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November 2020

  1. Dr. Tejesh Singh, Dr. Arjun Agarwal and Dr. Cheena Garg

    Background: Soft tissue sarcoma are rare among which synovial sarcoma account for 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcoma. Case report: This case corresponds to a 55 year old male patient presented to surgery OPD with swelling over nape of neck for 1 year. Contrast CT showed well defined heterogeneously enhancing lobulated mass lesion of size 38x51x60mm. FNAC revealed malignant spindle cell lesion. Histopathology of excised specimen showed malignant round/spindle cell neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry was done and was suggestive of synovial sarcoma of nape of neck. Discussion: Numerous spindle cell lesion can present along nape of neck. Surgery is considered mainstay of management of synovial sarcoma. More advanced diseases requires combined treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy.In this casepatient is now undertaking adjuvant external beam radiotherapy.

  2. Dr. Subhajit Saha, Dr. Madhumaitri Patra, Dr. Arindam Karmakar, Dr. Sanjit Lal Das and Dr. Sanjoy Das

    Ridge resorption is a continuous process following tooth extraction and leads to poor denture foundation. Absence of periodontal receptor after teeth loss is responsible for lack of proprioception and improper mastication. So, whenever any tooth with good periodontal support are present, tooth supported over denture can be planned to avail support for occlusal force, prevent accelerated rate of bone resorption and improved stability. These over dentures are retained by various attachment systems. So, the retention will be better than conventional complete denture. This clinical report contains a detailed description of tooth supported over denture fabrication using ball and O ring attachment.

  3. Arathy Krishna U.R. , Ajith R Pillai, Jayanth Jayarajan, Fawas shaj and Joseph jose

    Background: Orthodontic treatment make oral hygiene maintenance difficult, there by creating a favourable environment for bacterial accumulation. Acid produced by the oral bacteria can demineralise the tooth leading to white spot lesions. Antimicrobial agents are recommended to reduce the bacterial growth. The aim of this study to compare the antimicrobial properties of primer containing Chlorhexidine, Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride, Triclosan and conventional primer using planktonic and biofilm model of Streptococcus mutans and to compare physical properties of primers by analyzing shear bond strength and bond failure pattern. Methodology: Three antimicrobial agents were incorporated respectively to Transbond XT primer. MIC and MBC values of newly prepared primers were determined. Antibacterial activity of four primers (TX, TX-CHX, TX-CPC and TX-Triclosan) against growth of Streptococcus mutans in both planktonic and biofilm model was analysed by performing growth and biofilm assay. These antimicrobial agents added primers were used for bonding brackets on to the tooth. The shear bond strength of conventional and newly prepared primers were tested using universal testing mechine. Result: TX-CHX had stronger antimicrobial activity against S. mutans in the planktonic and biofilm phases than TX, TX-CPC and TX-Triclosan. The antimicrobial activity of TX-CHX was maintained after thermocycling. Chlorhexidine incorporated with XT primer shows better Shear bond strength than Triclosan and Cetyl pyridenium chloride incorporated primers but less than XT primer. Conclusion: TX-CHX has better antibacterial property than TX-CPC, TX-Triclosan and TX. Antibacterial agents added primers has sufficient bond strength to withstand orthodontic force. TX-CHX has better shear bond strength than TX-CPC and TX-Triclosan but less than XTprimer

  4. Dr. Athul Antony Simon, Dr. Stelin Agnes Michael, Dr. Lizamma Alex, Dr. Geena Benjami and Mrs. Nisha Kurien

    Background: Various disease processes can affect the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) altering its joint anatomy causing low back ache. The information obtained from physical examination of SIJ is often not adequate and the use of the radiological imaging methods gains importance for the diagnosis of SIJ diseases. Objective: The main objective of this study was to measure the articular space width of SIJ, in-order to ascertain its normal size and to probe the anatomic variations of SIJ in relation to age and sex of the patient, within south Indian population using Computed Tomography (CT). Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional radiological study was performed utilizing 3mm abdominal & pelvic CT slices acquired from 301 patients (197 males; 104 females) without sacroiliac complaint, who had undergone scanning for other unrelated pathology. Result: The overall mean SIJ space width measured was 2.63±0.78 mm. The mean joint space width for males and females were 2.54±0.67 mm and 2.79±0.93 mm respectively. In adults below 40 years, the measured width was 2.71±0.89 mm and in older patients it was 2.66±0.77 mm. 130 (43.2%) individuals had uniform SIJ and remaining 171 (56.8%) showed non-uniformity. Five anatomical variations were observed; accessory SIJ (9 patients, 3%), iliosacral complex (26 patients, 8%), semicircular defect (23 patients, 7%), ossification centers (9 patients, 3%) and crescentic defect (2 patients, 1%). Conclusion: This study has helped us determine the normal SIJ space width existing in South Indian population and determine the frequency of observed anatomic variants. The data acquired through this study, along with its inferences can help in various pathological correlations.

  5. Emilia Visileanu, Laura Chiriac, Maria Memecică, Razvan Scarlat, Alina Vladu

    Fabrication of biomaterials composed of natural and synthetic materials that are incorporated with an antibiotic is an attractive topic in wound healing. This study involves the design, development, and evaluation of a new multifunctional hernia mesh for the treatment of abdominal wall defects without complications. The developed hernia mesh is a composite of synthetic and natural materials with its backbone consisting of PES, PA and PP mesh to provide the required mechanical integrity. The meshes were coated with a natural, biodegradable, biocompatible and antimicrobial layer of chitosan (CS) for healing promotion and incorporating gentamicin sulfate (GS) as an antibacterial agent. The developed mesh showed excellent biocompatibility, antimicrobial activity and mechanical properties, and could be an ideal and feasible alternative mesh for hernia with many advantages, such as low cost, inertness, mechanical stability, pliability, low rate of infection, non-carcinogenicity, restricted inflammatory reaction, hypoallergenic and minimal complications.

  6. Assoc. Prof. Agu, P.A. and Dr. Iyamu, C.O.

    This study investigated the effect of gender on attitude among secondary school students taught physics concept using metacognitive scaffolding teaching strategy in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. The study asked two research questions and postulated two null hypotheses which were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Quasi experimental research design involving non randomized control pretest-posttest design was utilized. The study population consisted of 2699 Senior Secondary II (SSII) physics students drawn from 54 public SSII physics students in FCT, Abuja. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 75 SSII physics students from two SS as sample for the study. One instrument consisting of Attitude to Thermal Energy Questionnaire (ATEQ) was used for data collection. The data collected from this instrument were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The research question was answered using mean and standard deviation while the null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Findings from the analyzed data showed that physics students taught using metacognitive scaffolding teaching strategy had better attitude towards thermal energy than their counterparts in the control group. Also, male physics students did not have a better attitude towards thermal energy than their female counterpart when taught usingmetacognitive scaffolding teaching strategy. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that physics teachers should be encouraged to teach using metacognitive scaffolding teaching strategy. Government and educational agencies, curriculum planners and developers should encourage the training of physics teachers on metacognitive scaffolding teaching during seminars, workshops and conferences.

  7. Dr. Zanvar Varsha and Bhoyar Archana

    Present cross sectional study was carried out to assess anthropometric variables on growth & nutritional status of adolescent girls among 600 adolescent girls of 16-18years from Parbhani district, Maharashtra. The anthropometric status of selected adolescent girls was determined by recording height (cm), weight (kg), mid upper arm circumference (cm), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm) and hip: waist ratio. Body Mass Index was calculated using value of height and weight. On the basis of BMI, adolescent girls were categorized into different grades of under nutrition. Daily food intake of each selected adolescent girls was recorded with the help of three day recall method and weightment method. Nutrient intake was calculated by using Nutritive value of Indian food book. Percent adequacy of food intake was calculated using balance diet table for adolescent girls and percent adequacy of nutrient intake was done by using RDA table. The finding of study showed that Recorded values for anthropometric measurements revealed that urban girl’s exhibits better values for height and weight while rural girls noted highest value for body mass index. Adolescent girls were categorized in to different grade of under nutrition on the basis of BMI. As per area, age, food habit and family income level showed that 5.00 to 71.62 per cent of girls were normal while remaining were suffering with one or other degree of under nutrition. Mean per cent adequacy for cereal ranged from 67.64 to 84.21 per cent. The per cent adequacy for pulses intake was ranged from 49.67 to 70.35 per cent. The range of per cent adequacy for green leafy vegetable, roots & tubers and other vegetables was 28.95 to 34.68, 16.13 to 20.01 and 18.14 to 33.1 per cent respectively. Per cent adequacy for fruit intake was ranged from 23.82 to 36.3. Per cent adequacy for Milk and milk products intake was ranged from 16.7 to 23.45. Per cent adequacy for fats and oil ranged from 42.86 to 80.12 per cent. Whereas per cent adequacy of calorie intake was ranged from 65.17 to 72.12 per cent. Per cent adequacy of protein and fat intake was ranged from 90.24 to 98.32 and 112.19 to 132.77 per cent. Per cent adequacy of iron, calcium and zinc intake ranged from 72.47 to 89.21, 40.4 to 62.77 and 53.76 to 73.81 per cent respectively. Per cent adequacy of β-carotene intake ranged from 2.02 to 98.45 per cent. Per cent adequacy of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin were ranged from 50.55 to 90.18, 56.47 to 94.68 and 83.43 respectively. Per cent adequacy of folic acid intake ranged from 102.89 to 122.85 per cent whereas vitamin C consumption ranged from 73.31 to 153.82 per cent.

  8. Maha Al Turki, MSc, PhD., Kavita Sudersanadas M., MSc, PhD., Saeed Wujd., BSc., Amjad ATofail, BSc., Yara A Marshad, BSc., Lina A Sherbini, BSc., Amir Ahmed A., MSc and Winnie Philip.MSc.

    Background: Stigma towards individuals with obesity is a matter of global concern with several biopsychosocial outcomes. Obesity stigma from the general public keeps those with obesity to stay away from health care, employment, and educational facilities. The development of stereotypes due to weight stigma can limit opportunities and increase psychosocial distress among overweight or obese individuals. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess sociodemographic determinants of obesity stigma/ fat phobia of the general public. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done in Riyadh city of KSA. A representative sample of adult residents of both gender (n=374) of Riyadh city was selected at random. A validated and structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data. The obesity stigma of the respondents towards individuals with obesity was measured by using a Fat Phobia Scale (FPS). Data analysis was undertaken to examine sociodemographic variables' influence on the fatphobia score using chi-square analysis: percentages, Mann Whitney U test. Median, Inter Quartile Ranges (IQR), and frequency distribution were used to express the data. Results: Weight stigma of the mild form (FPS= 3.00 (2.79, 3.21) was observed among the general public. Females showed more obesity stigma than males. Sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, and marital status have no significant influence on fatphobia. Educational status significantly influences the FPS and fatphobia. Conclusions: The general public has mild fatphobia/weight stigma, which can be changed with higher education and health education.

  9. Guilherme Abraham Peres

    O presente artigo trata da importância do relacionamento entre a administração e a mecânica quântica. Na parte inicial foram abordadas as intenções e o caminho percorrido para atingir o objetivo e em seguida as necessidades e obstáculos a serem vencidos, bem como os procedimentos utilizados para buscar as informações e colocar em prática. Este artigo também pretende aproximar o estudo quântico, que são os fenômenos que acontecem por meio de medidas discretas e a administração moderna. Por último as considerações finais, os avanços alcançados com a realização da pesquisa, apontando as perspectivas de continuidade e suas vantagens.

  10. Dr. Emily Odhong

    The world, including the world of work is increasingly getting diverse, with constant changes which has the potential to intensify in future. There is no predetermined future for the world of work but labour market actors including policy makers have to continue to anticipate what future holds. The general objective is to analyse employment relationship in a changing world of work: challenges and recommend pragmatic solutions. The paper adopted Labour Process Theory, Change Theory and Industrial relations theory to explain the employment relationship and the changing world of work. The paper adopted pragmatic and interpretive research philosophy. Desk review was conducted. Secondary data was used to analyse the various types of employment relationship and changing patterns in the world of work. The paper explains that there are two forms of employment relationship: standard employment and non-standard employment relationship. The paper identifies globalisation, and technological advancement as the mainstay for change, and COVID 19 pandemic as a catalyst of change. The paper concludes that there is no one size-fit-all approach in managing employment relationship and suggest adoption of integrated approaches in identifying pragmatic solutions. These includes: rights-based approach, needs based approach, market-based approach and human centered approaches.

