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November 2022

  1. Panchabagesan, P., Dr. Prabhahar, C., Dhanasekaran, D., Dr. Manimegalai, G., Dr. Saleshrani K. and Dr. Sivakumar, D.

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control.The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. In this article, the larvicidal activity of Calotropis gigantea leaf extract were studied in laboratory on the concentration of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 against 3 to 4 days ld unfed Aedes aegypti in a dial cycle from 7 am to 5 pm. This study reveals that the extract of C.gigantea has remarkable larvicidal as well as repellent properties. The flora of India has rich aromatic plant diversity with potential for development of natural insecticides for control of mosquito and other pests. These results could encourage the search for new active natural compounds offering an alternative to synthetic repellents and insecticides from other medicinal plants.

  2. Amr Sukkar and Mvula Mc Gerald Mvula

    Purpose: The core aim of this study was to comprehend understand lean supply chain performance measurements in the manufacturing industry. Design/methodology/approach: This was a quantitative descriptive design involving Zambia’s Manufacturing industry in this study. A homogenous survey form was employed. The study used a quantitative study, with a sample size of 100 workers, and 81 workers who responded favorably to the self-administrative survey. Conclusion: Customer delivery lead time matter the most for gauging the effectiveness of a lean supply chain. Supplier delivery lead time came second on the hierarchy of lean supply chain performance metrics with an average value of 4.77 and a standard deviation of 0.902. Attending to customer complaints by an organization is very important where lean supply chain performance is concerned. That being stated, Customer complaints accounted 4.51 average with standards deviation of 1.029 as a lean supply chain performance metrics. The percentage of standardized processes, Cost of energy, Total inventory and On-time delivery by suppliers all accounted for 4.28, 4.09, 4.46 and 3.97 mean values as lean supply chain performance metrics. The study further found that there are four categories of lean supply chain performance measures. These are Quality accounting for 30%, Cost accounted for 30%, Delivery and Reliability (D&R) which represented 25% and flexibility which accounted for 15% of the total four categories

  3. Xu Yihan

    The development of Chinese animation in recent years has always been characterised by a lack of speed and quality. New works are forever shrouded under a glorious history of struggle. However, it would be unfair to criticise animation in recent years without understanding the art of animation and the difference between art films and commercial films. This article takes Monkey King: Hero is Back as the subject of study, and on the basis of an analysis of the film's strides in the various components of the animation process from the perspective of commercial animation, explores the achievements and shortcomings of Chinese animation by comparing the differences between commercial and artistic animation. Chinese animation has gone through the trials and tribulations of history and will rise in the future. The accumulation of technical concepts and the strength of the momentum will play an important role.

  4. Osama H. Khalid, Abdu A. Dahlan, Yahya Msalamani, Yehya Hejri, Salem Alsahhari, Mohamed Yaseen, Nariman Alraih, Fuad Riany and Makki Khormi

    Background: The future of covid-19 in the community can be placed under assumptions and predictions. The first assumption is that the virus will be mutating at a constant interval and each new mutation will be severe and result in a high mortality rate. The technology will allow the production of vaccines almost immediately and efficiently. Another assumption is that the new variant will be overcome with existing vaccines. For instance, the case of the new delta variant of COVID-19 has put forward a new problem because it cannot be mitigated with available vaccines. Methodology: Based on a comprehensive secondary dataset taken from the infectious disease and prevention department of health affairs in the Jazan region of the Kingdom. The time frame was selected from March 2020 to March 2022. This study aimed to determine the difference between the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pandemic waves of COVID-19 and detect the dominant variant in each wave of COVID- 19, and correlate the rising transmission rates as well as the infectivity of the disease among index cases in addition to their close contacts. We reviewed a covid-19 variant in every epidemic wave with its positive rate, mortality rate with percentage and actual figures, transmissibility between persons, and the infective cases of COVID-19. Results: 514 main patients and their close connections were assessed in the research, and the term was chosen from March 2020 to December 2021. Data from January 2020 was also collected to enhance a recent poll. The prevalent variation in the first wave was discovered to be a type-A variant, the positivity rate was 29 percent , and the case fatality rate was 1.5 percent per cent of the entire. In the 2nd wave, the positive rate was 24 percent , while the case fatality rate was 0.9 percent. Moreover, the delta variation was the most prevalent, and Omicron dominated the 3rd wave with the greatest positive rate compared to other variants, which was 39 percent. Bearing in mind that the case fatality rate was lowest in the 3rd wave compared to previous waves (0.1 percent). (0.1 percent ). Nearly 72.8 percent of patients were impacted by the Delta variant, 16.2 percent were affected by the Alpha variant, and 2.8 percent were afflicted owing to N50IT. The vaccine was categorised based on significant and mild side effects with vaccination frequency, requirement for medical help, timeframe following side-effects encountered, medicaments, and therapy required. The Delta variation holds first position with a total percentage of 72.8 percent , although 81.9 percent of the male was impacted by the Delta variant; compared with a female, the male gender was affected more by the Delta variant. Conclusion: The preventive measure against COVID-19 developed by the Saudi Arabia region was not implemented in the Jazan region was conformed to the above statistics 10.3% of infection spread rate through close contact. In the 2nd wave, the positivity rate was 24%, while the case fatality rate was 0.9%. Moreover, the delta COVID variant was the most prominent variant, whereas Omicron dominated the 3rd wave with the highest positivity rate relative to other variants (39%). Bearing in mind that the case fatality rate was lowest in the 3rd wave compared to other waves (0.1%). The age group (15 up to 49 years) was the most vulnerable to COVID-19transmission. Further study is recommended.

  5. Dr. Pavan Tryambake, Dr. Shivdas Mhavarkar, Dr. Baljeet Kaur Rawal and Dr. Kishor Vhorkate

    Introduction: The bond strength of root canal sealer is the amount of force required to break the connection between a bonded sealer and the root dentin surface. Now a day’s synthetic irrigants are only used as root canal irrigants but they cause harm to root-dentin surrounding soft tissue and adjacent bone. To reduce these factors ayurvedic medicine takes part in innovation. Though the perception is incorrect, on balance herbal medicines are still much safer than synthetic drugs. Aim: To compare the Push-out bond strength of different endodontic sealers using ayurvedic intracanal irrigants. Methodology: Sixty single-rooted permanent upper anterior teeth were selected. All teeth were decoronated at the level of CEJ. Root length was specified at 15mm. All teeth were prepared with universal Protaper until F3 according to manufacturer instruction. All samples were randomly divided according to the different irrigants and sealers used. Group I: Kutkrumin + Perma evolution; Group II: Kutkrumin + Apexit plus; Group III: Chlorhexidine 2% + Perma evolution; Group IV: Chlorhexidine 2% + Apexit plus; Group V: Sodium hypo chloride 5.25% + Perma evolution; Group VI: Sodium hypo chloride 5.25% + Apexit plus. All samples were finally irrigated with normal saline. Then sealers were applied using lentulospiral. Samples were sectioned into 2 mm disc thickness. By using a universal testing machine push-out bond strength was performed. Results and Statistical Analysis: According to one-way ANOVA with a level of confidence of 95%, Kutkrumin and Chlorhexidine with Perma evolution as a sealer showed the highest bond strength values (p <0.005) when compared with other groups whereas, chlorhexidine with apexit plus sealer had the most minor bond strength among other groups. Kutkrumin and sodium hypochlorite with apexit plus sealer showed equivalent bond strength this was presented by intergroup analysis post hoc Tukey test. Adhesive failures were predominant in all groups. Conclusion: Kutkrumin with Perma evolution as a resin-based sealer showed better outcomes when compared with chemical irrigants like sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine.

  6. Shakuntla Bharti and Ram P.Yadav

    Malathion one of the earliest organophosphate insecticides is being extensively used as dust, emulsion, and vapour to control a wide variety of insect pests under different condition. Malathion, one of the most extensively studied pesticides, may induce many significant changes in fishes. The malathion has shown strong piscicidal activity in freshwater fish Colisa fasciatus and Mystus mystus for all the exposure periods (24 or 96h) in time as well as dose dependent manner. The LC₅₀ values decreases from 0.096 (24h) to 0.076 (96h) in a winter season (water temp.19⁰) and 0.085(24h) to 0.051 (96h) in a summer season (water temp. 20⁰c) against freshwater fish Colisa fasciatus and LC₅₀ values decreases from 0.073 (24h) to 0.047 (96h) in a winter season (water temp.19⁰) and 0.095 (24h) to 0.063 (96h) in a summer season (water temp. 20⁰c) against freshwater fish Mystus mystus. The aim of the present study the toxicological action of malathion on freshwater predatory fishes. The Pesticide exposure may also fatal to many non- target organisms like fish where it hampers its health through impairment of metabolism, occasionally leading to the death of the fish.

