnology and its potential uses, advantages, and outcomes. Nanotechnology has several applications in the maritime industry, which include shipbuilding, submarines, and offshore platforms. Nanoparticles in fuel have been found to cut emissions and fuel consumption in diesel engines. Burnt hydrocarbons and soot are decomposed when these nanoparticles are added to the fuel, leading to increased efficiency. As a whole, nanotechnologies appear to offer enormous potential in fields as varied as pharmaceuticals, water purification, digital networks, and the manufacture of superior, lightweight nanomaterials. The advantages of nanotechnology in maritime settings are no less substantial. This paper focuses on nanotechnology applications in maritime security and also throws light on the initiatives taken by India to enhance maritime security.

  41. Dr. Priya Badkar, Dr. Garima Sinha, Dr. Avinash Kumar, Dr. Shubham Mittal and Ishita Arora

    Leprosy, an infectious chronic granulomatous disease is caused by microorganism, Mycobacterium leprae which is an acid fast bacilli. In Lepromatous leprosy, cutaneous symptoms are more common than nervous symptoms. Eyes, bones, testes, nose and kidneys may be simultaneously affected. The nasal mucosa is affected in almost 95% of the patients. Macules, papules, plaques or modules are the cutaneous lesions in Lepromatous leprosy. Leprosy affects all age groups with no sex predilection. We are reporting a case of lepromatous leprosy with predominant nasal symptoms and nodular lesions over pinna.

  42. Zheng, Jie and Gatbonton, Ryan Ray

    The rapid development and integration of technology into teaching has prompted many innovations in the learning milieu, and one of which is the use of the smart classroom method. This correlational research assessed the perception of 198 college students on the implementation of smart classroom and their academic motivation. The survey tools used were Smart Classroom Evaluation Questionnaire (SCEQ) and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), and the results there is full implementation of smart classroom in terms of presentation (x ̅ = 3.75), environment (x ̅ = 3.73), enhancement (x ̅ = 3.68), and management (x ̅ = 3.61). There is a moderate implementation on resources (x ̅ = 3.08) as perceived by the students. Academic motivation were perceived to be high in extrinsic motivation – identified (x ̅ = 5.09), intrinsic motivation to know (x ̅ = 5.03), extrinsic motivation to – external regulation (x ̅ = 5.01), and moderate motivation in areas of intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation (x ̅ = 4.97), extrinsic motivation – introjected (x ̅ = 4.92), intrinsic motivation towards accomplishment (x ̅ = 4.91), and amotivation (x ̅ = 3.32). Correlating the data in terms of the smart classroom implementation yielded a non significant, negligible, negative correlation (r = -0.02, p = 0.78). Based the findings of the study, it can be concluded that smart classroom implementation has to be implemented extensively to help improve academic motivation. Digital learning was developed to address the discrepancies that were uncovered in this research.

  43. Yang, Zhihua and Gatbonton, Ryan Ray

    Meishan martial arts is a traditional sports culture with distinct national and regional characteristics, and itis an important part of Meishanculture. This grounded theoretical research attempts to systematically alleviate the inheritance crisis of Meishan martial arts and meet the national demand for rural culture construction under the background of rural revitalization strategy. Eight key insiders were specially selected and asked to share their experiences in the inheritance of martial arts in Meishan and the development of rural education. In-depth interviews were conducted to ensure that a rich narrative will emerge. Member checks and expert audits of interview transcripts and interpretations were also conducted to ensure the credibility of the data. Three themes were ultimately drawn: the inheritance of Meishan martial arts mainly involves the technical system, the theoretical system and the inheritance system. The three are interrelated and mutually based, and none is indispensable. Consistent with academic literature, the difficulties Meishan martial arts has encountered in the modern context can be attributed to the themes identified. This study providesa reference experience for the inheritance and development of traditional sports culture in rural society. It constructs the rural education inheritance system of Meishan martial arts and carries on the demonstration through educational action research.