  11. Dr. Rosen Tsolov and Assoc. Prof. Georgi Yordanov

    In this report, we present a case of radicular keratocyst in a patient at the age of 46 who was admitted to the clinic for maxillofacial surgery with the formation of the mandible. The patient's jaw undergoes decompression to reduce the risk of fracture in emergency surgery. The diagnosis was confirmed by histological and radiological examination. One month after surgery, the cystic formation was removed without fracture, and no reconstruction plate was required.

  12. Dr. Arun krishnan, Dr. Deepti Diwakar, Dr. Vijay Ebenezer and Dr. Balakrishnan, R.

    Endoscopic surgery or keyhole surgery is a minimally invasive medical procedure in which endoscope is used, and it has obtained wide acceptance and popularity in several surgical fields and has improved the standard of surgery.Endoscope is described as an ‘‘extra set of eyes,’’ and is the tool for innovations across multiple surgical fields and fabrication of a new instruments and surgical techniques. Various maxillofacial surgeries like TMJ disorders, jaw pathologies, trauma and facial aesthetic surgeries can be diagnosed and treated with lesser rate of complications using endoscopic techniques. This article presents a general review of use of endoscopy in maxillofacial surgery.

  13. Dr. Umapathy, T. Gowda and Dr. Vatsala BT

    Hypodontia and oligodontia are the two most common genetic disorders encountered by dentists on routine oral examination. Hypodontia is the congenital absence of one or less than six teeth and may affect permanent teeth. Probable causes for hypodontia are environmental factors, radiation, trauma, infection and genetic mutations. It is necessary to document such condition to enhance the knowledge about congenitally missing teeth. This paper reports a case of bilateral agenesis of permanent mandibular central incisors in a healthy 12-year-old Indian male patient.

  14. Ashebir Haile Tefera

    A rapid growing of Ethiopian population and rising living standards are increasing the demands for agricultural products especially on food crops. Under this higher pressure over the available water resources of the country are increasing in irrigated agriculture. Higher agricultural productivity means inputs and water should be applied more efficiently. Therefore, understanding water and nitrogen redistribution in the soil profile is important to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency for sustainable agriculture. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal irrigation scheduling and fertilizer rate for better water use efficiency under irrigated agriculture. The effects of irrigation interval on maize yield and other crop properties were also assessed. The experiment was carried in the randomized completed block design experimental design with a combination of five levels of irrigation treatments and three levels of fertilizer rate with three replications of the treatments. The result revealed that the plot received an optimal irrigation interval of 14 days in a combination of 25% more than the recommended fertilizer rate (292.24kg/ha) had significantly higher effects on above-ground biomass (18.25 t /ha) and on grain yield (4.8 t/ha ) of irrigated maize in the study area. However, the maximum water use efficiency of 2.05 kg/m3was obtained at the irrigation interval of 14 days, and the highest level of fertilizer rate. Hence, the use of 14 days of optimal irrigation interval and 25% more fertilizer than the recommended rate is advisable because the grain yield and crop water use efficiency had been improved in the study area. This optimization approaches will be worthwhile in farms with low water availability and input management, high profitability, and high economic capacity,

  15. Noufal, P., Param Preet Kaur and Ambady, K.G.

    Physics is the one of the interesting subject for the students in the undergraduate and post graduate level. Students prefer to learn Physics because of their own interest or any external factors. Students wants to spend more time on the subject in order to get mastery over it. In the similar manner, to maintain the quality education, the teacher education institutes have the prominent role, they want to focus more on the education part of the subject. Students who were enrolled to the teacher training colleges should have to play a crucial role in developing and maintaining the future science education. This study focussed on finding the interest towards Physics subject of the prospective teachers who are enrolled in the integrated teacher training programmes. The study was conducted among prospective teachers of integrated teacher training institute who are pursuing their MSc. Ed programme in the south India. The study was employed the descriptive survey study method. Sample of the study includes the students from various academic years. Results shows that the boys having more interest towards learning Physics than girls in the integrated teacher training institute and other factors like pre-school education, plus two percentage of marks in Physics, etc. are not depending on the learning of Physics.

  16. Anand, G., Thamizhmani, S. and Vanniarajan, C.

    An investigation was carried out with 50 elite foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv) germplasm to evaluate the extent of genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield and its components during rabi, 2016. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences for all the 13 characters studied ensure the existence of variability among the genotypes. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for all the traits except for days to 50 % flowering, which had high heritability and moderate genetic advance. The trait grain yield had strong correlation with its component traits like straw yield per plant, single panicle weight, panicle width, panicle length, flag leaf length, plant height, number of tillers per plant, length of inflorescence and number of productive tillers per plant. Path analysis revealed that length of inflorescence had high direct effect on grain yield, while other traits had negligible amount of direct effect on grain yield.

  17. Anju Soni, Anitha Rani, A. and Kusum Soni

    Background: Menopause, an important and unavoidable physiological and biological change of a normal women. It is considered as another undesirable sign of ageing. Menopausal symptoms influences the psychological, physical, vasomotor and sexual health related quality of life of the women. Thus the current study was aimed to access the menopause related symptoms and their impact on the women’s quality of life using Menopause‑Specific QOL Questionnaire (MENQOL). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 250 menopausal women and health‑related of QOL was assessed using menopause quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL). Results: The mean age at menopause was 46.63±2.15 years. Nearly 94.24% of women experienced more than five menopausal symptoms. The prevalence of symptoms in each domain of MENQOL was recorded as physicaldomain73.82%, vasomotor domain was 63.4%, psychologicaldomain 48.68%, and sexual domains (24.4%) accordingly. An overall mean MENQOL score of physical (30.72±3.67), psychological (12.49±3.25), vasomotor (4.59 ± 2.96), and sexual (3.975±2.33) health‑related QOL indicating poor quality of life after menopause. Statistical significant differences were observed between the demographic variables and the MENQOL scores in all domains at P < 0.05. The high MENQOL scores in all domains, showed menopausal symptoms was associated with poor quality of life. Conclusion: The present study finding concluded that the menopausal symptoms affects both physical and psychological aspect of women’s life. Ageing, educational status and sedentary life style contributes more towards the poor quality of life of menopausal women.

  18. Ajay Joji James, Ajith R Pillai, Jayanth Jayarajan, Fawas Shaj, Shifa Mohammed Jabar and Joseph Jose

    Introduction- Debonding of brackets following orthodontic treatment, often leaves adhesive remnant on the enamel surface even after cleaning, polishing with rotary instruments. Aim -This study compares the efficiency of adhesive removal using traditional tungsten carbide bur and stainbuster fibre glass bur. Materials and Methods- 36 premolar teeth extracted as part of orthodontic treatment from patients following debonding of brackets were selected and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was measured. Based on score 1 of ARI, debonded premolars were selected.This study compares the efficiency of adhesive removal using traditional tungsten carbide bur and stainbuster fibre glass bur. The removal of adhesive remaining on the enamel surface located on right and left quadrants were done in a mesio-distal direction with tungsten carbide bur and stainbuster fibre glass bur for 20 seconds. The premolars were extracted without damaging the enamel surface. The enamel damage was analyzed based upon EDI scores under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at magnification of x500. Statistical Analysis and Results- The statistical test employed in the present research is chi2 test. Score 1 surface was observed in most tooth samples with stain buster fibre glass group and EDI score 4 was observed in most tooth samples with tungsten carbide group. There is significant difference between the two burs (p < 0.001) as well as between four quadrants (p< 0.001). Conclusions- Stainbuster fibre glass bur was less damaging to enamel surface, removed adhesive resin remnant more efficiently and created a smoother enamel surface compared to tungsten carbide bur.

  19. Dr. Romita Gaikwad, Dr. Runal Bansod, Dr. Ramhari Sathawane and Dr. Rakhi Chandak

    Capillary haemangiomas are benign vascular tumours uncommonly encountered by the dentists. Capillary haemangiomas are developmental hamartomatous lesions of vascular tissue. Although most commonly haemangiomas may appear on the head and neck region, they very rarely manifest in the oral cavity. This article presents a rare case of capillary haemangioma showing unilateral involvement of oral cavity.

  20. Hassan Osman Mohamed, Weng Ming Li, Menghan Gao and Da Peng Lei

    To analyze the characteristics and diagnosis of hypopharyngeal and esophageal double primary cancer and explore the treatment strategy of hypopharyngeal and esophageal (1,2) double primary cancer. We collected and analyzed n= 49 patients with hypopharyngeal and esophageal double primary cancer. The total number of patients was 49. There are male and female patients. N=47 male, N=2, female, and they are all diagnosed with hypopharyngeal esophageal double primary Synchronous cancer. 18 are younger than age <55, 18 were about 55-65, 13 were over age> 65. The clinical data of patients with hypopharyngeal and esophageal double primary cancer from February 2017 to September 2019, these patients came to our department of Otorhinolaryngology in qilu hospital of Shandong university .for the first time because of pharyngeal disease, after we find hypopharyngeal cancer, esophageal cancer found by performing a gastroscopy, we collected to date of patients (n=49), in Qilu hospital were retrospectively analyzed data, Including the auxiliary examination method, gastroscopy examination all patient showed no symptoms of esophageal discomfort, among 17 cases were evaluated for hypopharyngeal tumor who could not preserve laryngeal function total laryngectomy total esophagus, resection, and total tubular gastric replacement, was performed, in all 17 cases. There were 5 cases of hypopharyngeal and esophageal resection with preserving laryngeal cancer were used. There a clinical-stage of esophageal cancer was used minimally invasive surgery under gastroscopy. There were 8 cases of hypopharyngeal carcinoma resection with laryngeal function preservation and gastroscopic esophageal lesion. Endoscopic submucosal dissection,ESD was used. The remaining 19 cases were treated with radiotherapy. Due to physical tolerance, there was not perform a surgical operation. There were 5 cases of death due to postoperative complications of the liver and lung metastasis. for the long term treatment and the follow up was about 37 months, there is a classification of pathological and the survival.

  21. Zhifu Wu

    Objective: To explore the composition and microstructure of oyster shell. Methods: The composition of calcined oyster shell was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, and the microstructure of calcined oyster shell was observed by scanning electron microscope. Results: The XRD patterns of calcined oyster were consistent with the characteristic peaks of calcium carbonate PDF standard card 88-1807, silicon dioxide PDF standard card 85-0794 and calcium hydroxide PDF standard card 87-0673. Conclusion: The main component of calcined oyster shell is calcium carbonate, and contains trace amount of silicon dioxide and calcium hydroxide.

  22. Leonard Michael Onyinyechi Aminigbo, (Ph.D) MGEOSON, MNIS

    This study investigated road segmentation and its effect on road traffic congestion in Apapa (LGA) of Lagos state, Nigeria. The aim is to carry out spatial data structures of dynamic road segmentation of APAPA LGA showing the road segment (spatial data) and its topological information.. Survey research design was used to gather data through primary and secondary sources. The data collected were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.2 software to develop geospatial database for road congestion management and control. The results showed that road traffic congestion has negative effect on firms' performance in Apapa seaport and its environs. This paper concluded that economic activities within Apapa LGA have been negatively affected by road traffic congestion. It was recommended that firms can actually move to a more comfortable zone to reduce stakeholders such as customers' and employees' stress of entry and exit in that location and increase business owners 'chances of expanding their businesses.

  23. Ahmed Mohammed AlGhamdi, L., Abdullah Safar AlShahrani, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Ragabah, Sami Saad AlShehri, Abdulrahman Yarub Balhmar and Saad Bander Altulihe

    Introduction: Dental education has evolved to a great deal over the course of the past few decades. Several methods and techniques have been utilized to achieve the desired learning outcomes at the end of the course. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study, which utilized a closed-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed online using Google forms and began with questions related to demographics, including gender, educational level, and GPA. Furthermore, questions were asked about the perception of students about different teaching methods being asked separately, factors affecting their opinion, and suggestions to improve or incorporate additional methods. Results: A total of 721 male and female students filled up the online survey, which comprised of 56% males and 44% females. The participants were also grouped based on dentistry level, which demonstrated that 53% were level 10, 24% were level 11 and 23% were from level 12. Conclusions: Lower level of dental students showed a highly significant positive attitude towards different teaching methods as compared to higher-level dental students.