  7. Gaurdas Sarkar

    Indian parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance in India where the Head of the state appoints the leader of the political party holding a plurality of seats in parliament as Prime Minister and he then forms the union council of ministers. This is purely a representative form of democracy and it has been adopted in India by the Constituent Assembly in 1950. This present paper seeks to analyze the economic costs of parliamentary democracy in India. While we are going to analyze economic costs of any form of governance we should first concentrate on the mode of production allowed in the state and subsequently concentrate on the procedure by which this mode of production is being reshaped in the state. Mode of production refers to the forces of production and their interrelationship. Major criticisms labeled against democracy are: (i) There exists no free choice of leadership due to party system involved in democracy (ii) There exists party politics and power struggle among parties(iii) Decision making takes time and (iv) Democracy is regarded as governance of illiterates. Apart from those theoretical criticisms labeled against democracy more strikingly we note that in a representative form of democracy there does not exist any justified desired correspondence between elected representative and his/her electors. Instead we find power monger politicians to appear before election and change of representative through exercise of our voting rights, if we really can, does not yield any fruitful result. Another striking feature of Indian democracy is that people are considered to be little aware of their own benefits and the proponents of representative democracy or so called politicians are the right persons to feel and understand what beneficial for the common people is. Surprisingly they claim to be knowledgeable enough to understand the benefits of their electors and their electors are illiterate enough to fail to understand their benefits. Last but not the least is the administrative costs involved in representative form of democracy in terms of cost of election and allowances paid to representatives. However, this present paper seeks to consider such entire burden of democracy that we do inherit from generation to generation and tries to find out a solution

  8. Ambaga M., Tumen-Ulzii A. and Buyantushig T.

    After making such new interpretation as Ninth stage - of 9 staged close cycle of proton conductance in the location of Respiratory membrane, Pulmonary circuit have been distinguished by oxygen uptake from alveolar air - under effect of increase of bicarbonate entry by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism and Eighth stage have been functioned in the level of Pulmonary circuit, Respiring tissue characterized by oxygen uploading by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism, release of oxygen from HbO2 - under effect of exit of bicarbonate by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism, leading to increase of oxygen in a mitochondrial - 6-th stage was became easy to understand the scientific basis of relation ship between Halden, Bohr eighth and ningh stages of closed 9 staged cycle of proton, electron conductance.

  9. Chauhan, R.S., Tulsa Devi, Divya Chauhan and Shuchi Verma

    Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled, uncoordinated purposeless proliferation of cell that invades the surrounding tissues and to cause metastatic lesions at different body places mainly through blood and lymph vessels. Extensive resources carried out during last century on the control of cancers include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and various kinds of traditional natural and local therapies. Most of these therapies are not so successful because of the fact of rapid multiplication of cancer cells weekly in the host, depressed immunity and imbalance in the body fluids and hormones. Surgery is a good choice of removing the cancer nodule confined to a particular place and at initial stage, this is successful. However, if the metastasis occurred causing same kind of cancer at different body places, then in spite of surgery, the prognosis is very poor because removal of cancer form one site is not sufficient enough as there are many other remaining malignant cells in the body. Similarly, the radio therapy causes alteration in the genetic makeup of the cancer cell directed towards the destruction of rapidly multiplying cells may lead to either recovery or aggravation of the cancer. Almost everyone who receives cancer treatment experiences side effects, which vary according to the treatment and the area of the body undergoing treatment. Chemotherapeutic agents, sometimes called cytotoxic agents because they kill cells, produce toxic side effects on rapidly dividing host tissues such as bone marrow and intestinal mucosa. Some normal cells, including blood cells, hair, and cells lining the gastrointestinal tract are also rapidly dividing, and are most likely to be damaged. Cow urine enhances the immunocompetence and improves general health of an individual. It has vital potential to enhance the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes (both T and B cells), and has been reported to increase the humoral and cellular mediated immunity. Increased immunocompetence of an individual is a very essential parameter to prevent the development of cancers by several mechanisms, of which the upregulation of lymphocyte proliferation and stimulation activity, increased macrophage activity, higher antibody production and increased synthesis and secretion of cytokines (IL-1, Il-2) plays significant role by enhancing the recognition of tumor cells by the immune cells of the body and cytotoxic activities of the tumor killing cells, the lymphocytes. It is an efficient anti-aging factor, since prevents the free radical formation, which could help preventing cancers as the incidences of cancer increases as the one progresses towards old age. Cow urine efficiently repairs the damaged DNA, thus can be very effective for the cancer prevention and therapy, and can also reduce the spread of malignant cancers and help fighting tumors. During the past few years, cow urine therapy has provided promising and authentic results for the treatment of cancer, a deadly malady which is being faced by the mankind and the incidences of which are ever increasing in the current scenario of changed lifestyle and food habits along with exposure to predisposing factors of carcinogens such as tobacco chewing, smoking, alcohol intake, environmental pollutants, occupational health hazards etc. Anti-cancer potential of cow urine therapy has been reflected by several case reports, success stories and practical feedback of patients for the treatment of cancer.

  10. Kamal Hossain

    It was a big challenge to provide prompt and quality services to the library clientele groups during coronavirus surge and covid-19 pandemic situations. Students and faculty members were unable to visit the Library physically for receiving services and supports, such as - borrowing and returning library resources, study in the library and others due to lockdown and other restrictions. Online and E-resources become more popular and essentials to teachers, students, and learners. They preferred to use e-resources for their teaching and learning. They accessed e-resources remotely from home and off-campus. The World community experienced the same situations. Service delivery through digital and online means became an integral part for ULAB Library as well as for the educational institutions.

  11. OULAI Tokpa Louya, AKPRO Lathro Anselme and GBOGOURI Grodji Abarin

    In this study, toxicological analysis of heads and headless parts of fish the Hydrocarbon Aromatic Polycyclic (PAH) such as pyrene and Benzo (a) pyrene (0.058 and 0.067 µg/kg), Benz (g, h, i) pyrilene, Benzo (a) anthracene. Other compounds such as fluoranthenes and indeno pyrilene have also been detected. The results show the pesticide presence of desethylatrazine (0.021-0.033 µg/g), fenuron (0.023 - 0.042 µg/g), metoxuron (0.622 - 0.623 µg/g), monuron (0.030 - 0.037 µg/g), methabenzthiazuron (0.023 - 0.024 µg /g), simazine (0.089 - 0.090 µg/g), isoproturon (0.062- 0.069 µg/g), cyanazine (0.022- 0.200 µg/g), metamitron (0.042 - 0.042 µg/g) (0.023± 0.0 mg/kg) ofmackerel followed by headless tuna (0.011 mg/kg). The lowest levels are found in the head and headless part of tilapia, as well as in the heads of the jawfish. The heavy metals such as lead and mercury were also detected at low concentrations in the headless parts and heads.

  12. Flores-Encarnación M., Valentín-Aguilar I., Aguilar-Gutiérrez G.R., Xicohtecatl-Cortes J. and López-García A.

    One of the most significant environmental parameters affecting growth and survival of microorganisms is the local concentration of protons (H+). When the proton concentration is high, acidic conditions prevail and cells must respond appropriately to ensure that macromolecules and metabolic processes are protected. The extreme acidophiles grow optimally at pH 3 or less and for that those bacteria have multiple strategies for tolerating stresses that accompany high levels of acidity.

  13. Panna Khatun

    In recent years, women's position has become increasingly dependent on the theme of women empowerment. The analysis of objectives is to compare the SHGs social impact to that of the Self-Help Group for women, to examine how the SHGs social section has changed, to determine how the SHGs influence on people social standing has changed and to distinguish people attitudes toward the SHGs and their social impact. The investigation stands alone with the final aim of utilizing only crucial facts. The necessary data was gathered from the number of respondents near about is 300. Information was gathered from Paschim Medinipur in West Bengal for the respondent survey. The expert had employed stratified random testing. Through SPSS, discriminate analysis is used to examine the data that had been collected. The aim focus of study is on SHGs' social empowerment initiatives and the empowerment of women in Paschim Medinipur of West Bengal.

  14. Dr. Paveethra, A.G., Dr. Krishnaswamy, B., Dr. Gopalakrishnan, KR., Dr. Dhanalakshmi, M. and Dr. Shyamala, E.

    Aim: To find out the seroprevalence of HIV in blood donors. Introduction: The Blood safety remains a major public health problem in India. Screening for transfusion-transmissible infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis is essential for blood transfusion safety and protecting human life. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was done in, Department of Pathology, Government medical college and hospital, Cuddalore district (Ernstwhile Rajah Muthiah Medical College), a rural teaching hospital in Chidambaram from the years 2012 to August 2022. All the donor samples were analyzed for antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Result: Out of a total 27,690 blood units collected, 11 blood units were tested positive for HIV and seroprevalence was 0.03%. Conclusion: In this study there is high seroprevalence of HIV in younger age group (18-30 years) suggests a potential public health problem.

  15. Prasant Kumar Sabat, Durgamadhav Kar, Biswaketan Mahapatra and Rasmita Jena

    Objective: This particular research emphasis on the formulation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of analgesic activity of herbal spagyric essence (Electrohomeopathic medicine) White Electricity (WE) in Wistar rats. No scientific report has been available until date of WE. Therefore the current analysis focuses to prove scientific study of herbal spagiryc essence of WE. Materials and Methods: The Electrohomeopathic medicine WE is formulated by extracting and blending of spagiryc essence of specified herbal plants. The phytochemical characterization is done with help of qualitative chemical tests. The acute toxicity study is done with referring OECD toxicity guideline 420. The Analgesic activity of Electrohomeopathic medicine WE was carried out by the Acetic acid writhing reflex method, Tail immersion method and Hot plate method with using albino rats of either sex. The percentage protection against abdominal writhing and the pain reaction time were used to assess the degree of analgesia which has been measured and compared to control groups. Results: It was found that the Electrohomeopathic medicine WE is safe and non toxic. The acute toxicity study confirms the safety of drugs. It exhibited an excellent analgesic activity. The phytochemical investigation confirms the presence of phytoconstituents which justify the above pharmacological activity of WE.A decreasing the percentage abdominal writhing and increased the pain reaction time period when compared to control groups confirmed the potent activity of WE. Conclusion: This research indicates that electrohomeopathic medicine WE are relatively safe and effective in reducing pains in different animal models. Thus WE possess significant analgesic properties.