  44. Kassoum YAMBA and Oumar SANOGO

    This study reports on the nuclear event timing using Rb-88/Kr-88 isotopic activity ratio. The assessment of the zero time of a radioactive release is sometime a challenge in nuclear nonproliferation study. For a non-steady nuclear fission reaction, the dating is not possible. For the hypothesis of a nuclear explosion and for a release from a steady state nuclear fission reaction the zero-times will differ. Krypton 88 and Rubidium 88 are two radionuclide with parent-daughter relationship that is usable for a very fresh radioactive release.This study proposes some constants that can be used directly for the calculation of zero time and its upper and lower age limits. The assessment is accurate because of the calculation of zero time using a mathematical method, namely the weighted least-squares method, to evaluate an average value of the age of a nuclear event. This was done using two databases that exhibit differences between the values of some nuclear parameters, JENDL 2010 and TENDL 2011.

  45. Dr. Ashish Kumar Dwivedy and Dr. Pradeep Kumar Sahu

    The Internet as a place for worship or for inter-faith exchanges has rarely been explored. Most studies in this field have focused on analyzing the experiences of specific religious groups. There has thus, been little attempt to study the prevalence of interfaith exchanges among Internet users. This is despite the versatility shown by the Internet in promoting intercultural exchanges, since its inception. The present paper, while briefly tracing previous research on the evolution of the Internet as a spiritual place, specifically aims at exploring the potential of this medium in encouraging inter-faith exchanges. Focus group discussions of Indian Internet users provided insights about the latters’ quest for religion online as well as their interpretation of the interfaith text.

  46. Dr. Vijayakumar S. Kulambi, Dr. Prathik, R. and Dr. Chacko Cheeran, J.

    Introduction: Tibial diaphyseal fracture is one of the most common long bone fracture seen and distal 1/3rd accounts for about 20-30% of them There are high chance of malunions, delayed union, ankle stiffness due to prolonged immobilization ,valgus or varus deformity of tibia. The most common injury associated with tibial diaphyseal injury is that of same side fibular fracture Injury to fibula may occur in about 80% of these patients and fibula fracture occurs either at the same level or at a different level and sometimes segmental too In distal both bone leg fractures , there is disruption of the tibiofibular syndesmosis and interrosseus membrane. A study on fixation of fibula is done to find out the effect on reduction of the tibia fracture and restoration of stability. Thus it becomes important to study the outcome of fixation of fibula along with tibia fixation. Materials and Methods: Data will be collected from patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, attending either OPD or inpatient of Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to JJM Medical college, Davanagere. The study will include patients with distal both bone fracture of leg seen as both out-patient and in-patient fulfilling the inclusion criteria. The patients are assessed both clinically and radiologically. Other associated injuries are noted. The patients undergoing fixation of fibula by closed reduction and TENS nailing or rush nailing in addition to tibia fixed with intramedullary interlocking nail or distal tibial plating. And are reviewed post operatively, at 6wks, 3 months, and 6 months radiologically and 1 year clinically. Results: This study consist of 30 cases of distal both bone leg fractures with fibula by closed reduction and TENS nailing or rush nailing in addition to tibia fixed with intramedullary interlocking nail or distal tibial plating..For 17 (56.7%) recovery was excellent, for 9 (30%) recovery was god, and for 4 (13.3%) recovery was fair.19 patients(63.33%) had 0-degree of deformity and 2 (6.7%) had 1-degree varus deformity.5(16.7%) had 1 degrees valgus , 4(13.3%) had 2-degree valgus deformity. Conclusion: Treatment of distal third both bone leg fractures by fixation of fibula by closed tens/rush nailing followed by tibia, nailing/plating is useful in anatomical reduction of tibia & reduced malalignment of tibia with good ankle functions. Further Randomized control studies are needed to assess the long term functional outcome in these patients.

  47. Dilip Kr. Goswami

    When thought about the novel gifts of mother nature the name of “water” comes to our mind with air. No creature in the creation can think life without water. Even the non living objects like soil, stone etc. cannot continue their integrity without water. Hence, the nature has made a system to gift the whole creation with water in different forms. In some places it is made available as rain whereas in some places in other form like ice etc. The heap of ice, in due course converts into water which is used by the users collecting from different sources. Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita, Ashtanga Sangraha/Ashtanga Hridaya are combinely designated as “Vrihattrayee” of Ayurveda which means “THE BIG THREE”. These three books (Samhita) are containing almost all informations about health prevailed at that time. Charaka was the founder of medicine (Kayachikitsa), Susruta of Surgery (Shalyatantra) whereas Bagbhata is considered as a scholar who gathered knowledge from Charaka Samhita and Susruta Smhita, practised their concepts, did observation and wrote two books Ashtanga Hridaya and Ashtanga Sangraha. As per available concept Charaka can be considered as of 3000 years B.C., Susruta of 2000 B.C. and Bagbhata of 6th century A.D. Charaka and Susruta, in addition to their specialized works on medicine and surgery, also did research on other topics which is reflected in their Samhitas. Water is also such a substance that is vividly discussed by the two authors with priority. Following their path Bagbhata has also did extensive study on the natural elements like water and documented his experience in Ashtanga Hridaya/Ashtanga Sangraha. With an aim to avoid unexpected length of the article a discussion on water as per Bagbhata as described in Ashtanga Hridaya is taken as the content of this article which is expected to be informative about the concepts of our ancestors on water.