  24. Lama Alhathally and Emad Alsuwat

    Nowadays, quite a lot of users became victims of cyberattacks campaigns especially those that depend on holding a document to get a ransom. In other words, users tend to save their vital documents on computers or on the cloud which makes these documents exposed to adversarial attackers. Ransomware is an emerging cyberattack and one of the toughest kinds of scareware to fight against. Moreover, it’s not feasible to detect ransomware attacks with classical methods because suck attacks are evolving and reforming very quickly which makes it hard for antiviruses to detect such threats. There are three detection methods that can accurately detect this emerging attack. These detection methods are based on classifying and analyzing network traffic to extract abnormal behavior and thus detect ransomware. Moreover, it is possible to use machine learning techniques to erect a model for detecting this attack. Using honeypot to deceive the ransom ware and discover it a faster method for detecting ransomware attacks. There are effective preventing methods that can thwart this attack from happening, such as making an up-to-date backup and avoiding clicking on untrusted email links and attachments.

  25. Dr. Hashiq N., Dr. Anees UP., Dr. Ramesh Nigade and Dr. Anil B Kurane

    The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has affected the global health system with an urgent need for more sophisticated studies. One of the prominent aspects of COVID-19 is the feature of the disease in pediatric population. In a retrospective study, four children COVID-19 patients confirmed with RT-PCR nasotracheal sampling and typical clinical features were assessed .All our patients did not have any underlying disease and were discharged after recovery from the disease. These patients were aged 5-15 years old. COVID-19 affects pediatric population while the outcome might be better if there is no underlying condition. However, any major systemic disease should raise caution.

  26. Dr. Kiranmai, R., Dr. Rajaram, G., Dr. Janardhana Raju, B.

    Background: SSIs are responsible for 31% of all HAIs among all hospitalized patients with 3% mortality rate. In spite of improvement in the preventative aspects, surgical site infections still remain a major problem with high morbidity and mortality. Aim and objectives: To isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial pathogensfrom Surgical site infection cases and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolated pathogens. Method: A total of 100 clinical samples of suspected SSIs were studied from the Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati from June 2018 to May 2019.The pus samples were collected from the infected surgical site after taking precautions to reduce contamination by the normal skin flora. The samples were processed in the Department of Microbiology, by conventional culture methods to identify the pathogen and to determine its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Result: Out of 100 suspected samples, 58 of them were culture positive for pathogenic organisms. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate followed by Klebsiellapneumoniae. Conclusion: Proper infection control practices, including sterilization and disinfection techniques, surgical attire and drapes, asepsis during surgical technique , microbiological sampling of OT, appropriate pre-operative preparation of the patient and antimicrobial prophylaxis can reduce SSIs.

  27. FONTE, Cristina and COIMBRA, Filipe

    Most fibro-osseous lesions are radiographic findings observed as radiopaque and radiolucent images, usually asymptomatic. Objective: To study the contribution of radiographic characteristics associated with cemento-osseous dysplasias to the differential diagnosis with other more severe and invasive pathologies. Materials and Methods: In this study, 254 radiopaque and radiolucent images were analyzed, detected in orthopantomographies, performed in the first consultation, compatible with cemento-osseous dysplasias. Results: Lesions with irregularly shaped edges present a significantly higher proportion when associated with teeth. As the size of the lesions increases, the likelihood that their shape is irregular increases. Conclusions: The similarity of these pathologies with other lesions imposes the need to make a differential diagnosis taking into account the clinical history, radiographic and histological characteristics of these lesions for a correct treatment and monitoring of the patient. Clinical relevance: It is essential that the dentist is familiar with the diagnosis of these lesions found on routine radiographs, for a correct therapeutic approach.

  28. Afrozulla Khan Z. and Falak Khan

    In this research, we examine the rape patterns In India and its states during the years 2015-2019 by age and region. The present study used the annually published data on crimes from the National Crimes Records Bureau (NCRB) India for 2015-2019.For now, we are oblivious of the fact of how many cases happen in the country as the NCRB data reveals just the reported number of cases that are compiled from the police station records all over the country. During the study period, the total reported incidence of crimes against women in India (per 100,000 women) has increased and the rape cases decreased from 2015 to 2019. The outcome portrays that the rate of rape cases in India decreased from 5.7% to 4.9% during 2015-2019. The New Delhi nation capital has decreased the rate from 22.6 to 13.5%. Age group, 18-30 years have been found the more vulnerable group as compared to other age groups in this study.

  29. Dr. Gunarathna, N.K.C.

    Background: early marriages and teenage pregnancies affect the quality of life of girls preventing them obtaining higher educational qualifications and having better occupational opportunities. Objectives: To study the characteristics of teenage pregnancies and their related outcomes of estate population in Rathnapura district, Sri Lanka. Materials & Methods: Community based descriptive study was conducted among 346 estate women in Rathnapura district in the Sabaragamuwa province in Sri Lanka who conceived within the year 2015 selected by cluster sampling technique. Data were collected by trained health volunteers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Rate of teenage pregnancies was expressed in percentage with its 95% confidence interval. Characteristics of teenage mothers were assessed in percentages. Pregnancy outcomes between teen and non teen mothers were assessed using chi-square test with calculation of p values for statistical significance. Results: Rate of teenage pregnancies was 10.1% (95% CI=7.7, 12.52). Of them 22.9% were below 18 years. Total of 12 women (38.7%) were not legally married while only 11 non teen women were not legally married. Among these 31 teenage pregnant mothers, 3 were pregnant for the second time while only one had a living child. Previous pregnancies of other two mothers had gotten aborted spontaneously. Out of all teenage pregnancies, 20 (64.5%) were unplanned while only 3 out of 31 (9.6%) have used family planning in their lives. The main stated reason for not using a family planning method was that they did not know about family planning methods (65%) while 20% reasoned as non availability of modern family planning methods closer to them. Among pregnancy outcomes, statistical association could be observed for encountering problems in breastfeeding within first 48 hours of delivery (χ2=6.652; p=0.009), for satisfactory weight gain within first month (χ2=6.71; p=0.009) and mother starting modern family planning method at six weeks after delivery (χ2=7.2603; p=0.007). Statistical association could not be observed between outcome of pregnancy (χ2=2.61; p=0.10), birth weight (χ2=3.672; p=0.055), starting breastfeeding within one hour of delivery (χ2=0.0024; p=0.961) and newborn getting complications within 48 hours of delivery (χ2=1.369; p=0.237). Conclusions: High rate of teenage pregnancies with poor outcomes in the estate population requires identification of risk factors to improve their health status as well as socioeconomic status.

  30. Johnson, A.G., Ravindran, V., Ravindran Nair, K.S., Manoj Joseph Michael, Padma, E. and Vishnu, J.

    Background & Objectives: With the advent of high-speed transportation systems, the occurrence of Injury and death due to trauma is on the rise. Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally. The weather has been cited as a risk factor for road traffic accidents. The objective of the study is to find out the variation of incidence and severity of maxillofacial trauma caused due to road traffic accidents during the various seasons in the Northern Districts of Kerala. Method: Hospital records of 3233 patients who sought treatment in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for traumatic maxillofacial injury irrespective of the aetiology over a period of one year extending from 1st Jan 2017 to 31st Dec 2017were assessed. The patients were identified according to the type of aetiology, season in which trauma has occurred and the severity of the trauma. Result & Discussion: The proportion of distribution of maxillofacial trauma seems to be similar, and in the case of RTA the daily average of number of cases were 4.51 and 5.51 cases per day (p=.13) during monsoon and non-monsoon season. There severity of maxillofacial trauma cases during monsoon was greater (p˂.01). Most of the victims being two-wheeler users and among the 21-30 yrs. age group. Conclusion: There is a definite decrease in average number of maxillofacial trauma during monsoon compared to non monsoon season, the decrease may be due to increased caution taken by the road users. Trauma during monsoon season are more severe.

  31. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Irfana Ilyas and Dr. Aravind .A

    Esthetic treatment requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the greatest challenges to pediatric dentists. The choice of restoration depends on various factors such as amount of tooth structure remaining, ability to obtain adequate moisture control, child’s cooperating ability, esthetic demands, and cost factor. A practitioner should choose convenient, durable, and reliable solution which is fulfilled with complete knowledge of different crown forms.Satisfactory restoration of these teeth, improving esthetics, along with management of space and function has always been a challenge for pediatric dentists. Although restorations placed in pediatric patients are technically temporary, they are often required to last for years, meaning that the need for strength and durability—as well as esthetics—should not be underestimated. An ever-increasing demand for esthetics has lead to innovations and development of newer treatment modalities for these problems. The purpose of this article is to review latest materials and techniques in managing primary anterior teeth to decide the choice of the full coronal restorative material.

  32. Dr. Ganesh Shenoy, K., Dr. Vikram J. Rao and Dr. Ramesh Makam

    Background: The current COVID (Corona Virus Disease) era has brought out many questions which are still unanswered. Safety regarding treatment of non-COVID ailments has become a major concern. The aim of this study is to present short-term results, to assess the safety and feasibility of Laparoscopic hernia repair in the COVID times. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study from a prospective data base carried from 25th March 2020 till September 30th 2020. Total of 47 patients underwent laparoscopic hernia repair at our centre and 2 underwent laparoscopic retrieval of infected mesh. A novel technique of smoke evacuation was used during laparoscopic surgeries. Results: 44 patients underwent elective surgery & 5 on emergency basis.16 underwent laparoscopic surgery for groin hernia and 31 for Ventral hernia. 2 patients were operated for mesh infection. 5 patients were tested positive on RT-PCR in the pre-operative evaluation. There was no major intraoperative complications. Conclusion: Laparoscopic hernia repair is safe and feasible in the COVID era, provided all the precautions are followed according to the approved guidelines. However, the sample size of our study is small and the follow up of patients is short term.

  33. Ali Alsharif, Fahad Albahri and Renad Alamoudi

    Clinical case of successful diagnosis and management of maxillary second premolar with abnormal and very rare morphology, then description of non- invasive treatment methods by using an optical microscope, and control memory files.

  34. Sunita, Nidhi Sharma and Dr. Anurag

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to observe and analyze the diaphyseal nutrient foramen on the human dry long bones of the lower limb in Uttarakhand region, India, to know the number and location of the diaphyseal nutrient foramen following its general rule which is directed away from the growing end. Materials and Methods: The present study consists of 75 human dry long bones of lower limb (25 femur, 25 tibiae, 25 fibulae),taken from the department of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehradun,Uttarakhand, India. The foraminal indices (by Hughes formula) and mean value were calculated for each bone. Digital calliper was used for the measurements of the nutrient foramen from the higher point of the proximal end of the bone. Results: The neurovascular foramen was present in all 75(100%) observed bones. 42 diaphyseal nutrient foramina in Femur, 27 in tibiae and 28 in fibulae were noticed. The maximum nutrient foramina were located along the middle third of the femur with the foramen index ranging between 28.83 and 66.52% of the bone length. In Tibia 23(85.18%) maximum were in the proximal third (Type-1) and 4(14.81%) were in the middle third (Type-2) with the foramen index ranging between 24.45 and 54.38% of the bone length. There was a variation seen in the tibiae at the middle third of the posterior surface, a nutrient foramina was conducted which directed to the upper end of the tibiae (Photograph-10) whereas all the other foramina observed directed distally. The maximum nutrient foramina of fibulae were situated in the middle third of the bone with a foramen index ranging between 32.23 and 63.86% of the bone length. There were no foramina in the distal third (Type-3) of any observed bone. There was a variation conducted at the flattened part of the posterior surface showing the double nutrient foramina at the same place near each other at middle 1/3rd of the bone (Photograph-11, Photograph-12) directed distally. Conclusion: This study provides the ethnic data on lower limb long bones of Uttarakhand region to compare with bones of various populations. It is helpful for interpretation of radiological images and various surgical procedures also.