  16. Sumi, M., Gopalakrishnan, KR, Krishnaswamy B. and Valluvan Manimozhi

    Introduction: Ovarian tumors play an important role in female genital tract pathologies. It can occur in any age group. It may be a simple cystic lesion or a life-threatening malignancy. Most malignancies are diagnosed at a later stage because of vague symptoms. Histopathological examination is confirmatory for an ovarian tumor. Hence, the Pathologist plays a great role in diagnosing and classifying ovarian tumors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done in the Department of Pathology Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital for a period of 2years from August 2020 to July 2022. The data was collected in a proforma with relevant detailed information. The excised specimens were received in buffered formalin, processed, sectioned, and stained with routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stains. Results: Among 142 cases studied, the most common mode of presentation is Pain abdomen followed by mass abdomen. The most common age group affected is 21-40years. Unilateral occurrence of tumor predominates. The non-malignant lesions account for about 93.7%. Among non-malignant lesions, Serous cystadenoma is the most common. Among malignant tumors, the incidence of Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma predominates. Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that ovarian tumors have different modes of presentation. Hence efforts must be taken to identify the risk factors for developing ovarian carcinoma.

  17. Aarthi Arulvanan, Krishnaswamy, B., Dhanalakshmi, M., Manohar, U. and Vinodha, S.D.

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in many less developed countries as well as among Indian women[1].Cervical cancer is the third common cancer in the world in female and fourth leading cancer for death in women. This study was done to evaluate age incidence,age and clinical presentation and clinical presentation and cytological patterns. Methods and materials: This is a Prospective study was conducted by department of pathology, in a rural teaching hospital, Chidambaram. Cervical smears of 476 female patients of reproductive age women attending gynaecology outpatient clinics was enrolled in this study. Smears were from squamo-columnar junction and transferred to department of pathology in coplin jar with 95% ethyl alcohol. Result: Out of 476 cases, , a high incidence of 212 cases (44.5%) was observed in (31-40 years) followed by 149 cases(31.3%) in age group of (41-50 years ), Leucorrhea was the most common clinical presentation among 20-30 years with 56% of incidence. Menorrhagia was the second most common symptom with 141 cases(29.6%) Intermenstrual bleeding was most commonly seen in 31-40 years). In inflammation, Leucorrhea (33.6%) is the most common clinical presentation followed by menorrhagia (31.6%) and Amenorrhea. Mass desending per vaginum (0.56%) being the least. In patients reported with ASCUS ,post menopausal bleeding(55%) was the commonest complaint. A high incidence of inflammation was observed in 31-40 years (46.5%) followed by women in 41-50 years (28.5%). Conclusion: This study emphasise more number of individuals to be included in screening. Early diagnosis of pre malignant lesions by Pap smear study result in timely therapeutic intervention leading to decrease in number of cases progressing to frank malignancy. Programme to increase the awareness among the women regarding the benefits of Pap screening will go long way in reducing the cancer burdern in the community.

  18. Arpita Singh

    Women always lack financial independence and also the resources that can help them take an accelerating path towards their goals. Final security has always been a bigger concern for women in society. Especially rural women face much more difficulty in creating good income factors for their families in the absence of financial management. Women entrepreneurs faced much more challenges than any other small-scale industry or service industry ever faced yet. Is it because people question their potential of repaying their debts? Or does patriarchal society dominate the financial structure in most countries, especially in India? Or People don't see the vision of female entrepreneurs as much as they want to invest in the male part of society? Multiple questions and reasons can be seen in the scenario but we need to look over the aspects that have truly helped women in achieving their goals in the hard and cruel conditions of financial security. The role of microfinance has been seen as a Revolutionary idea on the grounds of women's entrepreneurship. Females are seeking this option to support their social and economical development. Is this contribution helping women or is it just an illusion to exhibit?

  19. Rashmi Singh and Dr. Smriti Johari

    Dung beetle feeds on the faecal matter they use the faecal matter for the various purposes like feeding, reproduction, breeding. This divine creature have great social as well as economic importance for us such as nutrient cycling, soil aeration and reduction of carbon dioxide and methane emissions, control of parasites and secondary seed dispersal. They are also important in food webs not only as decomposers but also as prey for birds, bats and other insectivorous animals. But today even after being nature’s friend thereis lack of awareness and information in people about these beetles. Their population is declining day by day by the human activities such as use of harsh pesticides, insecticides, antibiotics used on crops and cattle for maintaining their population and yield. Even today no proper conservation measures are in force for the conservation of this divine creature and we are losing the natural cleanup crew. Strategies and policies for the conservation should come into implementation in order to conserve this super divine but yet so neglected creature.

  20. Sedami R. Medegan Fagla, Hosanna G. D. Gaba, Ayide C. Ahouansou, Habib K. Toukourou, Urbain C. Kassehin, Victorien T. Dougnon and Fernand A. Gbaguidi

    The uncontrolled use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria affecting human health. Many solutions have been sought in the hope of developing alternative andeffective molecules, includingmedicinalplants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the membrane destabilization potential of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis harvested in Benin. For this purpose, the essential oil was extracted by steam stripping. It was separated and identified by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrophotometer. This oil was subjected to physicochemical characterisation and sensitivity tests on reference and clinical bacterial strains. Subsequently, the minimum inhibitory concentrations, minimum bactericidal concentrations and antibiotic power were determined. The mode of action of the antibacterial effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil was explored using the outer membrane destabilization test of bacterial strains. The average extraction yield was 0.57%, and its major compound was Terpinolene. All strains tested were sensitive to the essential oil except Klebsiella oxytoca NCTC 13442. The inhibition diameters of the essential oil ranged from 7 to 16 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 3.106 to 12.5 mg/ml. In addition, the essential oil affected the bacterial strains tested by destabilizing their outer membrane. The percentage of outer membrane destabilization of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae by the essential oil was significantly better than that of Imipenem used as a reference. The present study revealed that the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis has a remarkable inhibitory activity on Gram negative bacteria with a better percentage of membrane destabilization than the reference molecule. This essential oil is therefore a good alternative to counteract antibiotic resistance.

  21. David Ayem and Mary Bi SuhAtanga

    An unmet need for family planning refers to women capable of reproducing who are not using contraception, but wish to postpone their next birth for 2 or more years or to stop childbearing all together. In Africa, especially in resource limited setting, pregnancies are unplanned and spacing between pregnancies is poor, which is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality, childhood malnutrition, and complications during pregnancy. The objective of this write up is to expose the determinants of family planning and adaptable measures to increase family planning uptake. Providing decision makers in developing countries, including in Africa, with the best available evidence on the factors that determine the quality of care in family planning services, from the perspective of clients and health care providers, is important to inform the design and implementation of the most effective, efficient and acceptable measures. Policy implementation is the magic that translates policies into results. That includes following through on commitments with adequate resources, trained providers, operational policies, and guidance that are responsive to local needs and are based on best practices. Learning from FP2020, the Ouagadougou Partnership, and the Challenge Initiative, and other networks and platforms, progress in family planning is achievable if governments, civil society organizations, bilateral and multilateral organizations, private sectors, religious leaders, and other implementing partners come together around a common goal with a clear definition of targets and responsibilities. Improving use of family planning services is key to improving maternal health, and provision of quality of care in family planning services is critical to support higher levels of family planning uptake both by attracting new family planning service users and by maintaining existing users.

  22. Yousif Obaid and Ali Alwardi

    Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a lifelong episodic mental disorder that causes powerful mood swings. It is manageable through a variety of pharmacological interventions of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics, of which encompass several different adverse drug effects (ADEs) and have narrow therapeutic windows. Therefore, it is crucial to conduct routine blood monitoring based on standard international recommendations such as that of the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). Objectives and Rationale: To conduct an Audit that looks at long-term adherence of blood monitoring of mood Stabilizers and antipsychotics to NICE guidelines in the behavioural medicine department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH)to provide recommendations. Methods: Patients of all ages who were diagnosed with BD on antipsychotics and mood stabilizers were admitted to the Department of Behavioral Medicine for a period of 1 year were included. The data was collected retrospectively and compared to the NICE guidelines for blood monitoring. Results: A total of 249 BD patients met the inclusion criteria in the study. 219 of them were prescribed with Antipsychotics. Lipid, prolactin and glucose were measured only 9.1 %( 9), 29.7 %( 65) and 18.6 %( 40) respectively. 144 of thepatients were prescribed with Sodium Valproate. Complete Blood Count and Liver Function were measured only 31.7 % (97) and 32.6(45) respectively. 41 patients were prescribed with Lithium; urea, thyroid and plasma drug levels were measured 61.5 %( 24), 51.2 %( 21) and 57.5 %( 23) respectively. Finally, 12 patients were prescribed with Carbamazepine. Urea, CBC and Plasma drug levels were only measured 8.3 %( 1), 25 %( 3) and 8.3 %( 1) respectively. Conclusion: Blood monitoring of Mood Stabilizers and Antipsychotics in BD patients at SQUH falls below standards when compared to NICE guidelines. The findings could be due to several organizational and patient factors. Measures need to be taken and further audits need to be conducted to improve adherence to monitoring recommendations.

  23. Ashok. N. and Harshavardni. K.P

    Background: Sports physiotherapy is a specialized area of physiotherapy that deals with the injuries related to sports people. Those are different from everyday injuries. The sports physiotherapists works closely with the coach and the player or athlete in terms for the performance enhancement by the unique combination of the knowledge that includes, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, exercise therapy, kinesiology. The study aimed to determine the association between the knowledge about factors such having a sports physiotherapist in team, equipment used by the physiotherapist and having benefited personally from physiotherapy. Objective: To find out the awareness about sports physiotherapy knowledge among university professional players. Methodology: 100 professional non-contact sports players were selected and a self-administered English questionnaire was distributed. Results: 86.17% of the players have good knowledge about the physiotherapy regarding the prevention, rehabilitation, types of injuries and equipment used by the physiotherapist Conclusion: The university level professional players have good knowledge about basic physiotherapy.

