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Table of Contents: Volume 15; Issue 03; March 2023

Life Sciences

  1. Pushpalatha, J.K., Mary Esther Cynthia Johnson, Thakur John and Thakur Jacob

    A comprehensive survey of medicinal plants was conducted over a one-year period (2014-2015) in the Mahabubnagar district. During the survey, 31 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families were collected during their flowering and fruiting seasons. Out of these 31 plants, some were used for antiepileptic purposes, 4 for anti-rheumatic treatment, 2 for each of the following: abortifacients, antiasthmatic, antidiabetics, anti dysentery, anti sterility, boils, cough, jaundice, laxatives, leprosy, ophthalmic diseases, and piles, while only 1 was used for each of the following: anti-plague, cold, fever, restorative, carminative, tuberculosis, and urinary diseases. Additionally, four rare and endangered plant species and seven endemic plant species were collected and multiplied in PU MBNR through the ex-situ method. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to the pressing need for domesticating useful plant species based on their significance, potential alternatives, and level of endangerment.

  2. Sukanya Rawat, Chitra Chand and Dhananjoy Shaw

    Background: Yoga appears to be a vital factor for improving health and behavior to achieve better physical and mental well-being. Therefore, it is now considered as a form of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Aim: This meta-analysis attempts to find out the beneficial effect of yoga on various hormonal functions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the findings of the selected articles and to provide the comprehensive review regarding the effect of yoga on hormonal functions. Methods and Materials: The studies included were collected from online databases such as Science Direct, Pub Med, Wiley Online Library and Google Scholar. The articles published from January 2000 to December 2020 were considered. The main keywords were “yoga,” "hormones” and “athletes”. The total studies, identified were N=5866 and the studies included for critical analysis were N=10. Results: This study provides data in regards to statistics of male and female sample size, age of sample and duration of treatment protocol which are very useful and can be used as a basis for further investigation. Conclusions: In addition, the present study provides ample evidence to prove that yoga treatment improves and maintains hormonal functions.

  3. Punitha, A., Palanikumar, M., Adeline Vinila, J.E., Geethalakshmi, I., Sumathi, T., Jayavalli, R., and Vadivel, N.

    Carnation is the most important cut flower in the international trade market and is highly perishable in nature and need to be treated and packed properly to improve their post harvest quality and vase life. Cut carnations are very sensitive to ethylene injury. In the existence of ethylene, cut carnation flowers have restriction for their fruitful marketing due to petal enrolling and discoloration. It leads to flower senescence and reduction in vase life. As carnations have ability to rehydrate after transportation, its flower quality during long distance transportation should be maintained. The experiment was conducted by wrapping the flowers with cellophane sheets, polyethylene, polypropylene, butter paper and corrugated thin sheets and packed in corrugated fibre board boxes during transport of flowers to long distant market. Among the wrapping materials compared, polyethylene sleeve of 100 gauge thickness was superior and it was associated with highest water uptake (15.38 g), water balance (8.78 g), fresh weight change (176.29 per cent), anthocyanin (1.352 mg/g) and carotenoid content (0.056 mg/g) and the lowest transpirational loss of water (10.26 g). This wrapping technique ensured minimum physical damage, physiological loss in weight (39.62 per cent), membrane integrity (80.64 per cent), peroxidase activity (0.023 units/g fresh weight) and extended the vase life to 15.67 days when compared to control the flowers remained fresh for 7.0 days only.

  4. Kotagiri Ravikanth, Anirudh Sharma, Pushap Lata and Deepak Thakur

    Nowadays Ayurvedic herbal formulations have gained acceptance and demand globally due to their safe consumption and minimal side effects. This has gained acceptance in the veterinary market in recent years. This rise in the use of herbal products has also given rise to various adulteration, so it become necessary to develop standardization protocols for safety, efficacy, and quality control. These protocols must have reliable, specific, and sensitive quality control methods. Phytolean™ Powder is a herbal formulation for lean meat production containing herbs like Curcuma longa and Trigonella foenum graecum, as prime ingredients. The present study was undertaken to develop standardization parameters for Phytolean™ Powder. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-PDA) was employed quantification of dominant biomarkers in this herbal formulation. The RP-HPLC-PDA Rt-value of Trigonelline 4.85 and Curcuminoids i.e., Curcumin, Bisdemethoxycurcumin, Demethoxycurcumin are 22.50±0.15, 24.43±0.03, and 27.15±0.05 minutes in the formulation and reference standards were found comparable under UV light at 265 nm and 420 nm respectively. The percentage of Trigonelline and Curcuminoids were 0.120±0.85 % and 0.220±0.92 % present in the Phytolean™ Powder formulation. Bioactive markers are characteristic of the ingredients or botanicals to identify the presence of ingredients in formulation easily. The quantification of biomarkers by HPLC is the best way to identify and evaluate the quality of the finished formulation in the course of the development of a standardization protocol for quality control of Ayurvedic formulation.