  35. Amal Abdoh Mohammed Saeed and Nuha Eljaili Abubaker

    Back ground: Liver damage associated with preeclampsia may array from mild hepatocellular necrosis with serum enzyme aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase abnormalities to the ominous hemolysis and elevated liver enzyme. Aim: the aim of this study was to assess the serum liver function test (LFT) in preeclampsia women in Khartoum State Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional case control study conducted in Jabel Awalia Hospital Khartoum state, in the period from March to June 2020. Hundred subjects were involved, fifty were preeclamptic women as cases and fifty normal pregnant women as control group. A venous blood was collected from each participant, obtaining the serum; Serum level of liver biomarkers (ALT, AST, and ALP), total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were measured by calorimeter method in fully Automated Biochemistry Analyzer (Mindary Bs380). Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20 t-test was used for comparison of means between two groups and Pearson’s correlation test was used to test the association between study parameters and variables, P-value < 0.05 is considered significant. Results: pregnant women with preeclampsia had significantly increase in means of serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin . (P value= 0.033, 0.019 0.002, 0.000) respectively .There was a significant decrease in the serum albumin level in case compared to control group (P. value =0.039), while there were insignificant different of serum ALP, total protein between two groups (P value= 0.811, 0.44). There were significant positive correlation .between AST and (ALT, ALP and total and direct bilirubin) (p vaule <0.05) while there were significant negative correlation between albumin, total protein and AST. Also found significant positive correlation between ALT and other hepatic markers (ALP, albumin , total and direct bilirubin) (p vaule <0.05). Conclusion: The outcomes of this study show that hepatic biomarkers in pregnant women with preeclampsia was higher than normal pregnant women, therefore, we can predict more likely to develop HELLP syndrome in pregnant women with preeclampsia.

  36. Dr. Priyanka Chakraborty and Chittaranjan Mahapatra

    Social well-being is the degree to which the requirement and demands of an individual being met. The Phenomenon of social well-being is an aggregation of an individual’s level of welfare, which includes the aspects like physical, material, social economic perception and spiritual well-being. Paschim Medinipur district is one of the backward regions in West Bengal. It has 29 Community Development Blocks and 8 municipalities. The specific objective of the present study is to analyze the level of social well-being of Paschim Medinipur district, C.D Block-wise as per 2011 Census. The Present Study is entirely based on secondary sources of data. The secondary data are collected from District Census Handbook of Paschim Medinipur district, 2011; Houselisting and Housing Census in India, West Bengal, 2011 and District Statistical Handbook of Paschim Mednipur, 2014. Different statistical techniques like Z-Score, Composite Score, Kendall’s Ranking Method, Simple Percentage Calculation, Rate, Ratio are also applied here to measure the quality of well-being of rural blocks in Paschim Medinipur district.

  37. Kumar, M., Vishnupriya, J. and Subramaniyan, P.

    Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) belongs to the family ‘Asteraceae’, origin is China and it’s also known as ‘Queen of the East’. In the study was conducted at Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and nine treatments with replicated three times. In the result of the present study, organic, bio-fertilizer and organic manure with bio-fertilizer combination of T2, T6 &T7 treatments revealed that significantly increased the plant height, plant spread, number of branches, flower bud initiation, time taken for first flowering and days taken to 50 per cent flowering, flowering duration, weight of twenty fresh flowers and no. of flowers per plant and T1 is least performing treatment. Among the 9 treatments results showed that, T7 - VAM – 50g/plant +Vermicompost- 250g/plant was found to be the comparatively best treatment combination for good growth and flowering attributes in chrysanthemum cv. Poornima white.

  38. Priya, S. and Franklin Charles Jose

    Common bean is a species having high nutritional composition. Drought response in plants is complex phenomenon relating interactions between structure, functions and development of the plant. The Improvement of drought resistant for common bean has major objectives for many breeding programs. The growth of the plant, related to the parameter plays a vital role in the selection criteria for drought resistance. The increasing drought tolerance in commercial varieties is highly desirable. 20 varieties of common bean leaves were collected, it is subjected in vitro water stress with 10% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000). The parameters are determined as a relative water content (RWC), seedling root length, leaf area, stomatal index, wax and proline. The result points out that these varieties responded differently during the drought stress. Tolerant and Susceptible comes under the varieties that are categorized which are based on RWC. The tolerant varieties maintain a high water content. Generally, the tolerant varieties are higher in seedling root length, leaf area, stomatal index, wax than the susceptible varieties. The proline accumulations are higher in susceptible varieties when compared to the tolerant varieties. A significant correlation was observed from the above parameters. The results are discussed with reference to the plant’s response during drought.

  39. Aparna, P. and Dr. Nagarathnam, M.

    Objectives: • To assess the post traumatic stress levels among patients with myocardial infarction. • To find out the association between post traumatic stress levels with the socio demographic variables. Material and methods: The present study was a Cross-sectional descriptive research design with a non-probability convenient sampling technique was used which 168 patients who are diagnosed as myocardial infarction at cardiology OPD, SVIMS, Tirupati. Data was collected by using demographic variables and PTSD scale (Edna B.Foa,2013) and data was analyzed by using mean, standard deviation, chi-square test. Results: The study findings revealed that 23.2% of patients are suffering with mild post traumatic stress, 71.4% were having moderate stress and 5.4% were having severe post traumatic stress. The mean and standard deviation shows that post traumatic stress levels was 1.82 ± 0.505. Conclusion: The study findings concluded that 71.4% of Myocardial Infarction patients were having moderate stress levels. Patients developed a positive attitude towards stress coping strategies by instructional booklet. There is precising need for public awareness programs that define PTSD among MI patients in a simplified and understandable language and explain coping strategies to overcome PTSD and to minimize further complications.

  40. Dr. Anshul Galav

    Nocardia species are ubiquitous soil organisms. It appears As branching, beaded, filamentous bacilli on Gram stain. Inhalation is the most common route of infection followed by direct skin inoculation. Lung is the most common organ involved. Nocardia is another potential cause of epidural abscess. Increased concerns for nocardiosis typically involves patients with depressed cellular immunity or humorally immunocompromised patients, such as those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, hematologic and solid organ malignancies, prolonged systemic steroid therapy, and transplant recipients5(frm slides) N. asteriodes is identified as a common agent causing human disease among the Nocardia species.

  41. P.K. Vadher, Mitesh Chawda and Hitav Someshwar

    COVID 19 Pandemic has affected all the sectors in INDIA, Healthcare sector has been affected the most. We present a commentary on the effects of Pandemic on Child health in a tier 2 state of a developing country. Subject Area: COVID 19.

  42. Elenise Faria Scherer, Antonia Mara Raposo Diógenes, Christiane Pereira Rodrigues and Maria Ferreira de Oliveira Filha

    In this article, we comment that fiscal austerity programs adopted to reduce the public deficit according to neoliberal precepts in times of economic-financial crisis influence the way of life of the traditional populations particularly of the artisan fishermen and fisherwomen in Brazil. We take as empirical reference the Provisional Measures numbers 664 and 665 /2014 and the Decrees nº 8.424 and 8.425/2015 which, in the name of correcting distortions and shortening of public expenses, restructured the Policy of Unemployment Insurance of the Urban Workers and extended it to the Rural Workers, especially the fishers and artisan fishers who are contemplated with the Policy of the Unemployment Insurance to the Artisan Fishers – PSDPA, popularly known as the Protection Insurance (Seguro Defeso). This article describes the demands adopted to restrict expenses when transferring incoming only to exclusive fishers, in other words, those who live only by the fishing, excluding the fisherwomen who other than the capture, process the fish, as a result, gender inequalities are reiterated.

  43. Geeta Brijlal. Kotwani

    Conventional Elections have never satisfied Citizens and the losing legislative Parties due to some Obvious Reasons present in the Conventional Voting Systems Like Easy to Clog, Non-Transparency and Opaqueness. Over to it the Time taken to Conduct Elections is Extravagant. This Paper put forwards a much required Solution using the Secure Block chain Technology to Overcome all the Disadvantages present in the Conventional Voting System. With this Distributed Ledger Technology, Security, Privacy, Data Integrity and Disability to Hamper will be Attained resulting into People and Legislative Parties Faith and Trust in Casting their Votes. Thereby generating the Election Results in the Stipulated Time. This Paper will Induce the Requirements for Building E-Voting System using Blockchain and will also trace the Legal and Technological Limitations of Using Blockchain.

  44. Noha M. Altalhi, Emad Alsuwat

    The software-based applications have increased dramatically over the last couple of years. The main focus of software developers is the functionality of the developed application keeping security behind. Therefore, security of these software applications became a major issue. A key threat that is facing software security is reverse engineering attack, which is also known as software analysis. Reverse engineers’ main objective is to discover the concealed code. To prevent and detect this kind of threat, we can use code obfuscation. Code obfuscation can not only provide security to the developed software application, but also hide software flaws via techniques such as masking of the fingerprint of the developed software. In this paper, we survey recent research related to code obfuscation and reverse engineering attacks. In addition, we review some techniques that a reused in code obfuscation. Moreover, we present the common tools that are used to enhance software security against reverse engineering by code obfuscation.

  45. Sudhakar, E. and Ranganathan, P.

    The objective of any agricultural research program is to increase the level of crop productivity. The strategy to boost the level of cropproductivity would be through the adoption of package of practices comprising use of seeds of high yielding varieties, adequate doses of manures and fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. Seed germination is one of the important factors for progressive farming. In the present investigation, the effect of plant fertilizers on growth and productivity of Arachis hypogaea were studied at the various concentrations of fertilizers. We used Biofertilizer (B), Vermicompost (V), Chemical fertilizer (C) and combination of these three. It was found that, the seed germination percentage was high in Vermicompost treated soil in Arachis hypogaea. Groundnut protein content was found high in B+C treated soil, while carbohydrate and phenol content increased in B+V treatedsoil. High seed germination was observed in vermicompost treated soil.

  46. Dr. Saleendran, P. T. and Frezer Lemma

    Higher educational institutions are among those areas where gender inequality is widely observed in terms of departmental preference, number and academic achievement. Various factors are accountable for lower academic performance and higher attrition rates of female students. In addition to subordinate historical place of women, the general institutional environment, the overall interaction and practice the students make with school personnel, institutional rules and regulations, sanctions, and the organizational structure are also undeniable. Student’s personality, motivation, mental health and training also affect academic performance of female students. The main objective of the study is to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions in reducing anxiety, unfolding self-esteem and prevention of intention to academic dropout among female pre-engineering students of Wolaita Sodo University. The study employed experimental study where measurement was undertaken before and after the behavioral intervention. Beck Anxiety scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem (RSE) scales and Likert scale were the major data collection tools. On top of this in-depth interview with six students was undertakes to collect qualitative data on how students background and life experiences affect their level of self-esteem, anxiety and drop out intention. Descriptive, correlation and t-test were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that the effect of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety, unfolding self-esteem and prevention of intention to academic dropout is found to be statistically significant. Hence the researcher recommends the university to extend the provision of counseling sessions to all female students of all departments in a regular basis to maintain their psychological wellbeing. Specifically, it will unfold their self- esteem and reduce the level of anxiety and intention to dropout.

  47. Dr. Sreelatha, M., Renuka Priya J.C. and Dr. Sudha Rani, P.

    Introduction: Thyroid disorders are amongst the most prevalent of medical conditions and these are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. They are five common thyroid diseases in India 1) Hypothyroidism 2) Hyperthyroidism 3) Goiter and iodine deficiency disorders 4) Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and 5) Thyroid cancer. The prevalence of hypothyroidism is the most common type of thyroid dysfunction. . It consists of two lateral lobes connected by an isthmus. The gland is about 5cms long and 3 cms wide and weighs about 30g. The blood flow to the thyroid is very high about 5ml/min per gram of thyroid tissue. The thyroid gland produces three hormones: Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Calcitonin. Adolescence is the period of transition between childhood and adulthood. Children who are entering adolescence are going through many changes (physical, intellectual, personality and social developmental). Adolescence begins at puberty, which now occurs earlier, on average, than in the past. Hypothyroidism results from suboptimal levels of thyroid hormone. Thyroid deficiency can affect all body functions and can range from mild, sub-clinical forms to myxedema an advanced form. The most common cause of this in adults is auto immune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s disease), in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. Methodology: Non- Experimental approach was adopted to achieve the objectives of the study, which was felt to be most appropriate for its practicability in real life situation. It has the advantages of practicability, feasibility and to a certain extent for generalization. Research design was descriptive research design. The study was conducted in selected areas of Pakala.Population includes adolescent girls in selected areas of Pakala. Sample size consists of 100 adolescent girls under inclusion criteria. Non probability convenient sampling technique was adopted for the present study based on inclusion criteria. Results: With regard to the level of knowledge regarding hypothyroidism and its effects out of 100 adolescent girls, majority of samples 55 (55%) had moderate knowledge, 24(24%) of samples had inadequate knowledge, 21(21%) of samples had adequate knowledge. The mean knowledge score was 31.65 and the standard deviation was 7.019.There was significant association between the level of knowledge and selected socio demographic variables like Educational status of mother, father, Occupational status of father and Residence, significant at p < 0.01 level and some of socio demographic variables such as Age in years, Occupational status of mother, Type of family, Monthly family income significant at p<0.05. Hence Ho1 hypothesis was rejected. There was no significant association between level of knowledge and demographic variables like religion and standard of study. Conclusion: In this study most of the adolescent girls had moderate and inadequate knowledge regarding hypothyroidism. The information booklet has enhanced the knowledge levels of adolescent girls regarding hypothyroidism and its effects. The demographic variables such as Age, Gender, Educational status of mother and father, occupational status of mother and father, monthly family income, residence and source of information were associated with their knowledge regarding hypothyroidism and its effects.