  24. Ramesh, A.

    The term “defamation in Cyberspace” is nowhere defined in India. The traditional definition of defamation is applicable to defamation in Cyberspace in India. Even there is no particular legislation to govern defamation in cyberspace in India. Section 499 & 500 of Indian Penal Code and the provisions of Information Technology Act 2000 is often applied by the courts for defamation cases in cyberspace. Internet Service Providers and Intermediaries are exempted from liability under Information Technology Act 2000. Therefore there is a need to enact separate law to govern online defamation.

  25. Ouro – DjoboEssoavana Samah Soviwadan Drovou, Ayaréma Afio, Komlan Assogba Kassegne and Komla Sanda

    Sustainable development finds its full meaning in the sense that it promotes the use of renewable resources, available in sufficient quantity to meet the diverse needs of a society in the present and in the future. This concept includes social, economic and environmental factors which must all be taken into account because they are decisive in the absolute availability of the resource. The cob is the part of the maize which bears its seeds and which, after shelling, is thrown away as vegetable waste. Corn is a food grain of the Gramineae family, whose tight kernels on a long cob are rich in sugar and gluten. This plant grown in Africa and around the world whose use of its different parts is varied. Corn was probably domesticated in southern or central Mexico. In recent years and in the context of the need to use renewable resources, the use of locally available raw materials has literally exploded, particularly in the field of construction. At the origin of the research, we find first of all the desire to valorize the corn cob. It is dried and then reduced to a powder whose particle size is determined before use.It is also a question of appreciating the mechanical and thermal properties of the Compressed Earth Block (BTC) with the reinforcement of vegetable fiber by valuing the cob of corn which is a biodegradable natural product as reinforcement in the manufacture of the ecological BTC which meets the standards. international. The composite material obtained was characterized mechanically and thermally. The mechanical properties comply with the values of the standards in force. Similarly, the results show that thermal conductivity and diffusivity decrease with the introduction of corn cob flour while effusivity increases. This particleboard could be used for thermal isolation

  26. Dr. Deeksha Sharma, Dr. Dinesh Kansal, Dr. Dhiraj Kapoor and Dr. Atal Sood

    Background: Angiotensin- -converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) lead to a reduction in the cardiovascular mortality rate and an improvement in glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive diabetic patients. Objective: We want to evaluate effect of azilsartan with olmesartan on microalbuminuria in hypertensive diabetics. Material and Methods: A randomized, prospective, open label, comparative interventional study and conducted in the Department of Medicine and Pharmacology at Dr. R.P.G.M.C, Kangra at Tanda. The study stretched over a period of one year and microalbuminuria was measured at baseline and sixth month after initiating the treatment. Out of 69 patients, 35 patients in group A were prescribed tablet azilsartan 40 mg/day and 34 patients in group B patients were prescribed tablet olmesartan 20 mg/day along with chlorthalidone 12.5 mg/day and metformin 1 gm o.d in both the groups. Statistical analysis: Data was presented as mean + SD. Student’s t-test was used for comparing continuous variables between the two groups. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In group A, microalbuminuria reduced from baseline of 36.93±8.39 to 11.88±2.42 at 6-months (p <0.001). In group B, values reduced from baseline of 23.30±11.34 to 18.33±6.39 at 6-months (p <0.001). On intergroup comparison, microalbuminuria was reduced more in azilsartan group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Azilsartan is significantly better than olmesartan in reducing microalbuminuria in hypertensive diabetics.

  27. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Pumpkins and squash are the edible fruits of four of the five cultivated species of the genus Cucurbita. Although the terms ‘pumpkin’ and ‘squash’ are often used interchangeably, the former is derived from the Latin word pepo and implies a large, round fruit, whereas the latter is derived from the native North American word asq, plural asquash, for a fruit eaten raw or immature. References to pumpkins date back many centuries. The name pumpkin originated from the Greek word for "large melon" which is "pepon." "Pepon" was nasalized by the French into "pompon." The English changed "pompon" to "Pumpion." Shakespeare referred to the "pumpion" in his Merry Wives of Windsor. American colonists changed "pumpion" into "pumpkin." The "pumpkin" is referred to in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Peter, Peter, Pumpkin Eater and Cinderella. Pumpkin and squash (Cucurbita L. spp.), collectively, are a major vegetable crop and are grown in almost all regions, from cool temperate to tropical. Generally, the edible Cucurbita fruit that are round or nearly round are referred to as pumpkins and those that are nonround are referred to as squash. Although Cucurbita plants and fruit are grown for various reasons, most often they are grown for human consumption of their entire young fruit or mature fruit flesh. The genus Cucurbita incorporating pumpkin, squashes or vegetable marrows is the most economically valuable genus of this family with 27 species, five of which (C. moschata, C. pepo, C. maxima, C. mixta, C. ficifolia) are cultivated all over the tropical and sub-tropical world. The edible portion of the fruit, botanically called ‘pepo’, is a pericarp with a very little portion of the mesocarp. Both mature and immature stages of the fruits are used as vegetable. The flesh is delicious when stewed, boiled or baked. The average nutritive value of pumpkin (2.68) is higher than brinjal (2.41), tomato (2.09) and cucumber (1.69) mainly because of high stored carbohydrate (mainly glucose) and carotenoids (74% β - carotene) along with a moderate quantity of ascorbic, nicotinic, pantothenic and folic acids and different minerals. Fully matured fruits, apart from utilization as a cooked vegetable can be used in preparing sweets, candy or fermented into beverages. Delicate sweet items like “halwa”, other sweets and jams are prepared from the meshed flesh of fully matured fruit. Pulp is also mixed with tomato in the preparation of sauce and ketchup. In this review article origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, genetics, genetic diversity, and breeding of pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.) are discussed.

  28. Rupali Bagde, S Karole, Anup K Chakraborty and Kavita R Loksh

    A new RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of metformin and evogliptin in dosage form. The chromatogram of the mixed standard was found to be satisfactory on C-18 (4.6×150mm, 5µ Hypersil column) using isocratic mixture of methanol 700 ml and 300 ml water (pH adjusted to 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and detection wavelength of 254 nm. The retention time of metformin and evogliptin were found to be 2.548 min and 2.107 min respectively. The system suitability parameters justify that the proposed method is suitable for simultaneous estimation of metformin and evogliptin with the theoretical plates for separation being 5633 and 4154 respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10-50µg/ml for metformin and 1 to 5µg/ml for evogliption. The precision of the method was good and the recovery of drugs is well within the acceptance limits of 80-120%. The LOD was found to be 0.058 µg/ml for metformin and 0.015 µg/ml for evogliptin while the LOQ ws found to be 0.178 µg/ml for metformin and 0.047 µg/ml for evogliptin.

  29. MOUNKALA P. Christoffer, MOYEN Rachel, BIDOUNGA Joël, MAKAYA Nicole and NIAMA Fabien

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and resistance patterns of Candida albicans strains isolated from vaginal swabs at the National Public Health Laboratory in Brazzaville. Material and methods: 298 vaginal swabs were collected at the National Public Health Laboratory from January to June 2020. Isolation was performed on Sabouraud's medium, followed by species identification based on phenotypic and biochemical tests. Susceptibility to antifungal agents was assessed by standard solid and liquid diffusion techniques according to CLSI/NCCLS 2009-2020. Results: Mycological examination of the 298 samples revealed 99 positive results, of which 37 were identified as Candida albicans, a prevalence of 37.37%. Of the 37 strains of C. albicans tested, 19 were resistant, i.e. 51.35%, according to the antifungal activities of the strains. The species had a comparatively high level of resistance to azoles, including miconazole (47.94%) and fluconazole (27.09%). Four main resistance patterns were identified from the data analysis: 14 strains showed AT pattern (azoleresistance), 3 strainsshowed AP pattern (imidazole-polyeneresistance), 1 strain showed PAT pattern (polyene-azoleresistance) and 1 strain showed PF pattern (polyene-5flurocytosine). Conclusion: This study found that among the species of the genus Candida, Candida albicans has the highest prevalence. Through the study of antimycoticactivities, we were able to follow the evolution of the resistance of the species to azoledrugs, which constitutes a serious threat to public health.

  30. Dr. Bishnupriya Mohanty, Dr. Mohit Mahajan and Prof(Dr) Sangram Keshari Das

    According to Ayurveda Shwitra simple meaning is Twakvaivarnyata (Stwetabh, Shwetabhrakta, Raktabhshweta, Raktabh). Vitiligo affecting nearly 1- 1.5 % of the world’s population, it I estimated between 3-4% in India, although an incidence as high as 8.8% has also been reported, irrespective of the races especially to dark skinned people. The incidence is a little more eminent in India. It occurs in males and females of all ages but most often the onset in females. Case history- 42 years old male patients come with complaints of white patches over lower back region since 5-6 years. Initially a small patch started on lower back then gradually increased in size. Examination- White milky patches, no pain, secretion & elevation. Diagnosis- appearing in later in life well deigned depigmented macula without scaling. Patient he had been prescribed: 1 part of Khadir Saar, 2 part of Amalaki, ¼ part of Bakuchi Churna(internally) – 2gm with warm water twice a day after meal followed by exposure to early morning sun light. Details of Drug Administration are shown in Table No. 1. The patient had been followed up every 7 days for 21 days. Results are shown in Table No. 2.