  48. Sasikumar, G., CH. Gowtham, SD. Faisal I., K. Mukesh, V. Varun Kumar, and P. Kumar Babu

    The main purpose of this document is to explore how global research on electric bicycles is being conducted and to identify the main trends in the field. The study is based on an analysis of journals related to the topic of electric bicycles in the Scopus catalogue up to the year 2017. The keyword analysis reveals that the main focus of research is on the electrical aspect of electric bicycles, followed by battery and motor-related topics. The study also identifies six main areas of research related to electric bicycles, namely transportation environment, electrical engineering, safety, batteries, sporting goods-urban planning, and mechanical engineering.

  49. Abhinav Gandra and Narasimha Rao, S.

    Background: The first week of postnatal life is characterized typically by weight loss in neonates, which occurs due to loss of ECF. When there is increased production of breast milk, the neonates begin to gain weight. Alteration in the weight trend can lead to potential complications. Inadequate oral intake causes weight loss and increases the bilirubin enterohepatic circulation. Objective: To determine association between Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal weight loss. Study design and study period: A prospective observational study from January 2021 to march 2022. Results: Eighty four neonates were enrolled during the study period of which 52 were males and 32 were females, 10 neonates were SGA, 70 were AGA. Thirty one neonates were born to primi mother and 53 neonates were born to multigravida mothers and 35 (41.7%) neonates discharged on exclusive breastfeeding, 49 (58.3%) on mixed feeding. Maximum weight loss occurred by day 6.Twenty nine neonates had weight loss ≥ 7%, 12neonates had weight loss ≥10%. 8 (9.5%) neonates were readmitted after birth hospitalization due to hyperbilirubinemia. The frequency of readmission for hyperbilirubinemia was significantly higher for neonates with excessive weight loss (75% vs. 25%). Conclusions: Greater than 10% weight loss may be considered as Excessive weight loss as there is more risk of neonatal jaundice and readmission. Excess weight loss could be a useful parameter for identification of neonates at risk for readmission due to Hyperbilirubinemia. It may be useful in settings where routine predischarge TSB is not yet implemented.

  50. R.L. Meena, Vikas Bhardwaj, Anuj Goyal, Manju Sharma and Ayush Agarwal

    Introduction: CAD is a chronic process that begins during adolescence and slowly progresses throughout life. Since the underlying etiology of CHD is multifactorial, it is therefore, unlikely that a single biomarker will provide accurate information for CAD occurrence. Hence, the present study is on simultaneous measurement of several lipid biomarkers and calculation of lipid tetrad index (LTI). This index eliminates the need for numerous ratios and cutoff points that are confusing and frustrating for the clinicians. The LTI is derived by multiplying three lipids which are directly associated with CAD and dividing the product by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) which is inversely associated with CAD. Material and Methods: THIS hospital based prospective case control study was conducted in wards and ICU of department of medicine and cardiology of M. B. Govt. Hospital, Udaipur from June, 2021 to June, 2022 over a period of 1 year. 120 patients from wards or ICU with ACS were selected based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria and 120 normal subjects were taken from relatives of patients and healthy volunteers. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and sent for lipid profile and lipoprotein (a) estimation and Lipid Tetrad Index was calculated. Qualitative data collected were entered in Microsoft excel software and analyzed using SPSS, version 21 for Windows statistical software package. Result: In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups. 65 percent were males, and 35% were females in both control and study groups. The mean HDL (36.48 vs 40.32) is lower in study group compared to control group which is significant. The mean plasma Lp(a) is greater in study group compared to the control group (37.70 vs 24.13 mg/dl ). LTI values in study group are greater compared to control group for their respective age distribution and are statistically significant (24423.60 vs 11807.43). The mean plasma TC, TGL, LDL are greater in study group compared to the control group. Conclusion: Thus in our study it is concluded that there is a highly significant positive correlation between the LTI and Lp(a) levels. There is statistically significant negative correlation between LTI and the HDL. Thus, the effect of various lipid parameters as well as Lp-a on the atherogenicity is not additive but multiplicative which is well demonstrated by the lipid tetrad index