  48. Miss. Konapuram Preethi, Kokilamma, B. Dr. Sudha Rani P. and Dr. Sreelatha, M.

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemic condition resulting from defective in Insulin secretion ,Insulin action or both. Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, combined with relative or absolutely insulin / deficiency. In type 2 DM due to insulin resistance in glucose the body tissues do not respond to the action of insulin. When insulin is not properly used, the entry of glucose into the cell is impeded, resulting in hyperglycemia. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Adolescents and young adults is dramatically increasing. Similar to older onset type 2 Diabetes , the major predisposing risk factors are obesity ,family history ,and sedentary life style .onset of Diabetes at a younger age ( up to age 40 years) is associated with longer disease exposure and increased risk for chronic complications. Young onset type 2 diabetes also affects more individuals of working age, accenting the adverse societal effects of the disease. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of late adolescents regarding primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a selected students. To associate the level of knowledge with their selected socio- demographic variables on primary prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus among Late Adolescents. Methodology: Non -experimental approach was adopted to achieve the objectives of the study, which is felt to be most appropriate in the field of education for its practicability in real life situation. It has the advantage of practicability, feasibility and to a certain extent for generalization. Research design was Descriptive research design. The study was conducted at S.V. nagar urban tirupathi .Population includes Late adolescents studying graduation at selected urban area community Tirupathi. Sample size consists of 100 Late adolescents under inclusion criteria. convenient sampling technique was adopted based on inclusion criteria. Results: Out of 100 samples majority (61%) were having moderate knowledge, 12 per cent were having inadequate knowledge and 27 per cent were having adequate knowledge on primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is significant association between level of knowledge of Late adolescents with their age, gender, residence, educational status of mother, occupational status of mother, occupational status of father, income of family, year of degree significant at <0.05 level where as remaining demographic variables (religion, educational status of father, Type of family, previous exposure to educational program me, source of information) are not showing any significant. So null hypothesis rejected. The mean knowledge score was 1.85 and the standard deviation was 0.609.Based on the findings, it is found that most of the Late adolescents had moderate knowledge on primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Association of knowledge of Late adolescents with their age, gender, residence, educational status of mother, occupational status of mother, occupational status of father, income of family, year of degree significant at <0.05 level where as remaining demographic variables (religion, educational status of father, Type of family, previous exposure to educational program , source of information) are not showing any significant. So null hypothesis rejected. The mean knowledge score was 1.85 and the standard deviation was 0.609 on significant at 0.05 level. These findings suggested structured teaching Program will improve the knowledge regarding primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings suggested extensive health educational program was needed to being awareness among late adolescents. So as community health nurse need to encourage public health education programme on primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the knowledge and to bring out health community.

  49. Dr. Avik Narayan Chatterjee, Dr. Lopamoodra Das, Dr. Khushboo, Dr. Raju Biswas, Prof. (Dr.) Subrata Saha and Prof. Dr. Subir Sarkar

    Despite numerous advances in dentistry over the past few decades, dental caries remains one of the most widespread diseases worldwide. Children from lower socio-economic classes or those with special needs are often affected and generally lack access to conventional restorative dental care. The caries management ideology has thus shifted from typical restorative treatment to arresting dental decay using fluoride therapies to provide more inclusive care. Silver diamine fluoride can arrest dental caries and prevent its progression. Although silver diamine fluoride had been used as a caries preventive measure in 1970s in Japan, it had not become popular in the other part of the world. Now, many countries have recommended the use of 38% silver diamine fluoride solution for caries prevention as well as for caries arrest.

  50. Dr. Mangetri Fasale and Dr. Sayali Gawale

    Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the prime treatment options when it comes to treatment of malignant lesions. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment modality against cancer with special emphasis on the physical and biochemical principles. PDT is also known as photoradiation therapy, phototherapy or photochemotherapy. It is been more than 25 yrs since PDT was proposed as a useful tool in oncology. But now it is clinically approved and more widely used. PDT was developed as a therapy for several diseases such as tumor, periodontitis, other oral lesions and pre-malignant diseases. It is a minimally invasive treatment with great promise in malignant diseases. It is not only well tolerated but also simple and quick to execute. It has proved to show less morbidity and better function; it also shows excellent cosmetic outcome. Soon PDT has the potential to become integrated into the mainstream of cancer treatment.

  51. Archana, G., Gowri Devi, K. and Dr. Nagarathnam, M.

    Objectives: • To assess the prevalence and measures to manage oral mucositis among patients receiving radiation therapy. • To find out the association between prevalence & measures to manage oral mucositis among clients receiving radiation therapy with their selected socio-demographic variables. Material and methods: The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive research design with non-probability convenient sampling technique was used which 176 patients who are receiving radiation therapy, SVIMS, Tirupati. Data was collected by using demographic variables and WHO oral mucositis grading scale (2004) and data was analyzed by using mean, standard deviation, chi-square test. Results: The study findings revealed that participants 49% are having mild oral mucositis, 41% are having moderate oral mucositis and 10% are having severe oral mucositis. The mean and standard deviation shows the grade of oral mucositis was 1.61+ 0.666. Conclusion: The study findings concluded that 49% were having mild oral mucositis. Patients developed a positive attitude towards measures to manage oral mucositis by instructional pamphlet. So, certain measures can be useful in the prevention of oral mucositis in all the patients receiving radiation therapy.

  52. Carla Mercedes Marín Rosado, Betty Sarabia Alcocer and Betty Mónica Velázquez Sarabia

    As it is already known and has been made known, the coronavirus has been widely reported in the world news and the World Health Organization (WHO), has officially declared it as a pandemic, since last March 11. For this, it is important to know What is the coronavirus? What symptoms does a person infected with covid-19 have? Among other doubts and questions that have arisen through this new virus, which has surprised the whole world.

  53. Nabila El-Sayed. Sabola, Aya Mohmoud Sharbash and Samia Ali El-Nagar

    Background: Cross infection in dentistry has successfully gained the international concern and is taking the shape of a global problem. The Ministry of Public Health, in collaboration with the World Health Organization country office, emphasized the importance of paying greater attention to sound infection control measures during dental work practices. Aim: The study was conducted to examine effect of infection control training program on dental clinics nurses' knowledge and practice at rural health units. Design: Quasi experimental design with pre and post-test was used. Setting: It was conducted at 120 out of 175 dental clinics at rural health units of Ministry of health and population in six districts in Menoufia Governorate. Sample: Multistage random sample composed of 120 nurses, who are working in dental clinics' at rural health units of Ministry of health and population from selected six districts in Menoufia Governorate. Tools: Self-administered structured questionnaire included socio demographic data, knowledge of dental nurses as regard to infection control measures, and observational checklist of practice of dental nurses. Results: At pre infection control training program, more than three fourths of dental nurses had good level of knowledge which statistically significant increased to one hundred percent at post infection control training program. Moreover, there was 17.5% of studied nurses had a risky practice and 82.5% had safe practice compared to post infection control training program, there was statistically significant decreased in risky practice to 4.2% and improved safe practice to 95.8%. Conclusion: Infection control training had a profound effecton the knowledge, and practice of dental nurses about infection control measures. Recommendation: The need for ongoing infection control training programs for dental nurses are critical for ensuring that infection prevention measures are implicated and followed.

  54. Gouthaman Chinnathambi Somanathan

    Death due to plant poisoning is more come in southern India. Of which oleander seed poisoning is the number cause of plant poisoning. Though the chemical nature and symptomatology of this poison has been well described, there is no defined protocol for managing such a great social issue and it warrants larger studies. This study was done to assess the clinical manifestations in yellow oleander seed poisoning and to study the electrocardiographic changes and biochemical abnormality associated with it and to correlate the number of seeds and its form of consumption with the severity of ECG changes. We have also revealed slightly higher incidence of poisoning in females like in most other previous studies. Severe cardiac manifestations were related to delay in admission, grounded or paste from of consumption, and in those who developed electrolyte imbalance like hyperkalemia. Study revealed ECG abnormalities in about 27% of patients. We have also shown from our study that those who had consumed more than 8 seeds had 100% severe cardiac manifestations. The ECG abnormalities in males exceeded the females by nearly 18%. ECG abnormalities appeared as early as 5 hrs and as late as 10 Hours of poisoning. Sinus bradycardia was the commonest arrhythmia observed in our study.

  55. Gebremedhin Chameno Chalite

    This study was premeditated to provide data on plant biodiversity, uses and management in homegarden agroforestry practices. Interview with owners, discussions with local people and site visits were applied to collect primary data. Secondary data were collected form online and documented sources. Species biodiversity data were calculated using Shannon- Wiener Index and vegetation data were analyzed using R-software of version R3.0.1 program. The result indicated that 106 plant species were collected from all sites. Out of the collected plant species, edible and medicinal plants accounted 76.7% and 58.0% respectively. Cordia africana, Mangifera indicum, Persea americana and Moringa olefiera had high species number and relative frequency. Some of these species were used as construction material while others used as source of income. Farmers have indigenous knowledge on management of plant biodiversity where farm size, water availability and socioeconomic differences hinder the plant biodiversity in homegarden agroforestry practices. It can be concluded that farm size, extension program, local knowledge in use and source of planting materials were must be considered to promote homegarden agroforestry technologies.

  56. Pamela GOMES , Kelly ZAIA Wellington VIEIRA, Rodrigo CÂNOAS, Wilson CIRILO and Breno ARENA

    Os acidentes motociclísticos acometem as regiões mandibulares, divididas anatomicamente em côndilo,corpo,ângulo e sínfise. A mandíbula apresenta um elevado índice de acometimento nos traumas faciais, gerando como consequência danos estéticos e funcionais. O tratamento das fraturas faciais consiste em redução e fixação dos fragmentos ósseos devolvendo o indivíduo ao convívio em sociedade. O presente artigo relata um caso cirúrgico de um paciente acometido por fratura de síntesemandibular, que foi reduzida com material de fixação interna rígida detitânio,pela equipe de Cirurgia e Traumatologia do Hospital Regional de Tucuruí/Pará. A cirurgia apresentou pós-operatório e cicatrização satisfatórios; não houve queixas por parte do paciente, que evoluiu sem sintomatologia durante pós operatório de acompanhamento. A redução e fixação teve acesso intraoral mentual, com baixa morbidade e com os fragmentos ósseos reduzidos.