  31. Salmah M. Suhluli ,Yehya M. Hejri, Mohnnad A. ALharthi, Ali H. Masmali, Majed I. Sumaily, Hussain Y. Rayani, Yasser A. Haider, Ali H. Alshareefi, Mohannad A. jarad, Ali A. Al-Bashiri, Thekra A. Zarban, Nawal A. Ayashi, Mohammed A. Qinaee, Yahya A. Asseri,

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) It is a chronic disease that spreads from person to person through the air and is brought on by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis medication Adherence is a key factor associated with the effectiveness of all pharmacological therapies but is particularly critical for medications prescribed for chronic conditions in this study we aim to assess the barriers of tuberculosis medication adherence. Methods: Observational cross-sectional cross- sectional community based, carried out in Jazan Region in Saudi Arabia in period between June 2021 till October 2021 included (228) all new diagnosed tuberculosis patients in 2021 was conducted to assess the tuberculosis medication adherence level and its barriers using standardized general medication adherence scale. Results: 228 tuberculosis patients were enrolled more than 50% of participants aged between 19 t0 34 years and the least age group was less than 19 years, male was found to be more than female 70.2%, majority of the participants was married 58%, regards to education near to 60% of participant was low il educated from intermediate level and below, (11%) of TB patients were had other medical condition hypertension 8.8%diabetes 5.6%, dyslipidemia 1.3% (comorbidity) among registered TB patients 2021, all of patients obtained the medicine from government we found there is a high medication adherence among 86% of participants educational levels, marital status and monthly income (Pvalue .006,.003 and .001) logistics regression showed that is, association with education level and adherence (Pvalue0.002 ), and also the results shows that secondary education is 3.717 times more likely to adherence than non-adherence. The marital status is positively significant associated with adherence, the p-value for married is 0.006. Also there is positive significant association between monthly income and adherence. the p-value for monthly income with adherence is 0.034 which indicate that there is association with monthly income and adherence, study recommend more effort to be spent not married for low level education and income.

  32. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Bottle gourd, (Lagenaria siceraria), also called white-flowered gourd or calabash gourd, running or climbing vine of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), native to tropical Africa but cultivated in warm climates around the world for its ornamental and useful hard-shelled fruits. Recent studies have revealed its origin and native home in Asia. It is a climbing perennial plant widely cultivated as a vegetable crop in tropical countries, such as India, Japan and Thailand. The bottle gourd belongs to the genus Lagenaria that is derived from lagena, meaning, “bottle”. In the older literature it is often referred to as Lagenaria vulgaris (common) or Lagenaria leucantha (white flowered gourd) but it is now generally agreed that the correct name is Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. Botle gourd or Calabash fruits have a variety of shapes: they can be huge and rounded, small and bottle-shaped, or slim and serpentine, and they can grow to be over a metre long. Rounder varieties are typically called calabash gourds. The plant has thick vines with large white flowers that open only at night. The fruit comes in a large variety of shapes, selected for by their human users. The bottle gourd is primarily grown for its fruit, which when dried forms a woody hollow vessel that is suitable for containing water and food, for fishing floats, for musical instruments and for clothing, among other things. In fact, the fruit itself floats, and bottle gourds with still-viable seeds have been discovered after floating in seawater for more than seven months. Tender fruits, young shoots and tendrils are also cooked, and oil is extracted from the seed. Its uses range from food and medicine, and as containers, artifacts, and musical instruments. Other uses of mature, dried hard shells of bottle gourd including musical instruments, cups, barrels, milk pails, ladles, fishing floats, penis sheaths, carvings, etc. Fruits are also used as herbal medicines in Asia. It has been in use as a vegetable in India since 2,000 BCE. It is part and parcel of the culture of the hill tribes Karbi and Jhasi in Assam (India), as it plays a key role of social ceremonies and rites of passage, as also in the offering of rice beer to gods and deities, and to serve guests. The offer and acceptance of a bottle gourd as a gift is sufficient to declare a couple's engagement among the Karbis. It is a symbol of longevity and good luck in China. The number of decorated bottle gourd containers denotes the social status of a Hausa tribes person in Nigeria, and form an essential or indispensable part of a bride's dowry. Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by nature to human beings having composition of all the essential constituents that are required for good health and quality human life. Bottle gourd has been used traditionally to help with many health conditions like fever, cough, pain, and asthma. It has been used since ancient times for its benefits. It is also considered a good source of vitamin B, C, and other nutrients. Fresh bottle gourd juice is used for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. In this review article origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, genetic diversity, breeding, uses, nutritional value and health benefits of bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria) are discussed.

  33. Rasha Almaghrabi

    This study intends to discover the opinion of the physicians about the expected effects of public hospital privatization on the provided services to the patient at the Maternity and Children Hospital in Makkah city. This study was conducted using a quantitative approach through using a questionnaire to gather statistical data. This study used a cross-sectional design. We evaluated the relation between the physicians' knowledge about privatization with their answers to the questions in the research domains (the domains are: Physician Perception, Services Improvement, Increase Productivity, and Statement about privatization). The sample size is 217 physicians answering the questionnaire. The number of physicians who agreed to privatization was those who know what privatization means (p=<0.001). Physicians who understand what privatization means were shown to agree with the statement; that privatization will benefit the Saudi healthcare system (p=0.037) and the importance of developing a summary of physicians’ views regarding privatization by the Saudi MOH (p= 0.004). A significant value was shown in the improvement scale respectively (p=0.013, 0.07, 0.026). Privatization would shorten patients' waiting time and improve access to healthcare services, and reduce the waste of resources, consumable items, and drugs. In the general statements scale, the p=0.001 and 0.016 showed significant values; the privatization would give hospitals more flexibility in administration operations and eliminate routine and bureaucracy. We recommend that a longitudinal study be conducted to see the changes that privatization brings to the Saudi health system. In addition, establish and update a database of healthcare workers' opinions.

  34. Ahmed Alsuwayhiri, Khadijah Salah Maqbul, Yaqoob Abobakar, KhaledAl-Qethami, Abeer Alomiri and Hatoon Akram

    The pharmaceutical stock has been identified as second largest annual expenses in the budget of healthcare institutions. Pharmacy overstock is high expenses and it’s very important to estimate annual level of inventories to overcome waste in resources. Current study aims to identify pharmaceutical items with high growth rate during the 8 years and percentage of wrong estimation. Cohort Retrospective study design uses medical inventories data from the ERP system “Enterprise resource planning Software”. Total number of medical items are about 2077 some of them unplanned requested and other have substitutes so the total number addressed where 974 pharmaceutical products in the study were analyzed to generate the percentage of estimation. Result shows that Radiology and Gastroenterology departments have highest percentage of wrong estimating in their annual demand. It also shows that most of the department underestimated their annual quantity utilization. Many reasons increase the quantity of lending some medication such as transferring patients to another institution this will force KAMC to provide medication for transferred patient. Additionally, unstable utilization urges KAMC to redistribute the nearly expired Medication by lending them to other healthcare organization and get new quantity upon the request in different time. The drugs products with high percentage of borrowing are refer to bad quality of services due to discontinuity of healthcare services and even borrowing process not immediately cover the need it takes time, and this will affected the business continuity. The study found high discrepancy between proposed maximum values and actual maximum values during eight years. Research team decides to be generated new amount from the average values of previous years recorded and add to them the amount of growth value to decreases the variances in the future quantity.

  35. Niamke Arthur Michel, Diarrassouba Gnoh Minata and Djaman Allico Joseph

    The néré fruit is known in the north of Côte d'Ivoire for its seeds, which are used to prepare soumbara, and for its pulp, which is also consumed. Unfortunately, the nutritional value of the floury pulp is not known by the population and it is not processed by local industries. The flour is largely discarded by the "washing" system, which only preserves the seed. This study contributes to the valorisation of néré fruits. After hulling the néré fruit, the pulp is dried in the sun, crushed and sieved to produce three types of flour, depending on the source. Flours from Niofoin, Waragniéré and Kanoroba are coded FN, FW and FK respectively. The study of these flours by AOAC method and HPLC revealed, depending on the source, the presence of numerous vitamins such as vitamin C (178.94 to 198.53mg/100g), vitamin B1 (154 to 407µg/100g), vitamin B2 (59.7 to 91.6µg/100g), vitamin B3 (89 to 140µg/100g) vitamin B5 (53.67µg/100g on average), vitamin B6 (25µg/100g on average), vitamin B9 (3555 to 4718µg/100g), vitamin A (820µg/100g on average), vitamin E (8700µg/100g on average) and vitamin K1 (66.67µg/100g on average). The three (3) flours FN, FW, FK of néré contain vitamins that are beneficial to the health of local populations and can be used by the food industry.

  36. Dr. Ezekiel Nyambega Omwenga PhD.

    Play is one of the approaches used in the teaching and learning process. In normal growth, play enhances the social, behavioral and psychomotor development. In the absence of play, the learner misses a major component of growth which may led to members of the community having poor unwholesome development. The objective of the study was to investigate the challenges faced by teachers in utilization of play in ECDE curriculum centers in Kericho sub-county. The study adopted Piaget’s theory (1896-1980) of intellectual development which emphasizes that children learn best through play by discovering, doing and actively exploring their environment. The study used mixed methods approach. The population was 161 head teachers and 347 pre-school teachers from where sample size of 48 head teachers and 104 pre-school teachers were selected. Simple random and stratified sampling techniques were used to select samples from every educational zone in the sub-county. Data was collected using questionnaires, observation schedules and checklists. Using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data which was analyzed as themes emerged. The study concluded that teachers face different challenges in utilization of play in ECDE teaching and learning activities which included inadequate resources and time allocated for play. The study recommends that teachers need to be motivated and all stakeholders need to cooperate to help equip preschools within their locality with enough play materials necessary to promote participation of outdoor activities. The study may inform the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development and the MoE, Science and Technology to produce relevant instructional materials on play for Early Childhood Education in Kenya and Teachers may change their attitude towards the utilization of play to enhance learning outcomes in early childhood education once the relevant play resources are provided.