  51. Ms. Kumerjit Chajgotra

    The revolutionary idea of independence influenced women and men of our country equally. The idea of independence from Britisher was communicated to masses across country through different means of communication as speeches, vernacular newspapers, posters, photographs, rallies, meetings etc. Underground radio or congress radio is one of the medium used and which became a part of Indian freedom struggle history. Usha Mehta was the women freedom fighter, one of the core members of Underground radio which was part of the quit India movement in 1942. Present study is an historical account of role Usha Mehta played during the Quit Indian Movement, her moment of reckoning came in 1942 during the Quit India Movement when she rose to occasion, unfurled the National Flag in Bombay to signify the commencement of the Quit India Movement. The researcher has adopted Secondary data for the present study. To understand role of Usha Mehta and Homai Vyarawalla India's photojournalist contribution in raising awareness about freedom struggles, during ]struggle for independence, Communicating the news among workers, students to unite the countrymen, clicking the photographs to capture crucial moments. The present study is based on freedom fighter Usha Mehta and Homai Vyarawalla their role, through the use of media in India.

  52. Dra. Yarenis Perez Arias and Dr. Pedro Rolando López Rodríguez

    Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common health problem worldwide and one of the emergencies determining a huge number of admissions into general surgery services in our scenario, it is therefore of great clinical and sanitary importance. Objective: To determine the usefulness of the modified Rockall and Baylor scores in predicting rebleeding in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Method: A prospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out, including patients admitted for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to peptic ulcer in Enrique Cabrera, from January 1st, 2018 to december 31, 2022. Results: Among the 300 patients admitted for upper digestive hemorrhage due to peptic ulcer, we took a sample of 71 patients. All patients were performed endoscopic treatment, while 8.4% were performed surgical treatment. Nine patients presented with rebleeding (12.7%). The modified Rockall and Baylor scores showed a specificity of 82% and 86%, respectively, with low sensitivity in both cases. Despite this, the Rockall score is the one with the highest sensitivity. Conclusions: The two score were highly specific, but the Rockall score was more sensitive for identifying patients at high risk of rebleeding.

  53. Meghna Tiwari, Neha Khatik and Kalpana Yadav

    Background: Vaginitis is one of the most common ambulatory problems to occur in women of reproductive age group. It is responsible for 5-10 million office visits per year throughout world. In India prevalence of vaginitis is approximately 30%. Vaginitis has substantial impact on female reproductive health, mental health, work ability and routine physical activity and is also associated with various obstetrical and gynecological complications. Bacterial vaginosis is most common form of vaginitis. So, we aim to find out prevalence and analyze risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis at tertiary care hospital in Rewa, Madhya Pradesh India. Method: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shyam Shah Medical College Rewa for 18 months from January 2021 to June 2022 on 1000 women of reproductive age group, visiting routine Gynae OPD of department of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Results: Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in present study was found to be 22%. Various associated risk factors were use of cloth during menses, douching/cleanliness habit, rural area of residence and various occupations like factory workers and farmers. Conclusion: As it is evident that vaginitis will never be completely prevented, but incidence can be reduced. Much of the morbidity and complications can be reduced by identification and prevention of modifiable risk factors and interventional strategies directed mainly on high-risk behaviors in day-to-day life.