  57. Bárbara Pereira Machado and Gonçalo Sarmento

    Introduction: Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia is defined by evidence of haemolysis, schistocytes in the peripheral blood smear and a negative direct antiglobulin test and is usually associated with thrombocytopenia. It may be primary, like thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or secondary, including systemic malignancy, which is very rare. It usually occurs at a terminal stage of cancer and it is associated with metastasis. Pathogenesis remains unknown. Case presentation: An 83 year- old- woman with diffuse metastatic right breast carcinoma, including bone marrow metastases suspicion, already submitted to mastectomy and palliative radiotherapy, presented with a two-week history of asthenia and dyspnoea. Routine analysis revealed acute normocytic normochromic, haemolytic anaemia, schistocytes in the peripheral blood smear, negative Coombs test and thrombocytopenia. Space-occupying lesions of the brain observed in CT scan were confirmed by RM to be brain metastasis. Because the initial diagnosis of cancer was already known, no further investigation was made, and cancer associated microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia was diagnosed. She was no candidate to antineoplastic treatment, so she received prednisolone for 4 days followed by a pulse regimen of 1g methylprednisolone daily for 3 consecutive days. Several transfusions were given, but there was little improvement of anaemia. The patient’s health condition continued to worsen resulting in her passing. Conclusion: It is very important to correctly diagnose cancer associated microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia in order to start the right treatment as soon as possible. Even today there exists no definitive treatment schedule for these patients. Systemic antineoplastic therapy is the best option to achieve clinical response. Despite this, the prognosis is extremely poor, most patients die within a few weeks after diagnosis

  58. Akvinder Kaur, Mr. Sanjay Kumar Gupta, and Mrs. AmandeepKaur

    Background of the study: Quality of sleep means sleep as one’s satisfaction of the sleep experience, integrating aspects of sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, sleep quantity, and refreshment upon awakening and affected by anxiety and stress. Positive thinking has effects as self-confidence, self-efficacy and reduction of anxiety and stress. Individuals with positive thinking have a tendency to reduce anxiety and stress to enhance quality of sleep. This study will explore the effects of planned positive thinking selected on quality of sleep. Objectives of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of planned positive thinking on quality of sleep among elderly in selected old age homes of Punjab. Material and Methods: A quantitative research approach and a quasi-experimental research design was used. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to select 60 elderly. Questionnaire method was used to collect data by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale. Planned positive thinking ( raj yoga meditation and muscle strengthening exercise) given to experimental group for 20 min. for 21 consecutive days and muscle strengthening exercise given to control group .Results: The findings of the study revealed that in experimental group the majority of subjects 30 (100%) had average quality of sleep whereas no one had good quality of sleep in the pre-test. And after the post-intervention majority of subjects in experimental group had average 17 (56.7%) quality of sleep, and 13 (43.3%) had good sleep quality. Whereas In control group, the majority of subjects 29(96.7%) had average quality of sleep and 1 (3.3%) had good quality of sleep. And after the post, the majority of subjects in control group 30 (100%) had average quality of sleep. In experimental group difference between pre-intervention 11.23±1.524 and post-intervention8.13±1.697, level of quality of sleep was statistically significant at 0.05 level but difference between pre-intervention11.133±1.756 and post-intervention11.43±1.251 level of quality of sleep of control group was statistically non-significant at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: This study concluded that planned positive thinking helps in slightly improve the quality of sleep of elderly.

  59. Omer M. Abdalla, Khalid, M. M., Hassan, A., Ali, N. I., Khalid, A. SH., Abdelhadi, H. A., Khair, L. A., Almahi, M. W. A., Gaafar, A., Basheer, H. and Abdalla, H.

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiomeric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and hCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of hCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and hCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of irrelative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the 1st and 3rd trimesters (p= 0.001& 0.000) respectively. The hCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p >0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since Sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values.

  60. Chayut Yodmon

    Origami or Japanese paper folding had been invented hundreds of years ago. Initially for entertaining purposes such as making models and toys. As the time pass by people have found ways to use origami in mathematics, science, education and medical field. Origami can be use in medical purposes such as stent, stomach wounds patching robot, concentration span in autistic children and lower stress in traumatized children. And the use of origami in medical field seems to be increasing constantly as the time pass by.

  61. Dr. Sunita Singh, Dr. Neelam, Dr. Rajnish Kalra, Dr. Rachana and Dr. Anjali Ahlawat

    Telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TO) is a rare variant of osteosarcoma. It most commonly involves the long bones and has specific diagnostic features. The primary TO of skull is extremely rare. We present a case of primary telangiectatic osteosarcoma of the parietal bone and its clinicopathological features, imaging and treatment outcome in a 63 year old male.

  62. Omar Martínez D., Adolfo Eduardo Obaya V., Martha P. Hernández B. Rubén Gerardo Ponce P., Carlos Montaño O. and Yolanda Marina Vargas R.

    Chemistry teaching learning is considered as difficult and boring. The definition of play, based on authors such as Freud, Piaget and Vigotsky, is presented as a stimulating, pleasant and voluntary activity that in the student facilitates his learning and encompasses the different facets of his physical, psychic, social and emotional development.. The recreational aspect is to attract attention, impress sometimes, and create the opportunity to make scientifically reflect. This type of teaching materials is especially effective in showing us properties or characteristics of matter that are difficult to visualize due to their nanoscopic nature and that their understanding requires the development of abstract thinking. The playful didactic materials are cheap, and their use is feasible within the teaching classroom. A playful-didactic material as an assistant to teach the topic of oxidation-reduction at High School is presented. The game was designed under the Trading Card Game mode in which 2 students face each other to oxidize the opponent's gearboxes with the help of the cards. The didactic sequence for teaching the topic redox reactions is shown which includes the didactic game, the analysis and the results obtained.

  63. Helena Anggraeni Tjondro Sugianto

    This research aims to find the reasons why people continue to grow field rice despite the loss. This study uses qualitative paradigm with the acquisition of information through interviews and observations in a small village in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Apractice observed in this small, poor village is the starting point for this research: why these group of people still maintain their livelihoods by planting field rice,which clearly cannot economically sustain their lives in this modern era. It turns out they are unaware that they continue to be at lossand how they want to preserve the tradition that was passed on by their ancestors. The thing that makes them able to survive is none other than the spiritual capital embedded in the community. This article provides recommendations for agricultural field farmers in Indonesia to think about alternative livelihoods besides planting field rice. Therefore, they can get out of the cycle of poverty that has shackled them all this time.

  64. Yvonne An, Jaewon Chang and Scott Platt Salcedo

    Previous literature studies have reported that clinical presentation and pathology of the novel coronavirus resembled SARS and MERS in regards to the elevated levels of Interleukin-6, through cellular transcription. This study aims to explore the clinical value of C-reactive Protein as a primary inflammatory marker to assess the severity of the disease. Meta-analysis is performed to investigate the association of the clinical manifestation of CRP1 with disease aggravation in a collective of published clinical findings and evaluate the CRP content as a potential biomarker to predict disease severity. The recent literature databases utilized to study the epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 strain and CRP accumulation include PubMed, The Lancet, NCBI2, Researchgate, and Medscape. In this retrospective cohort study, a clinical index is constructed with the clinical characteristics of 120 RT-PCR3 confirmed positive patients enrolled from December to February 2020 in China, South Korea, United Kingdom, and France. Calculations for relative weight values of each study and statistical analysis were performed using the inverse variance method. As unabated cytokine storms have correlated with greater risks of chronic lung diseases, CRP blood test as a type of inflammatory marker may serve as a measure of detecting IL-64 content in a patient displaying symptoms of COVID-19. Through this study, a definite association between inflammation and severity of Coronavirus was recognized and evaluated. Hence, this study proposes inflammatory markers such as CRP blood test as a guideline for optimal allocation of antibody test kits in the United States where a dearth of these resources exist.

  65. Rajesh M. and Nirmalakumari, A.

    Finger Millet [Elusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] is generally affected by several seed-borne fungi and causing severe losses both in fields as well as in storage conditions. The fungi associated with seeds at the stage of harvest, transport, processing and under storage bring about several undesirable changes, making them unfit for human consumption and sowing. The total loss of millet grain after harvest is estimated to be as much as 15 per cent in many countries and much higher in developing countries. Studies pertaining to seed borne mycoflora of finger millet are flatter limited. Therefore, in the view of the above facts, the present study is undertaken to find out the mycoflora associated with the seeds of finger millet and its effect on seed and to determine the efficacy of bio-control agents and chemicals for managing seed borne mycoflora under field condition. A total of 27 seed samples were collected in different places of North-eastern districts of Tamil Nadu for the assessment of seed borne infection in finger millet. The mycoflora viz., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp., Helminthosporium spp. and Pyricularia grisea were identified as casual organisms in seeds of finger millet. Among them, Pyricularia grisea causes blast disease in finger millet under field condition and Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp., and Helminthosporium spp. cause grain mold/seed blackening disease incidence. Based on the results of causal organisms of seed borne infection the field experiments were conducted at Centre of Excellence in Millets, Athiyandal during kharif, 2016 and kharif, 2017. Seed treatment with pre-mixture of fungicides (Mancozeb 63% + Carbendazim 12%) @ 3g/kg of seed with one spray of pre-mixture of fungicides (Mancozeb 63% + Carbendazim 12%) @ 0.2% at the time of blast incidence recorded less incidence of neck blast, finger blast and seed blackening/grain mold and higher grain yield of 2700 kg/ha and 2492 kg/ha were recorded during kharif, 2016 and kharif, 2017 respectively on both trials.

  66. Jatin Phukan and Dr. Bipin Gogoi

    Most of the population in Meghalaya lives in poverty and are unable to obtain proper food for them while historically improvement in households economic conditions have benefited by only certain groups of the society. Thus, the problem of household food insecurity and under-nutrition remain critically important for the state of Meghalaya like any other developing countries of the world. Analysis of the study is based on 4,409 children aged 0-59 months (U-5) with the valid information on heights included in the fourth round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). Objectives of this study is to examine how wealth status of households associated with nutritional status of children and what extent the children in poorer households were at greater risk of chronically undernourished than children in better-off households. The results of the study indicates that17% of the 4,409 children U-5 lives in the poorest 20% households are 3 times more likely to stunted as compared to the children in the richest 20% households [OR=3.09 at 95% CI (1.98-4.81)]. The effect of household wealth status on stunting significantly large when the analysis was adjusted for child’s age, sex, birth order and duration of breastfeeding [OR=3.66 at 95% CI (2.14-6.25)]. Children born to poorest households are about 4 times [RRR=4.06, at 95% CI (1.63-10.09)] more likely to be severely stunted and 2 times [RRR=2.45, at 95% CI (1.07-5.62)] more likely to be moderately stunted as compared to the children in richest households. This study conclude that household wealth inequality is strongly associated with childhood stunting and its play an important role in reducing chronic childhood under-nutrition in Meghalaya. This study emphasizes that the state government’s direct investments in improving food availability and access to poor households, making services more accessible to vulnerable population, as well as direct targeted nutrition and health interventions for young children will be key to improving health and nutritional status of children in Meghalaya.

  67. Dr. Reena Khanooja

    Covid 19 or Novel Corona virus has affected millions of people worldwide. Not only has it caused a huge health crisis, it has also let the global economy in a wounded state. Nationwide lockdown although a welcome step to reduce the spread of Covid19, has left the general population in a grim state where almost all businesses and jobs have suffered a great deal. In the present situation therefore, saving and investment has once again emerged as two pillars of our economy by whose support our country can survive this global pandemic. Saving as a habit is deep rooted in India and has many times in the past also helped us face global economic crises. This article aims to analyse the effect of Covid-19 on saving habits of individuals in Kota, Rajasthan region. The aim is to understand to what extent did savings help a normal citizen ride out the storm of Covid 19 and what changes if any have happened in the saving and investment patterns in general.

  68. Singh, R.A., Singh, I.P., Amar Singh, Sharma, V. K., Chaudhary, V.R. and Dharmendra Yadav

    The field experiment was laid out during two consecutive years under Operational Research Project for Resources Development on Watershed Basis, Randher, Jalaun district of Bundelkhand (U.P.). The main objective was to find out the suitable cultivar of filed pea for intercropping with Indian mustard for better yield and net return. The experimental area is situated in the catchments of Pahuj river. The soil of pilot project was clay loam locally known as Kawar, having low organic carbon, total nitrogen available P2O5 and high available K2O. Two spreading nature cultivars of field pea i.e., T 163 and Rachana and one dwarf field pea cv. Aparna (H.F.P. 4) were tested in intercropping of Indian mustard cv. Varuna. Under sole cropping cultivar Aparna gave highest yield of 29.90q/ha. The cv. T 163 produced 24.10q /ha grains. The improved cultivar Rachana yieded 26.00 q/ha kernels. In intercropping the varietal performance was Aparna (26.40 q/ha)>Rachana (23.10 q/ha)> T163 (21.50q/ha). The highest yield of intercrop Indian mustard was reaped by 6.05 q/ha from Aparna+Indian mustard cropping system, while other both cropping systems gave poor yield. Intercropping of Aparna+Indian mustard gave highest yield advantage (14%), maximum system productivity. (35.47q/ha) and higher system net profitability (Rs 66820/ha) in comparison to other two cropping systems.