  37. Vennila Mary, A. and Tamilselvi, G.

    The study was taken up in three selected blocks of Tirupattur District of Tamil Nadu to assess the entrepreneurial performance of women entrepreneurs. A sample size of 300 women entrepreneurs managing various agro-based enterprises viz., vermicompost, dairy, poultry and handicraft making were selected as respondents for the study. The respondents were interviewed personally by a well structured and pre-tested interview schedule. The collected data were analysed and tabulated using appropriate statistical tools. The entrepreneurial performance Index was worked out by adding the scores of entrepreneurial behaviour, marketing ability and perceived profitability of the respondents. Around sixty per cent of women entrepreneurs possessed medium level (56.67 per cent) of entrepreneurial performance followed by low (32.33 per cent) and high (11.00 per cent) levels. The overall entrepreneurial behaviour of the respondents was found to be medium (60.67 per cent) among majority of the respondents. Majority of the respondents had medium level of entrepreneurial dimensions viz., decision making ability (60.30 per cent), achievement motivation (48.00 per cent), economic motivation (50.00 per cent). Innovativeness (66.00 per cent), risk orientation (69.00 per cent) and competition orientation (67.00 per cent). They possessed high level of entrepreneurial dimensions like self-confidence (53.70 per cent), management orientation (72.30 per cent), leadership ability (61.00 per cent) and knowledge about the enterprise (60.00 per cent). Around forty per cent of them had low (39.00 per cent) decision making ability. Majority of them had medium to high level achievement motivation (94.30 per cent). The women entrepreneurs possessed low to medium level marketing ability (80.00 per cent). Around forty per cent of them perceived their enterprises as some what profitable followed by others who perceived as profitable (26.00 per cent) and least profitable (24.30 per cent).

  38. Karthikraja. M., Sudhakar, P., Ramesh, S. and Sunil Kumar, B.

    A field experiment was carried out with graded levels of nitrogen and different weed management strategies to achieve higher productivity in aerobic rice cultivation in the Cauvery delta region. ANNA4 ruling variety was sown for two consecutive Kharif seasons. Growth parameters viz., plant height, leaf area index, Number of tillers m-2 and yield parameters viz., panicles m-2,Dry matter production at flowering, grain yield, straw yield were studied. The study revealed that M3S2 proved to be the best in terms of production 3.61 tons ha-1 in the first season and 3.68 tons ha-1 in the second season respectively. Plant height at different stages viz., maximum tillering, panicle initiation, flowering and harvest was highest in (125% of RDF Nitrogen+ Hand weedings twice at 15 and 30 DAS)on par with(125% of RDF Nitrogen+ Bispyribac sodium at 250 ml a.i. ha-1 at 15 DAS followed by hand weeding on 30 DAS). Similar was the case with number of tillers, straw yield, panicles m-2 and dry matter production at flowering stage. Leaf area index was highest for (125% of RDF Nitrogen+ Hand weeding’s twice at 20 and 40 DAS)on par with (125% of RDF Nitrogen+ Bispyribac sodium at 250 ml a.i. ha-1 at 15 DAS followed by hand weeding on 30 DAS). The Benefit cost ratio was high in (125% of RDF Nitrogen+ Bispyribac sodium at 250 ml a.i. ha-1 at 15 DAS + hand weeding on 30 DAS)followed by (125% of RDF Nitrogen+ Hand weeding’s twice at 20 and 40 DAS). The above results reveal that (125% of RDF Nitrogen+ Bispyribac sodium at 250 ml a.i. ha-1 at 15 DAS followed by hand weeding on 30 DAS) is the most suitable weed management in aerobic cultivation in the economic aspect.

  39. Soumaila Abdoulaye Almoustapha, Mahamane Moctar RABE and Ali Mahaman

    Description du sujet: L’oignon est une plante à usages multiples. Ses feuilles sont consommées couramment au Niger. C’est une plante à fort potentiel économique. Sa production notamment sa conservation contribue à l’amélioration du revenu des acteurs de sa chaîne de valeur. Objectifs: Le but de cette étude est d’analyser les facteurs qui favorisent l’adoption des structures de stockage. Cette étude a pour dessein d’identifier les techniques de conservation et les facteurs d’adoption de technique innovante. Méthode: Cette étude qui a concerné un échantillon de 100 producteurs afin d’identifier les techniques de conservation et les facteurs d’adoption de technique innovante. Le modèle de régression LOGIT a été utilisé comme outil d’analyse. Résultats: L’étude a révélé que la superficie et la quantité conservée ont une influence significative sur la probabilité d’utilisation « Rudu » à deux portes au seuil de 1%. Le revenu agricole, l’accès à la nouvelle technique et le niveau d’instruction, ont une influence significative au seuil de 5% et la variable production au seuil de 10%. Les moyens de conservation d’oignon restent toujours traditionnels dans le village, dont le petit « Rudu » avec 33,33% des producteurs, le moyen « Rudu » avec 44,05% et enfin grand « Rudu » avec 22,62% des producteurs. Il permet de stocker jusqu’à 2250 kg selon le type de « Rudu » pour une durée de cinq (05) mois. Le taux de perte est autour de 28%. Le coût de la construction moyen d'un Rudu est autour 35000 FCF. La technique innovante de conservation de « Rudu » à deux portes offre le meilleur avantage en terme de conservation avec un très faible taux de pourriture sur une durée de cinq à six mois. Conclusions: L’essor de la commercialisation de l’oignon nécessite une amélioration des techniques de conservation pour améliorer le revenu des producteurs. Ainsi, La technique innovante de conservation de « Rudu » à deux portes constitue le moyen de conservation le plus efficace dans le zone avec un très faible taux de pourriture sur une durée de cinq à six mois.

  40. Dr. Chalawadi, M. B.

    In India, urbanization is progressing at a rapid pace. The urban population was 11.4% at the 1901 census. This percentage gradually increased to 31.16% according to the 2011 census. The main side effect of urbanization is the conversion of agricultural land to non-agricultural land use. This article aims to identify changes taking place on agricultural land and transform them into a different type of land cover (LULC). To achieve this goal, land-use change mapping is done using Remote Sensing and GIS. The study used satellite imagery along with field studies and statistical data to detect a change in agricultural land into a different LULC type at Gadag Taluk in the Gadag District. This study is conducted over a 13-year period from 2001 to 2014. This paper presents in detail the expansion and shrinkage of agricultural land and open areas at the Taluk level. Resourcesat -LISS III and IV data as well as Sentinel-2 were used in this study. LISS and MSI images from the study period, i.e. from 2001 to 2014, are collected and then pre-processed. The classification of images is done manually. Training samples are collected using ground truth information (GCPs). The identification of land use changes is done on the basis of polygons. This would determine which LULC class is mainly responsible for agricultural land shrinkage. These space-time and statistical studies will help build the basis of a model of sustainable development

  41. Ratna Prakash M., Sambasiva Rao T., Sundara Rao, G. and Dr. Gopala Rao, N.

    One of the synthetic pyrethroid, Cyfluthrin technical grade and 10% WP is selected for study the stress as impact on oxygen consumption in the fish Catla catla which is a biomarker study. The fish is exposed at lethal and sublethal concentrations (1/10th of 96 hrs LC50 value) of both technical grade 2.2 μg/L and 0.22 μg/L respectively and for 10% WP 1.4 μg/L and 0.14 μg/L respectively. Due to the inhibition of the enzyme AChE, the respiratory stress leads to variations in the oxygen consumption, of inspiration of respiration. Any change in the consumption of the gas leads to impairment of metabolism which is detrimental for growth. This is important in aquacultural practices because it will be having an impact on the venture of the culture. Hence, the levels of the concentrations are to be monitored and uncontaminated water only should be used as the medium of water for culture.

  42. Dr. Moustakas Loukas and Manolaki Vasiliki

    Nowadays, that our times are characterized by technological achievements at all levels – economic, social, cultural – it becomes evident that the educational systems of all countries are also affected. They are adapted and modernized according to these developments and for this reason the introduction of technology education occupies an important place in the syllabi starting from primary education. In this effort, in order for the use of technology and more specifically digital educational games to be effective in improving both school performance and students' skills, it is important to investigate and record the knowledge and opinions of teachers regarding the value of digital games and their effectiveness in the field of education. In the context of the literature review carried out, it was found that the value and effectiveness of digital educational games have not been researched in depth, for this reason this research focuses on their investigation and recording. The research was carried out on the island of Rhodes using an electronic questionnaire as the methodological tool, which was designed specifically for the needs of this work and was completed by 140 teachers, who are serving the current school year in primary schools on the island of Rhodes. From the analysis of the results, it was established that the teachers of the sample use digital educational games quite often during the learning process, recognizing their pedagogical value and their benefits to the student community.

  43. Vangala K., Al-Kandari A., Al-Barood A., Al-Jumah K, Al-Rewaih K. and Vijay K.

    This paper describes the contaminated features in one of the project area under South Kuwait Excavation, Transportation and Remediation (SKETR) in Burgan oil fields of Kuwait. The contaminated areas were particularly comprised of three main features viz. Wet Oil Lakes (WOL), Dry Oil Lakes (DOLs) and Oil Contaminated Piles (OCPs). The various types and layers of these main features (WOLs, DOLs & OCPs) were further described in the paper. For the purpose of characterization in terms of both inorganic and organic, soil samples were collected as per the international standard and were analyzed for key parameters such as pH, Sodium Absorption Ratio, Electrical Conductivity, Nutrients, Chlorides and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons. The test results of the analysis particularly under various layers of each type of feature was discussed with a focus on the minimum, average and maximum values. Based on the test results discussed, it is concluded that Wet Oil Lakes were characterized as severely contaminated with hydrocarbon contamination in comparison to Dry Oil Lakes and Oil Contaminated Piles. It was also seen that much of the contamination was confined to top two layers in both Wet Oil Lakes and Dry Oil Lakes out of the total three layers.