  54. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Cowpeabelongs to the family Fabaceae/Leguminosae (Pea family), genus Vigna and the spesies Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) (2n= 2x = 22) is a member of the Phaseoleae tribe of the Legumi- nosae family. Members of the Phaseoleae include many of the economically important warm season grain and oilseed legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and mungbean (Vigna radiata). The name cowpea probably originated from the fact that the plant was an important source of hay for cows in the southeastern United States and in other parts of the world. Some important local names for cowpea around the world include “niebe,” “wake,” and “ewa” in much of West Africa and “caupi” in Brazil. In the United States, other names used to describe cowpeas include “southernpeas,” “blackeyed peas,” “field peas,” “pinkeyes,” and “crowders.” These names reflect traditional seed and market classes that developed over time in the southern United States. The first written reference of the word 'cowpea' appeared in 1798 in the United States. The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. Cowpea is also known as bachapin bean, southern pea, black eyed cowpea, black eyed dolichos, poona pea, black-eyed pea, rope bean, black-eyed bean, red pea, china bean, marble pea, common cowpea, macassar bean, cowgram, cowpea, kafir bean, cultivated african cowpea, crowder bean, field pea, horse bean, yard long bean, asparagus bean and crowder pea. Name in Indian Languages are in Bengali: Ghangra; Hindi: Chauli, Kulath; Kannada: Alasabde, Alasande; Malayalam: Perumpayar; Marathi: Chavali, Alasunda; Sanskrit: Rajamasah, Mahamasah; Tamil: Kaattu Ulundu, Thattapayir; Telugu: Kaaraamanulu, Alasandalu. Black-eyed peas, a common name for a cowpea cultivar, are named due to the presence of a distinctive black spot on their hilum. There are 7 varieties of cowpea which are named as black eye or purple eye peas, brown eye peas, crowder peas, cream, white acre type, clay types and forage cultivars. Cowpea is an important food and fodder legume cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics covering 65 countries in Asia and Oceania, the Middle East, Southern Europe, Africa, southern USA and Central and South America. In spite of its importance and wide cultivation, the overall productivity of cowpea is very low with average yield particularly in Africa ranging from 100 to 400 kg/ha. This is due to several biotic, abiotic and physiological constraints. Vegetable cowpea popularly known as Yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis) is an important leguminous vegetable crop of South India. Vegetable cowpea is an important vegetable grown as intercrop in different cropping systems. Vegetable cowpea or Yard long bean is a warm season leguminous crops grown especially for vegetable purpose along the west coast of India. In Goa, pole type varieties are preferred over bushy types as they offer multiple harvests with comparatively longer pods. There is wide variability found for different morphological and other traits in the local types cultivated in the state of Goa. Exploration of genetic variability in the available germplasm is a prerequisite for initiation of any successful breeding program. It is grown all over India, more particularly in the central and Peninsular regions. Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan are the principle states of cowpea cultivation. The major cowpea growing countries are Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Tanzania (all in Africa) and India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Bangladesh, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and others. In India, the estimated area is about 50,000 hectares. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Cowpea are discussed.

  55. Dr. Aditi Acharya

    Background: The research underlying this paper intended to identify the drivers of product satisfaction of Indian customers towards six hair oil brands that they purchased from the Amazon website. The study was based on customer feedback posted on the site in the form of product ratings and reviews. Methods: A comparison of customer reviews was done using the word cloud approach to identify key themes of feedback and drivers behind the high or low ratings. The analysis was augmented by comparing the distribution and trends of star ratings across products. Results: On the whole, customer feedback on the purchase, usage and experience of the product was found to have received positive traction for every brand. Perception towards the product’s composition and customer experience emerged to be the two crucial factors that influenced the nature of reviews- pure/natural ingredients and good usage experience were emphasized in positive reviews, while adulteration and hair fall problem featured more in the negative ones. Conclusion: Insights drawn from specific themes highlighted in product reviews (of their own product and those of their competitors) can help each brand to make necessary modifications in their marketing strategies.

  56. Pramod Chand Lakra, Obaidullah Ehrar, Anshuman Das and Swayam Mallick

    The Himalayas is known for its beauty and being abode of the natural resources. Thysanolaena maxima is one of the major non-timber forest products of these districts and naturally grows in the hilly lands as undergrowth. It also has medicinal value, with a decoction of the roots used as a mouthwash during fever and the dried paste of fresh roots is applied on the skin to check boils. The Darjeeling and Kalimpong hill area is formed of comparatively recent rock structure that has a direct bearing on landslides. As climate change advances and temperatures increase however, the restoration of the ecological corridor will become more important as plant and animal species migrate uphill to cooler places.

  57. Dr. Priya Badkar, Dr. Garima Sinha, Dr. Avinash Kumar, Dr. Ramesh Kumar Yalla and Anubhav Chauhan

    Tubercular otitis media with aural polyp is a rare entity, a rare manifestation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Also it is diagnosed late because its signs and symptoms are no different from the more common non tubercular otitis media conditions. We present a 14 year old female who came with complaints of ear discharge and hearing loss in the left ear since 6 months. She was initially managed conservatively in the lines of management of chronic suppurative otitis media. Then she was posted for mastoidectomy and only when the discharge, secretions and aural polyp was sent for histopathological analysis, was the diagnosis of Tuberculous otitis media made.