  69. Vasanth, J.S., Sumathi, C.S., Sujatha, P., Kalpana, M.

    Background: Information communication technology has grown in popularity over the last few years and that has lead to the rise of E-Learning. Educational institutions are resorting to incorporate the virtual method of learning into their system and implement “Blended Learning” especially during COVID 19 pandemic. It simplifies learning in a lot of ways and carries out the whole process in a paperless way. This acts as a supplement to traditional classroom learning and provides “anytime anywhere” access of information to the students and thus it transcends the limitations that can be caused by physical classroom learning. Objective: This article describes a study carried out to assess the knowledge and awareness about exposure to online platforms like Google Classroom and Moodle during COVID 19 pandemic among under graduate and graduate students in Tamil Nadu, India. Method: This analysis was carried out based on a online questionnaire using Google forms that was sent to students who had used both platforms for extended periods of time. Result: Three different parameters viz., use of internet for learning purpose, student teacher interaction and achieving the goal of satisfactory learning through online teaching were considered and the students feedback were discussed. Conclusion: The basic knowledge of internet and online learning platforms among the students is adequate but only 37% students agreed their goal of satisfactory learning is achieved through online teaching and 24% preferred online learning. This study would also help the educational institutions to understand the preferences and concerns of the students and the role of such platforms in learning process.

  70. Ashebir Haile Tefera

    Irrigation is one of the means by which agricultural production can be increased to meet the growing food demands of the fast-growing population of the country and satisfy the country's economic demand. However, poor irrigation water management, and lack of proper implementation of drainage systems, substantial numbers of Irrigation schemes, especially in potentially susceptible areas are starting to suffer from these problems. The aim this study is to assess cost-effective drainage performance and field management options under the hot spot area of irrigated agriculture of Ethiopia. It has been observed that inadequate attention to drainage aspects of irrigation due to the absence of sound objective is challenging this untapped sub-sector and also unsustainable water management practices and limited technical and institutional capacity to expand and manage irrigation infrastructure is one of the prioritized bottlenecks. The result also revealed that salt affected surfaces have increased from 6% to 16% of the total land of Ethiopia in recent years. About 9% of the population lives in the areas affected by salinity. The semi-arid and arid lowlands and valleys in Ethiopia have major problems of salinity and alkalinity. About 44 million ha in 36% of the country’s total land is potentially susceptible to salinity problems. According to recent researches, out of the 44 million ha, 33 million ha has dominantly salinity problems, 8 million ha has combined salinity and alkalinity problems, and 3 million ha has dominantly alkalinity problems. The majority of schemes (small, medium, and large), poor drainage facilities, and water management practices, hence, give low yields (quite below the national average) with poor crop quality, and environmental damage. Such a very low yield, a poor crop quality and salinity could be attributed to poor drainage system at the plot or scheme’s level. It is evident that poor management of agricultural water management will play a significant role in poor drainage and salinity incidence. Therefore, there should be well organized and proper water management in the irrigated field.

  71. Ammar AlSawaf and Saud Alzahrani

    Background: A limited number of researchers have paid attention to the psychosocial well‐being of patients affected with vitiligo. We review the psychosocial effects of vitiligo, individuals deal with them, and the psychiatric morbidity in vitiligo patients. The effects of the psychological state on the disease itself together with the potential therapeutic implications are reviewed. Based on these data, we suggest how to further improve patient management. Psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy are helpful in improving body image, self-esteem, and QOL of patients with vitiligo and also appear to have a positive effect on the course of the disease. Coping responses are related to the level of self-esteem. Those patients with a positive self-image can cope better with physical disabilities. Aim of the study To determine depression and anxiety in vitiligo patients visiting the dermatology clinic at King Abdul-Aziz hospital in Makkah AlMokarramah in comparison to the normal population. Method: A cross-sectional study has been conducted in the dermatology clinic at King Abdul-Aziz hospital in Makkah AlMokarramah during the data collection period using the depression scale and the anxiety scale. Results: The majority of the subjects had extremely severe depression by the depression scale and extremely severe anxiety by the anxiety scale. There is a significant negative correlation between socio-demographic data (age, duration) and depression respectively were (r= -0.836, -0.917)and p-value =0.001, Also a significant negative correlation between socio-demographic data(age, duration)and anxiety respectively were(r= -0.816, -0.897)and p-value =0.001. Conclusion: Addressing psychosocial factors is an important aspect of the management of vitiligo, particularly in patients from communities where the disease is greatly stigmatizing. In evaluating the psychological impact of vitiligo it is important to consider the patient's life situation including the social support network and the attitude of colleagues and family members as even "mild" disease may greatly distress the patient.

  72. DJELLE Opely Patrice-Aimé

    The objective of this research, which is part of a correlative approach, is to understand the relationship between learning styles and school performance of students in primary-secondary transition. This study used a sample of eighty (180) students on a learning style questionnaire. As for their academic performance, they were checked using the end-of-term grade matrices. The results obtained, on the one hand, using the student T show that there is no significant difference between students who adopt the visual style and those who adopt the kinesthetic style. On the other hand, we found that students who use the auditory style have higher academic performance than their peers who use the kinesthetic style. And finally, we found that students who adopt the auditory style have higher academic performance than their peers who adopt the visual style. These various results were explained by Stenberg’s triarchic theory (1990) and Fleming’s learning model (1987), and discussed in the light of previous work.

  73. Dr. Ankit Sharma

    Media has constantly assumed an essential job in tending to the social issues. Over some undefined time frame media and web based life have moves toward becoming wellsprings of stimulation. Yet at the same time media, as syndicated programs, talks, news and accomplishments of people, addresses these issues. The present investigation is exact in natures and discovers the job of media in expanding the open mindfulness towards the environmental issues. The example size of the examination is 256 person, which were chosen through judgment inspecting by the scientist. The information has been gathered with the assistance of an organized shut finished poll. The scales utilized in the poll were ostensible and interval scale. The information investigation instruments utilized in the examination were mean, t-test and relapse investigation. In the outcomes it was discovered that the web-based social networking assumes an essential job in interfacing individuals and making individuals mindful about the basic natural issues.

  74. Dr. Eiman Medhat Negm and Ms. Dina Moataz El Halawany

    The tourism industry is one of the major economic facets in any country and during the COVID-19 significant declines in business occurred (Folinas and Metaxas, 2020). Rebelo (2017) explained that social media influencers are vital tool for marketing and promotion to bring business sensations. Thus, this research aims to understand what makes social media influencers’ impactful on consumers’ behavioral intentions towards vacation planning. After review of the literature, the researcher hypothesized that (H1) Attractiveness, (H2) trustworthiness, (H3) expertise, and (H4) similarity impacts behavioral intention towards vacation planning. This study was a descriptive research, seeking to describe and understand the phenomenon and its characteristics. Distribution of online questionnaires was used to collect the needed data. The sampling method used was non-probability sampling, specifically convenience. Data was gathered only once (cross sectional); over a time frame of two months as a means to answer research questions (March and April 2020). Youth and young adults filled out the questionnaire. Once the needed data was collected, the researcher used the SPSS program to conduct the analyses. The analysis showed that there is a relationship between social media influencers’ attractiveness, trustworthiness, and similarity on consumers’ behavioral intention towards vacation planning; There is no relationship between social media influencers’ expertise and consumers’ behavioral intention towards vacation planning. This study contributes academically and practically by illustrating empirical evidence that adds on to the gaps found in the literature. It also shows practitioner the characteristics of a person that makes a significant social media influencer that can help the tourism industry boom again post the Covid-19 period.

  75. Eida Habeeb, Amal Alshammari and Aydah Alshammeri

    The aim of this review is to appraise, synthesize, and compile available studies that focused on exploring the nursing scholar learning preference and teaching implication. The finalized search for data for the systematic review was compiled in January 2020 using three databases: Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed during all stages of this review. Studies that focused on exploring the nursing scholar learning preference and teaching implication were eligible. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with use of the Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) systematic review criteria. A total of eight studies were found eligible and data from each study were extracted into a manageable framework. The results of the review indicate that most learners prefer to learn by assimilating while the least preferred learning method is divergent learning. Further, our findings highlight that nursing scholar learning preferences cannot be underestimated; this is supported by the overwhelming evidence provided. Faculty members need to examine the preferred study methods among the students and help in ensuring they have an inclusive and targeted learning experience.

  76. Raymonda Chahrour, M.D., Pielly Hanna, M.D., Farah Beih, M.D., Kamal Kanso, M.D. and Abir Gaith, M.D.

    Influenza infection is responsible for a wide range of respiratory illnesses (1), and complicated by otitis media, lower respiratory tract infections mainly (2). Nephrotic syndrome rarely occurs following influenza infection (2). In fact, till date, only 2 cases were reported in the literature (4)(5). We report here a third case of nephrotic syndrome secondary to influenza B infection.

  77. Asima Tayyeb

    Despite decades of research, diagnostic tests with specificity and accuracy for early breast cancer are yet unavailable. Major problems associated with poor diagnosis are either due to incompetency of reported biomarkers or small volume of patients under study. Moreover, heterogeneity of the disease further complicates the struggle of identifying effective biomarkers. Therefore, to improve the survival rate, look for new, sensitive and specific biomarkers for early breast cancer diagnosis is need of hour. In this study, we have reviewed recently reported serum biomarkers and categorized them based on their biomolecular nature such as protein, ctDNA, epigenetics regulation and miRNA. Potential role of these available biomarkers in early diagnosis of breast cancer has also been discussed. Based on the facts obtained from literature review, it is revealed that using any individual biomolecule as a biomarker is not sufficient to diagnose breast cancer at early stages rather it is suggested that a panel of proteins or miRNAs would offer better sensitivity and specificity. Whereas, unavailability of a potential ctDNA and epigenetics regulation candidate for diagnostic purpose suggest the use of more sophisticated techniques to unwound these regulations in serum especially at early stages of breast cancer.

  78. Inaam Mohammad Al-Aggad and Saud Surbaya

    Aim: This study aimed todetect the prevalence and determining factors of social media use among Female Intermediate and Secondary Schools Students in Makkah Almukaramah, KSA during 2019. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 440 female intermediate and secondary students in Makkah Al Mukaramah city. Data were collected using self-distributed questionnaire. The questionnaire contains four 4 parts (sociodemographic characteristic, social media use, BSMAS, and SMAS). The data were analyzed with Version 22.0 of the Statistical Package for the Social Science. Result: Out of 440 female schools students, 236 (54.1%) were from secondary schools and 204 (45.9%) were from intermediate schools, with mean age score 15.2±1.9, 394 (89.5%) use social media. More than half 254 (52.3%) use the internet daily, and 176 (46.2%) use the social media daily. Almost two thirds 267 (60.7%) reported positive thinking about using social media .The median scores were 14.0 for BSMAS and 72 for SMAS indicating low level of addiction, where only 95 (21.6%) reported as adductors. Those in the third class for both intermediate and secondary schools, those with high GPA (excellent and very good), and those with more than 7 friends had a significant highest score of addiction (P=0.029, P=0.025, AND P=0.010). Conclusion: The majority reported using social media, where less than fourth were adductors to social media. Almost the half reported using social media daily. Where, almost two thirds reported positive thinking about using social media. Female students with significant higher score of addiction were those in the third class, those with high GPA, and those with more than 7 friends. Recommendation: Advise parents to work on their participation gap in their homes, and recommend them to talk to their children and adolescents about their online use and the specific issues that today's online kids face.

  79. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Mohammed Anyees Khanday, Dr. Imtiyaz Ahmad Ganai, Dr. Tajamul Samad and Dr. Mehraj-ud-Din Ganaie

    Duplication of gallbladder is one of the rare embryological anomalies with clinical significance. Inspite of the advancement in modern imaging, only around 50% of cases have a definitive preoperative diagnosis, which is imperative in every case to avoid serious operative complications. It is even rarer to have both gallbladders pathologically involved. This anomaly is important to know for surgeons as it is associated with anatomical variations of Common Bile Duct and Hepatic artery and increased risk of Common Bile Duct injury. We describe the pathological findings of double gallbladder that was successfully removed laparoscopically.