  44. Kossivi DOSSEH, Essonam TCHAMDJA, Kokou IDOH, Komlatsè TOGBENOU, Mamatchi MELILA and Amegnona AGBONON

    Plants are recognized today as natural medicinal sources and some are used as ergogenic aids because of their antioxidant properties. Rourea coccinea is one of the most widely used plants in African traditional medicine. Studies have demonstrated its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of supplementation of R. coccinea ethanolic extract on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following intense endurance exercise. Male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 10) were given distilled water, ethanolic extract of R. coccinea (Rc) at 400 mg/kg (Rc-400) and 800 mg/kg (Rc-800) per day orally for 16 days. The effects on physical performance and anti-fatigue of the extract were evaluated after physical tests by measuring the time of swimming until exhaustion, and the level of biomarkers associated with fatigue such as blood glucose, blood lipids, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The results showed that the 400 and 800 mg/kg extract significantly increased swimming time compared to the control group. Rats in the extract treated groups showed a decrease in the level of AST, ALT and CK after physical activity compared to the control group. Blood glucose was significantly increased with the treated groups. In lipid profile, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels were not significantly altered in Rc treated groups; however, Rc extract decreased the LDL level significantly. Overall, these results suggest that the ethanolic extract of R. coccinea possesses anti-fatigue effects and increases physical performance in rats. Therefore, supplementation of R. coccinea may be beneficial for improving physical performance and combating muscle fatigue.

  45. Ambaga, M., Tumen-Ulzii, A. and Buyantushig, T.

    We had been established that it is existed a close relationship between following two expressions as Life has become dependent from presence of protons and electrons which were formed during the events called Big Bang 15 years ago and the presence of protons from peripheral tissues favors the formation of salt bridge in histidine residue of betta subunits( HarpersBiochemistry). In this connection, it is raised a principal important questions as in which stages of the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance has been occurred the relationship between a expressions as Life has become dependent from presence of protons and a expressions as the presence of protons from peripheral tissues favors the formation of salt bridge in histidine residue of betta subunits. It was became clear that, 9-th stage-Respiratory membrane - Pulmonary circuit-increase of oxygen uptake from alveolar air -under effect ofincreased bicarbonate entry by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism, leading to increase of HbO2 formation, 8- th stage- Respiring tissue - Pulmonary circuit -oxygen uploading by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism, Release of oxygen from HbO2 -under effect of exit of bicarbonate by bicarbonate exit / chloride ion entry shift mechanism , leading to increase of oxygen in a mitochondrial - 6-th stage, gives the possibility to find the scientific relationship between a expressions as Life has become dependent from presence of protons and a expressions as the presence of protons from peripheral tissues favors the formation of salt bridge in histidine residue of betta subunits.

  46. Wan Syazzawani Wan Omar, Zaleha Kassim and Riwan Ramli

    Background: Chitin and chitosan from the exoskeleton of horseshoe crab was reported to have a comparable quality to commercial chitosan. It would become a good alternative for the existing chitosan in the market. Nonetheless, inefficient isolation processes could lead to a waste to this invaluable raw material and incur additional cost. Chitosan isolated from the raw chitin could be affected by the frequency of deacetylation process. At the same time, horseshoe crabs, as known as a living fossil, must be exploited sustainably. Objective: Thus, it is important to determine if a single deacetylation process can satisfy the quality and amount of extracted chitosan from the exoskeleton. Methods: In this experiment, exoskeletons of horseshoe crab were obtained from two different area (Balok in the South China Sea coast and Muar in the Straits of Malacca) and processed through several steps of grinding, deproteinization and demineralization before went through a single and double process of deacetylation using 50% NaOH. FT-IR spectra were analysed to ensure the completion of deacetylation process. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22. The data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). The p value was obtained from the independent-samples T-Test analysis with p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Percentage of chitin and chitosan isolated does not have a significant difference (p>0.05) between Balok and Muar. Nonetheless, the degree of deacetylation is significantly different (p<0.05) between the study sites despite the insignificant difference between single and double deacetylation processes. Conclusion: The results suggest that a double process of deacetylation would be efficient to produce chitosan from chitin extracted from the horseshoe crab exoskeleton. The yield was significantly higher when using samples from Balok than Muar which could be related to some other factors that should be further investigated.

  47. Uttam R. Patole, Krishnagopal Rajesh Sinha, Gaurav Prakash Khairnar, Ritik Shivram Zinjurde and Sanika Jitendrasingh Chauhan

    Traditional Human-Machine Interface (HMI) devices have generally used human motor movements as source of input to perform corresponding output commands and functions. Keyboards and mice have long been the de facto writing and pointing input devices respectively, but these are not very friendly towards people with motor disabilities, motor impairment, diseases such as Paralysis, Muscular dystrophy, Polio, Cerebral palsy, et cetra. Since these devices are being used since inception of computers, they have potential to be replaced by far more convenient methods that can improve the HMI experience and ultimately quality of life. These new methods can either completely replace the existing methods or supplement the current ones or stay as alternatives or else they could also be used as backup when a preferred HMI system fails. We can utilize new and emerging technologies such as Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) and Machine Learning (ML) to design a far better solution for HMI than current existing ones. Using BMI and ML we can also ensure that these are friendly towards the aforementioned people who are not able-bodied.

  48. Dr. Pooja Thakur, Dr. Sahrish Tariq and Dr. Nidhi Gupta

    Context: Schools exert maximum influence on lives of children and youth; and can play a key role in supporting students health and by extension, the health of their families and communities. A teacher with sufficient knowledge on dental health can be a cornerstone in encouraging and motivating children. So, it is imperative to have teachers with good knowledge ,attitude and practices of oral health. Aims: To assess the Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral health among government school teachers of Panchkula. Settings and Design: A Multistage probability sampling was used. Methods and Material: The primary sampling unit comprised of Panchkula district. The teachers were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. Results: Around 91.4% female and 92% male teachers knew the fact that oral health does have a role on general health. When attitudes of teachers on oral health was assessed, it was observed that 90.7% female and all (100%) male teachers accepted the fact that maintenance of oral health is an individual responsibility. Around 86.4% female and 76% male teachers brushed their teeth twice daily and 13.6% female and 24% male teachers brushed once daily. Conclusions: Even though most of the teachers show satisfactory knowledge in some aspects of preventive oral health, they still lag behind in knowledge in some crucial parts of oral health. The results of this study did not show favorable performance from the teachers.

  49. OUATTARA Lamoussa Paul, SAWADOGO Adama, TAPSOBA François, KONATE Zégué Amidou, COULIBALY Anass, OUEDRAOGO Abdou Rasmane, CISSE Hama, ZONGO Cheikna and SAVADOGO Aly

    For the control of multiple new and resurgent diseases associated with microbial resistance to antimicrobials, there is renewed interest in using herbal medicines. However, the efficacy safety issues and good manufacturing practices associated with herbal medicines are major aspects to consider. The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in herbal medicines may adversely affect the therapeutic potential of the product or even make the product harmful to the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the hygienic quality and the microbiological hazard of herbal medicine produced and sold in city of Ouagadougou. Thus, a total of 45 samples of herbal medicines were collected randomly from the production sites of traditional practitioners and the various points of sale in Ouagadougou by herbalists. Research and enumeration of the total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts, and some specific pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Staphylococcus aureus were performed according to methods based on standard procedures. Good manufacturing practices were also assessed through sample filtration on a 0.45 μm diameter filter and then a cloth sieve to detect physical contaminants. The results were interpreted according to European Pharmacopoeia standards and microbiological criteria for ready-to-eat meals. The results indicate an absence of Salmonella and Shigella. It was noted the presence of S. aureus (2.91.103 CFU/ml to 6.17.103 CFU/ml). The average loads of the different germs in the traditional medicines of the production and sales sites were respectively 1.26.106 and 4.36.106 CFU/ml for the total aerobic mesophilic flora, 0.88.105 and 1.78.105 CFU/ml for yeast and moulds, 0.34.104 and 1.22.104 CFU/ml for total coliforms, 1.14.103 CFU/ml and 4.15.103 CFU/ml for thermo tolerant coliforms. The search for physical contaminants revealed presence of sand, leaf pieces, and stems in some traditional medicines. In sum, this study demonstrated the presence of some pathogenic bacteria in some ready-to-use oral herbal medicines and lake of good manufacturing practices and hygienic conditions during the production chain. Given the importance of phytomedicines in health systems throughout the world and particularly in developing countries, it is necessary to train and sensitize producers of phytomedicines in good manufacturing practices and hygiene.

  50. Vivodh Kushwaha

    The number of people over 65 years of age in India is predicted to reach 324 million by the year 2050. Currently, there are nearly 104 million elderlies in India. For radiographers, this signifies that in the near future majority of their patients will be more than 65 years of age or older. So, they must apprehend the ups and downs that occur as one grows older. The body undergoes physical and physiological changes as one ages and radiographer should be aware about them and act accordingly so as to prevent any harm to geriatric patients and achieve optimum images.