  58. K.R.M. Swamy

    Phaseolus spp. beans are valued grain legumes or pulse crops of worldwide importance in terms of human and animal consumption. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important Phaseolus spp. worldwide, while the runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is the third, right after lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). P. vulgaris beans come in an enormous variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, from pinto to pink to black to white. Despite this diversity, wild and domestic beans belong to the same species, as do all of the colorful varieties ("landraces") of beans. The main difference between wild and cultivated beans is, well, domestic beans are less exciting. There is a significant increase in seed weight, and the seed pods are less likely to shatter than wild forms: but the primary change is a decrease in the variability of grain size, seed coat thickness and water intake during cooking. Domestic plants are also annuals rather than perennials, a selected trait for reliability. Despite their colorful variety, the domestic bean is much more predictable. Common Names for Common bean are bean, French bean, haricot bean, salad bean, snap bean, string bean, kidney bean, runner bean, scarlet runner bean, multiflora bean, butter bean, garden bean, green bean, bush bean, navy bean, pole bean, flageolet bean, Anasazi beans, black beans, northern beans, pinto beans, Cannellini beans, scarlet bean, Judión or Spanish bean. Some varieties of the common bean are grown only for the dry seeds, some only for the edible immature pods, and others for the seeds, either immature or mature. Varieties differ greatly in size, shape, colour, and fibrousness or tenderness of the immature pods. In general, varieties grown for dry mature seeds produce pods that are too fibrous to be eaten at any state of development. The Mesoamerican region is considered the center of origin and diversification of beans (Phaseolus spp), cultivated and wild. Two main gene pools, Mesoamerican and Andean associated with these two geographical areas, have been described in wild and cultivated common beans. Genetic diversity or variation between different populations belonging to the same genus resulted from the evolution of crops through the history, in response to different environments and husbandry practices (Fowler, 2008). Genetic diversity of runner bean has been less extensively investigated. The largest set of European landraces, more than 300, was evaluated by cpSSRs and a smaller set was studied also for phenotypic traits. Green beans are classified by growth habit into two major groups, "bush" (or "dwarf") beans and "pole" (or "climbing") beans. All beans are ecologically beneficial as they form a symbiotic relationship between nodules on their roots and nitrogen fixing bacteria called rhizobia. This bacteria adds much needed nitrogen back into soil profiles. Beans also form another symbiotic relationship in their roots with mycorrhizal fungi. The mycorrhizal fungi gain carbon from the host plant and in turn they increase the root surface area allowing for better uptake of water and nutrients, especially slow moving phosphorus. Recently the role of bean in human diet is being focused not only in its protein content but in the functional properties also and some authors have reported that its consumption could contribute to reduce risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and colon, prostate and breast cancer. These health benefits could be due to the fiber content in the grain but also to antoxidant compounds as the phenolic ones. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of beans are discussed.

  59. Dr Pooja Yadav, Dr Vivek Arora and Dr Shivani Sharma

    Objective: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is a useful method of respiratory support after extubation. However, some infants fail despite CPAP use and require reintubation. Recent evidence shows that synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) may decrease extubation failure in preterm infants. Our aim was to evaluate whether NIPPV decreases extubation failure compared with CPAP in preterm with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) post extubation. Methods: Infants who were less than 37 weeks gestation ageor less than 1.8kg and who were mechanically ventilated for RDS in the first 7 days were extubated to either NIPPV or NCPAP afterextubation. The criteria for extubation were peak inspiratory pressure of ≤16 cm H2O, positive end expiratory pressure of ≤5 cm H2O, intermittent mandatory ventilation rate of 15 to 25, and fraction of inspired oxygen ≤0.30.Primary outcome was extubation failure and need for reintubation. Secondary outcomes included mean duration of non-invasive ventilation and mechanical ventilation after extubation, duration of hospital stay and mortality. Results: Seventeen (31.4%) of 54 infants required reintubation with the use of NIPPV versus 20(36.3%) of 55infants,with the use of CPAP (P=0.54). Themean duration of mechanical ventilation in NIPPV group was 1.63 days which was less than mean duration of mechanical ventilation of 1.96 days in CPAP group but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.147). Similarly mean duration of non-invasive ventilation in NIPPV group was 3.01 days which was less than mean duration of non-invasive ventilation of 3.01 days in CPAP group but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.081) . Six (11.1%) out of 54 patients in NIPPV died compared to 8 (14.54%) patients in CPAP group (p=0.58). There was no significant difference in duration of hospital stay (14.19 days in NIPPV group vs 14.96 days in CPAP group ; p=0.58). Conclusions: NIPPV did not decrease the rates of extubation failure after mechanical ventilation in preterm babies with RDS compared with NCPAP.