  80. Yavuz PIRHAN

    Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast. Although the etiology is unknown, some risk factors have been identified. The disease begins as an inflammatory mass in the breast and it is important to differentiate the breast from malignant disease. Since the disease is rare, there is no consensus on its treatment, but immunosuppressive drugs and surgery are recommended for its treatment. In this study, we wanted to share with you our clinical experience in the treatment of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, which is difficult to diagnose and treat. Material and methods: Between 2017-2018, 263 female patients aged 22-52 years who presented to the general surgery outpatient clinic with complaints of swelling, pain and redness of the breast were treated with the diagnosis of inflammatory disease of the breast. Twenty-two patients with granulomatous mastitis were included in the study. Results: The mastitis diagnosis of patients with medical treatment given to patients without clinical improvement tru-cut biopsy diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis performed. Corticosteroid treatment was started primarily to patients without the contraindication. Surgical treatment was performed in 5 patients without clinical improvement. Approximately15-month follow-up clinical recurrence was detected in any patient with clinical and imaging. Conclusion: We suggest that corticosteroid therapy should be considered as the primary treatment for idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, but it should be considered as the primary treatment in patients with resistant IGM.

  81. Luciana Oranges Cezarino, Lara Bartocci Liboni and Maria Antonia Brovelli

    Concerns about resilience in the urban context cross different fields. Cities and urban spaces are complex systems that comprise social, environmental and economic spheres. The urban resilience is defined as the capacity of a city to survive and achieve the same level of performance after an external or disturbing event. The urban resilience is composed by the governance, management and technological solutions that allows cities to be resilient. For that, the objective of this paper is to explore the scientific corpus about urban resilience using systemic bibliometric method. By mixing two different methodologies, we conducted a three-phases qualitative study. In the first phase we selected and described a papers database provided by Scopus and Web of Science, in the second we deepen the analysis for a systemic overlook and in the final step we proposea research agenda. This method was designed by a systemic perspective of input-processing-output data to align different scientific subjects. Results reveal that the majority of studies is concentrated on environmental and transportareas. The studies that take account other pertinent factors to the complexity of cities like human behavior, individual moving, and central-peripheries location are far from dialoguing with engineering solutions to improve urban resilience. Results show interdisciplinary approaches between engineering and social sciences are needed to deal with urban resilience. The future agenda of this theme tends to optimize social data to produce new products and solutions to shape holistic solutions to address urban resilience complexity. Mapping systems are pointed to be a new way to integrate both literature.

  82. Dr. Emily Odhong

    The main objective of the study was to establish the influence of skills development on employee performance in the Private Security in Kenya. The significance of the study is to improve employee performance, address the skills gap, and suggest policy frameworks towards achieving decent work in the sector. The study adopted descriptive research design and positivism research philosophy. The study unit of observation was the Private Security Guards. Triangulation was adopted in sampling techniques and data collection tools. The pilot test of 10% of the sample size was used. Both descriptive statistics, statistical inferences and hypothesis testing was conducted, to help draw a robust, credible and objective conclusion. Majority, 78 (52%) of the respondents strongly agreed that soft skills enhances performance. The regression result showed that there is statistically significant relationship between skills development and employee performance with the regression coefficient of 0.065. This implies that, ceteris paribus, a unit change in the score of skills development leads to 0.065 units change in the score of employee performance. Hence, recommends implementation of policies that promote employee on-boarding, employability, and computer skills. Employees need to re-skill, up-skill and cross-skill, while integrating soft and technical skills. The study further suggests that sector skills plan, provision of skills development fund to support apprenticeship and a robust labour market information systems is imperative.

  83. R. Pavithra, Dr. A. Padmaja

    The aim of the study was to assess the perceived impact of parenting style on self esteem of adolescents in selected colleges, Tirupati. Objectives: 1. To assess the perception of adolescents regarding parenting style of parents 2. To assess the self esteem of adolescents 3. To find correlation between perceived maternal & paternal parenting style with self esteem of adolescents 4. To find the association between demographic variables with perceived maternal & paternal parenting style 5. To find the association between demographic variables with self esteem of adolescents Methodology: By using cluster random sampling technique a descriptive research design was adopted, 100 adolescent college students were taken as samples, and data collection was done by using a standardized and self structured questionnaire. Results: The study results revealed that out of 100 adolescents, majority 42(42%) were having Permissive, and 40 (40%) were having authoritative parenting style, 16(16%) were having Authoritarian and 02(02%) were having neglected parenting style, and out of 100 adolescents 87 (87%) had moderate level of self esteem, 8 (8%) had mild level of self esteem and 5 (5%) had high self esteem, and showed significant relationship between self esteem and parenting style at p<0.05. Conclusion: As the technology is increasing day by day the parenting has reduced and the children are more attracted to the technology and lacking good guidance and support from the parents, the present study is aimed to show the importance of parenting style on the development of self esteem of adolescents, it has shown a positive relationship between the parenting style and self esteem.

  84. Amit Kumar Garg, Mohammed Faheem and Dr. Sumer Singh

    Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies. The researches and utilization of herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases increases every day. Medicinal plants provide major source of molecules with medicinal properties due to presence of natural compounds. Medicinal plants are useful for curing human diseases and play an important role in healing due to presence of phyto chemical constituents. The natural and unique medicinal plants are used for curing various diseases/ailments and income generation. Ayurveda and other Indian literature have mentioned the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. Medicinal plants are important source to combat the serious diseases in all over the world. The present study focuses on the knowledge on medicinal uses of plants and the scientific investigation to confirm their medicinal values and the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance.

  85. Gaurdas Sarkar

    Quality in higher education has become a grave concern at the present moment. The necessity of achieving quality is knocking at the door with the advent of Globalization. Quality is a big term. First of all we have to define quality. Then we have to proceed for achieving such quality. So we must have some clearly pre-defined objectives. Basically quality is measured by contribution of the learner after completion of learning. Now inorder to measure a learner’s contribution we may identify some specific fields where a learner uses to contribute. These fields may be job market, family life, locality, society or country. The main key of achieving quality in higher education is to pay attention to the contribution to be made by a learner. In this line of thinking the present day educationists in our country are keen on propagating some innovative steps, which they claim to be instrumental toensure quality in higher education. These steps include: introduction of employment oriented courses, improvement of academic qualifications on the part of teachers, admission through counseling, conduct of regular class tests, development of inquisitive mind among learners, extraction of potentialities of the learners, development of thinking ability among the learners, organizing Guardians’ meet, exposure to enriched resources through modernized equipments both on the part of teachers and students, career counseling and so on. Only sincere dedication and devotion to teaching can bring about success provided they are supported by the peripheral commitment to achieve quality education. Obviously the peripheral commitment must come from the top two tiers of the pyramid. Present day education policy lacks commitment and is full of ornamental suggestions. These suggestions are simply to divert attention from the core of the problem.

  86. Zhengjun Cui, Imran Khan, Xiaobo Wang, Jialin Sun, Rongqiang Yang and Qing-nan Meng

    Background: The modern medical studies clarify that, it is apoptosis, not the necrosis which is actively involved in Acute Lung Injury (ALI) caused by smoke inhalation. A variety of lung apoptosis namely vascular endothelial cells, pulmonary inflammatory cells and alveolar type II cells transpire in such state. The apoptic cell population among them certainly jacked within few hours then sustained a high level.in addition, apoptic genes namely Bcl-2 and Bax was also changed in mRNA and protein expression level were materially increased. The aspiration of our dissertation is to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by smoke inhalation in bronchial epithelium. Objective: To find out the Mechanism Of Bronchial Epithelial Cell Apoptosis In Acute Lung Injury Induced By Smoke Inhalation Of Mouse Model By Epithelial Cell Apoptosis Markers Detection. Methods: Twenty-two Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were subjected to smoke inhalation to formulate model after random classification into 4 groups: Control group (not exposed, n =4), 2m (exposed to smoke for 2minutes, n=6), 3m (exposed to smoke for 3minutes, n=6), 4m (exposed to smoke for 4minutes, n=6). 24hrs after the smoke exposure 10% chloral hydrate solution 350mg/kg according to body weight were administrated by intra-peritoneal injection. All the mice were sacrificed step by step at a 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs time interval. After anaesthesia, 1ml fresh blood was collected from the left ventricle of the mice, henceforth opening the thoracic cavity. The left lung was obtained to execute the histo-pathological investigation and grading. To reveal apoptosis and its mechanism, in situ western bloat and TUNEL were accomplished after getting the sample of bronchial epithelial cell collected from the different lobes of right lung. Results: Contrast with control group, haemorrhage, wall thickening, inflammation and oedema were clearly evident in lung tissue histo-pathological examination of 2m group, 3m group and 4m group. Moreover, positive expression of NF-kB, CASPASE- 3 and PARP were perceived. Conclusions: Bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis has a significant role in acute lung injury due to fume inhalation was evident. Positive expression of NF-kB, CASPASE- 3 and PARP indicated their involvements in acute lung injury.

  87. Dinesh Thakur

    Human Resource is the most important resource of a country. Development of a country depends on the development of human resource. A number of factors affect the development of human resource like food security, safe drinking water, sanitation, health facilities, educational facilities etc. Educational attainment is the key component of human resource development. Education enables the people to understand their ability to realize their wants by increasing their productivity and potential to achieve a good living standard. The data reveals the fact that North Bihar region has been and still remains one of the most educationally deprived sates in India. In this region, however, the literacy rate is rising but, still it has the lowest literacy rate in India. More importantly, district wise, the level of literacy is unevenly distributed.

  88. Dr. Arti Muley and Dr. Divya Lalwani

    Introduction: One of the triggering factors for CKDu has been observed to be associated with drinking water. In our hospital, we see many patients of CKD who appeared to be coming from a particular geographical area. Hence, we performed this study to identify the common geographical area and see if there have been reports of water pollution from that particular area. Methodology: This retrospective cohort study included all patients > 18 years old coming to OPD or admitted with CKD. A detailed information was collected regarding patients' residence and their water source and whether water pollution was reported from that common source. The data collected regarding the geographical areas was matched with the geographical areas in previous reports where water pollution had been reported. Results: Total 71 patients were included. 38 did not have any underlying cause of CKD. 25 (75.75%) came from Madhya Pradesh and 12 (36.36%) came from Gujarat. It was observed that the regions from which these patients came lied either in Narmada basin (Khargaon, Khandva, Badwani and Alirajpur) or around it (Dhaar, Ratlam, Ujjain, Mandsor, Vadodara and Godhra). Some previous studies reported that water in Narmada basin was polluted with agriculture and industrial wastes and also contained chromium, copper and iron metals beyond the permissible limits especially in the wet season. Conclusion: Water pollution due to agricultural and industrial waste may contribute to development of CKD even in absence of any other risk factors. A separate study is required for proving causation.

  89. Arun Kumar and Ajai Kumar

    To study the pupation site preference which is an important larval behavior, pupation height was scored in Drosophila malarkotliana, D.bipectinata and D. parabipectinata using fructose sugar in culture media. Strains of these species were collected from Unchahar, Bachhrawan, Raebareli & Salon localities in Raebareli Districts. The mean pupation height in different strains of Drosophila malarkotliana ranged from 3.56 to 3.67, in D. bipectinata ranged from 4.58 to 5.02 and D.parabipectinata., ranged from 1.96 to 2.03. The analysis of variance and t-test were performed to test intra and interspecies in pupation height. These tests revealed significant variation among different strains of the species. Significant variations among male & female for pupation height the same species were also found in all species Drosophila. These observations provide evidence for ecogenetics variations in pupation height of three species of Drosophila. Variations among different strains of the same species in pupation height are attributable to genetic heterogeneity among the strains.

  90. Jefferson Antonio do Prado

    Este relatoteve como objetivo refletiralguns apontamentos acercada experiência como docente de onze bebês, em uma creche, da rede pública de ensino.A prática pedagógica, na primeira infância, foi compreendida como protagonista de uma atividade relacional registrada pela sensibilidade e minúcias que superam a simples ideia do assistencialismo. E que embora tal prática seja assinalada pelo dia a dia de cada professor, junto aos bebês, ela é indissociável, definindo a profissão docente nos berçários. Esses detalhes são resultados de percepções, protagonizado por cada um dos bebêscom que trabalho, possibilitandoestratégias que mobilizam e viabilizam aspráticas e as experiências docentes, bem como enriquecem a formação dos pequenos como sujeitos constituídos.

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