  51. Md. Abdullah-Al-Sayeef, Devjani Banik, Zinnat Ara Yesmin, Md. Mohiuddin Masum, Suneetha Susan Cleave Adam, and Sk. Tasnuva Alam

    Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disorder that exhibits a high degree of heterogeneity on both a clinical and molecular level. Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a nuclear phosphoprotein that contributes to the progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). NPM1 exon 12 is the most common site of genetic mutation in AML. Studies have been done to determine the diagnostic and prognostic levels of AML worldwide. The study of NPM1 gene mutation in adult AML patients has not been reported so far in Bangladesh. Objectives: The objective of the study is to detect the mutation in exon 12 of the NPM1 gene in adult AML patients of the Bangladeshi population. Methods: This research was a cross-sectional descriptive study. For detection of mutation in NPM1, genomic DNA was isolated and quantified. The target sequence was amplified by short-range PCR. To detect a mutation in exon 12 of the NPM1 gene, the amplicons were validated by gel electrophoresis and the sequence was performed using a Sanger sequencer. Data analysis was done using different databases and software. Results: In this research, the most frequent type of mutation identified was the frame-shift variant (57.11%). CATG/CCT was the most frequent allele change found in this study (16.16%). In this study, 7.21% of mutations were newly identified mutation. Conclusions: The sample size was small to decide and furthermore study is recommended. Despite of limitations this study emphasizes the importance of exploring the genetic makeup of the Bangladeshi population to develop a database.

  52. Kirti Sharma and Anil Kanaujia

    India is an importer of edible oil due to their less net domestic availability. Around 56-60% of the edible oils consumed in the country are met through imports. The three oils that the country imports are palm oil, which forms 36 per cent of India’s edible oil consumption, followed by soybean and sunflower oil, which constitute 22 per cent and 12 per cent of the demand (according to 2019-20 data from Solvent Extractors’ Association of India (SEA), agency monitoring edible oils), respectively. Vegetable oils and fats have a big contribution in our diet. They are important from nutritional and economical point of views. Because of their greater demand in national and international market adulteration in high price oil with low price oil is a major issue. The intake of adulterated oils and trans-fats in the human diet has had negative health repercussions, including cardiovascular disease, causing millions of deaths annually.

  53. Amadou Méité

    Diabetes is a chronic disease due to a failure in the regulation of blood sugar levels and is favored by a genetic and lifestyle predisposition. Of the three types (type 1 and 2, gestational), type 2 diabetes is the most common. Given its costly and painful treatment, its incurable and disabling nature, and its high mortality rate, one might think that people with this disease experience emotions more strongly and permanently. Consequently, these people may experience difficulties in regulating their emotions. The present study is part of the research conducted on individual differences in the use of emotional regulation strategies. Its objective is to study the influence of gender on emotion regulation difficulties in patients with diabetes. To this end, 198 volunteer patients (101 women and 97 men), ranging in age from 34 to 64 years, completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-F) by Dan-Glauser and Scherer (2013). The results indicate an effect of gender on emotional regulation and that this influence depends on the type of emotional regulation difficulties. In other words, there is a difference between men and women with diabetes in their ability to accept emotional responses, control themselves and engage in goal-directed behavior in a negative emotional context, and understand their emotions. Furthermore, the study reveals that the majority of men with diabetes, like women, are more frequently able to identify their own emotions but frequently have more difficulty implementing emotion regulation strategies in a negative emotional context.

  54. Lokenath Chakraborty, Sandip Mondal, Subir Kumar Nag and Basanta Kumar Das

    Anthropogenic activities increases the pollution level in the lower part of the Hooghly river. Several reports and research papers indicate towards the bioaccumulation of heavy metals. The present research aims to assess the concentration of the key pollutants released from adjacent drains into the Hooghly River and their presence in river water. To reach the goal, wastewater samples collected from some selected drains and river water collected from the adjacent bathing station to these drains. Collected samples are acid digested and took the results Most of the drains wastewaterwere found contaminated with different contaminants like Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, but the river water found under control. According to the status of Relative Accumulation Indices (RAI), calculating by the ratio concentration of metals in river water to drains water, Fe

  55. Houénafa Alain Togbenon, Thierry Godjo, Guy Degla and Shaibu Osman

    The objective of this work is to take advantage of existing mathematical models of anaerobic digestion processes in order to devise a new model that will optimize the methanization of biomass waste from the processing of agro-food products in Benin. Our arguments are based, on the one hand, on principles of energy conversion processes, the application of physical-chemical laws and the law of conservation of matter, and on the other hand, on the features of existing models that yield optimal energy conversion of waste from the processing of agro-food products. Several mathematical models of anaerobic digestion have been identified, described and analyzed in the context of energy conversion of agro-food waste. These models differ in the number of digestion steps considered and/or in the digestion operating mode. The analysis shows that for some models, the biomasses used are agro-food products or waste products, while for other models no biomass is used. Moreover, when the growth rate of bacteria is an increasing, positive and bounded function, we observe that the energy conversion rate is optimal shortly before half of the conversion time. For other models, the dilution rate, the substrate concentration and the volatile fatty acid concentration are the optimization parameters for energy conversion.Finally,all the models identified, described and analysed in the context of energy conversion of agri-food waste, those of Arras and Salih are developed when the digester is in batch operation. These models differ in the digestion mode and the number of digestion steps considered.

  56. Litty R., Mohammed Irfan T.K., Radhakrishnan V.V. and Mohanan K.V.

    This study intends to discover Curcuma zedoaria Rosc., also known as white turmeric is a promising member of the family Zingiberaceae. The plant is a source of several substances of medicinal and pharmacological significance. It has wide applications in the treatment of various diseases like diarrhoea, stomach ache, ulcer, cancer, etc. However, no attempt has been made to investigate the genetic variability and genetic control of the agronomic morphometric characters of the species. The present study showed that all the 15 morphometric characters studied displayed continuous frequency distribution, indicating polygenic control of the characters. Among the growth characters, number of tillers, number of leaves per tiller, leaf length and leaf area showed the accumulation of higher number of recessive alleles in the gene pool of the germplasm studied and plant height and leaf breadth showed the accumulation of higher number of dominant factors. All the yield characters studied such as yield per plant, number of primary fingers, number of secondary fingers, length of primary finger, circumference of primary finger, length of secondary finger, circumference of secondary finger, length of mother rhizome and the circumference of mother rhizome showed skewness towards the proximal side of the distribution with the accumulation of higher number of recessive factors. All the characters studied, however, displayed a relatively wide distribution of factor combinations, indicating that the plant species under study has a broad genetic base. The skewed nature of the distribution pattern of the morphometric characters towards the proximal side of the curve indicates the need of selection of genotypes with higher number of dominant alleles for the improvement of agronomic characters.

  57. DOGBEVI Afi Bienvenue; MELILA Mamatchi; TCHEGUENI Sanonka; DEGBE Koffi Agbegnigan; BAFAI Diyakadola Dihéénane; GANI Safouat and TCHANGBEDJI Gado

    Poultry is one of the main sources of animal protein that is mainly consumed in the world. At the same time its contribution has resulted in the creation of a substantial number of waste feathers. That end up in landfills creating environmental problems due to the ignorance of the actors about their socio-economic importance. Yet, they are renewable resources rich in keratin, a type of rigid and fibrous protein with multiple applications. This study which is an assessment of the level of knowledge of the actors of the poultry sector of the Maritime Region in Togo on the management of poultry feathers and their recovery, is a contribution to an efficient management and recovery of this waste. In total 36 structures were prospected using survey sheets, with the participation of one actor per structure. The survey carried out by semi-structured interview then made it possible to note that the actors experience a difficulty in the management of feathers, concomitantly with their slow biodegradability. Their storage without use then becomes a problem in poultry farming systems where these feathers are either thrown on dumps or simply incinerated. This difficulty in the management of poultry feathers explains their low storage observed through the present study, 27.78% against 88.89% for droppings. Even the valorization in composting remains very weak with only one structure on all the localities prospected and this, in spite of the high level of study of the actors. Overall, the actors in the poultry sector surveyed thus have little knowledge in the management and the use of these feathers. The valorization of poultry feathers in Togo therefore remains a challenge to be met.

  58. Marwa Mahmoud Selim, Dalia Ibraheem, AmiraIsmailKhater and Heba Gamal

    Introduction: In late December 2019, the first outbreak of COVID 19 appeared in Wuhan, China. The WHO announced the beginning of the pandemic and the COVID 19 as a global health emergency (WHO, 2020). As a result of this serious situation, the health care systems worldwide were overwhelmed by the high number of infected and panic cases resulted in exhaustion of resources. Patients and methods: Medical files for breast cancer patients in our institute under neoadjuvant chemotherapy who proved to be infected with COVID 19 virus from the January 2020 till December 2020 were reviewed. Results: Pathological complete response were seen in 69.0 % of cases (20 patients). Delayed time to CTH either 3weeks or one month didn’t affect PCR (P=0.688). However type of surgery had significant relation to PCR. As 10 out of 11 patients (90.9%) who did BCS achieving PCR (P=0.046). Conclusion: In this study, the interruption of the treatment of the locally advanced breast cancer due to infection by COVID 19 virus had no impact on achieving complete pathological response. The analysis of the temporal delay revealed that the delay from 3 week to one month away from date of next cycle maximum has no impact on pathological response. The type of pathological response may be affected by other clinical and biological factors

  59. Abhijit Sasmal and Deeparani Urolagin

    Objective: To investigate immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract leaves of Cestrum nocturnum in wistar rat. Method: Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhlation method for 8 hrs at 55-600C and stored at 220C in a sealed airtight container. Hydro-alcoholic leave sextract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for immunomodulatory activity and given to the wistar rat at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of 6 mice each orally once a day for 14 days. Levamisole is also given to another group to support the result at a dose of 50mg/kg of body weight orally once a day for 14 days. DTH, HA, TLC, DLC are calculated for the rats.

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