  60. Bassirima Traoré, Samba Sidibé, Souleymane Mariko,Karamoko Kantako, Mariam Sako, Massama Konaté, Nouhoum Diallo, Kalifa Diallo, Akoro Dolo, Seydou Sogoba,Lahaou Touré, Abdel Karim Djimdé, Abdoulaye Waissoun, S. Coulibaly, I. Menta and Abdel Karim Djimde

    Introduction: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a common condition the diagnosis of which is difficult because it predominates in elderly subjects with other pathologies. Objective: To describe the epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic aspects of this condition in the medical department of Tombouctou hospital in Mali. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out over 24 months and relating to the analysis of 61 files of patients hospitalized for clinical heart failure with isolated diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle on cardiac echodoppler. Results: The study involved sixty-one patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle with preserved ejection fraction out of 266 cases of heart failure, i.e. a prevalence of 23%. The average age was 52.6 ± 18.8 years with extremes of 18 and 90 years. There was a female predominance with a sex ratio of 1.2. Cardiovascular risk factors were dominated by arterial hypertension (52.5%), tobacco (21.3%) and obesity (9.8%). The electrocardiogram showed complete arrhythmia by atrial fibrillation with 34.4% frequency and left ventricular hypertrophy with 14.8% frequency. Transthoracic cardiac echo-Doppler revealed left ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation of the left atrium in (13%) and (75.4%) of the patients, respectively. Mitral flow was restrictive, pseudo-normal, or of the relaxation type disorder in 25 (41%), 18 (29.5%) and 18 (29.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusion: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a condition increasingly encountered in daily practice in Africa. It is characterized in our context by the precocity of its occurrence in subjects with a long history of unbalanced arterial hypertension and chronic stress.

  61. Mahesh Dave, Anuj Goyal, Ram Gopal Saini, Gaurav Dave, Avinash Sharma, Yash Shah and Ravi Manglani

    Introduction: Hypertension is defined as any one of the following Systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and Diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg. Hypertension is a rapidly growing pandemic. It is no Longer restricted to older adults as more young patients are being diagnosed with hypertension. Hypertension among young people is common, affecting 1 in 8 adults aged between 20 and 40 years. Aims and Objectives: To study the demographic profile, clinical presentation and the various etiological factors in young hypertensive patients. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out in 200 young hypertensive patients with age <40 years in MBGH Hospital and RNT Medical College, Udaipur over a period of 12 months. Result: Majority of the patients 100 (50%) were in the age group 36-40 years. Males outnumbered females with M:F ratio of 1.8:1. Maximum incidence of hypertension was found in 89 (44.5%) farmers. Incidence of hypertension was almost equal in literate 101(50.5%) and illiterate 99(49.5%).Incidence of hypertension was more common in rural area 113(56.5%). Hypertension was more common 120(60%) among middle class socioeconomic status. Comorbidity was present in 122(61%) patients. The most common comorbidity was CKD54 (69.2%). Majority of the patients had BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m2, i.e. normal weight. Maximum cases 105(52.5%) presented with ghabrahat, followed by vomiting 89(44.5%). 114(57%) were found to have a secondary cause of hypertension. Amongst the secondary causes of hypertension, the leading cause 86(75.4%) was renal parenchymal disease. Conclusion: Demographic profile, aetiology and clinical features vary considerably in young hypertensive patients as compared to older age groups. In our study, we found that hypertension was more common in males and secondary hypertension was more common than primary hypertension. Hence, it can reasonably be concluded that screening for hypertension among young individuals should be carried out frequently and search for the secondary cause should be done thoroughly before labeling it as primary hypertension.





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