  5. Gul Muhammad, Asia Naz, Fouzia Haider, Almas Kanwal, Faria Khurshid and Muhammad Ishaq, M.R.

    To develop new drugs that inhibit growth of pathogenic microorganisms, metal derivatives of dihydroquinolone 3 carboxylic acid are assessed. Metal complexes with the fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent moxifloxacin (MOXI) or 7-[(4aS,7aS)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,7,7a-octahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridin-6-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid have been synthesized and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques such as TLC, FTIR, 1H- NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and Mass spectroscopy and assessed for antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Both 1H NMR and FTIR spectra clearly showed that Moxi-metal complexes are formed due to change in their carboxyl stretching band in IR, H-2 and H-5 peak position in 1H NMR. All the Moxi-metal complexes showed significant antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Among all metal complexes tested Moxi-Mo showed remarkable antibacterial effect and Moxi-Cd complexes showed good antibacterial activity. The Moxi-Cd complex showed antioxidant effects almost similar to that of standard agent (IC50 = 8.26 µg/ml),Moxi-Mo (IC50 = 3.01 µg/ml) and Moxi-Mg(IC50 = 3.62 µg/ml) metal complexes showed higher antioxidant activity than the parent drug.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. MORO Yao Binger

    Cet article rend compte des connaissances, représentations sociales et comportements des populations liés au lavage des mains. Une enquête qualitative par usage de guide d’entretien a été menée dans la période de décembre 2021 à octobre 2022. Les informations recueillies lors de cette enquête ont été traitées par l’analyse de contenu et interprétées à l’aide de la méthode compréhensive ainsi que la méthode de l’individualisme méthodologique et l’acteur stratégique. Les résultats obtenus révèlent que peu de gens connaissent les indications et les techniques d’hygiène des mains selon le type. Aussi, l’étude a montré que le lavage des mains n’est pas une attitude bien pratiquée par la population. L’adhésion du personnel soignant au lavage des mains est faible. Au total, les connaissances, les représentations sociales et les comportements des populations sont des facteurs défavorisants du taux d’observance de l’hygiène des mains.

  2. Huali Wang

    Today’s schools all over the globe are on a constant pressure to improve the quality of instructions and services that they provide. Marketing of their programs and activities has become a higher priority for them. To date, the literature on educational marketing has focused on how schools market and promote themselves in the community, how they maintain and enhance their image, and the factors affecting parents and there remains a paucity of research on principals’ patterns of involvement in the marketing and image-building of their schools, and on the potential impact of these new managerial activities on principals’ careers and well-being. Specifically, this study’s objectives were: (1) describe the lived experiences of principals as social media marketers of their schools; (2) identify the essence of the experiences of the principal marketers. This study employed the phenomenological approach to investigate the experiences of the principals as digital marketers. The setting of this study was in Hunan, China. The researcher originally selected 7 private upper secondary schools in the province and mainly utilized two research instruments: interview guide and observation guide. It was found that: (1) Principals recognize and commit to high accountability as social media marketers of their schools;(2) Principals devote themselves to highly engage in social media marketing of their schools;(3) Principals experience a lot of difficulties as social media marketers of their schools; (4) Principals provide programs and trainings in capacitating employees who support them in social media marketing of their schools; and (5) Principals develop their creativity and adaptability in social media marketing of their schools. Based on the summarized findings, the following are concluded: (1) the lived experiences of the principals as social media marketers generated fives themes: Responsibility, Immersion, Challenge, Entrustment, and Growth; and (2) the experiences of the Chinese school principals as primary school marketers highlighted their holistic journey towards their personal, professional, and leadership development, revealing the factors that propel them to take on the marketing duties, and the conflicts which paved the opportunity for growth. Culled from the conclusion, the researcher made the following recommendations: (1) the school principals may engage themselves in training and workshops that focus on technology and digital marketing; (2) the principals may hire a person who is assigned to digital marketing, so they may focus on supervising and monitoring leads and progress; (3) the roles of the school principals may be reviewed in light of the findings for the possibility of updating and revising their job descriptions; (4) Focus Group Meetings participated by the marketing group may be done on a weekly basis to cater to concerns, and to assess the effectiveness of social media marketing implementation; and (5) a follow-up research may be done to quantify the effect of the performance of marketing roles on the academic leadership of school principals.

Health Sciences

  1. Latha, N., and Dr. Ambika, K.

    Background of the study: United nation international children fund state that children are not only divine gifts, but also the mirror of a nation and hope of the world. Health of the children is a key factor in school entry as well as continued participation and achievement in school. The child spends most of the time in the school between the ages 6 and 15 years. Children are the more powerful channel for reaching out the public health information. It gives a more opportunity to prepare themselves.Child to child approach is a means of promoting health education through children. Aim and objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of child to child approach programme on knowledge of children regarding dental hygiene among children in a selected rural government school in Mysuru district Karnataka. Methods: A Pre-experimental One group pretest posttest design was used and 60 children were selected at Hommaragali Govt school Mysuru district using non probability convenience sampling technique. Data were collected using Selected personal variable and structured knowledge questionnaire to assess the knowledge regarding dental hygiene. A child-to-child approach was conducted for children studying 5th 6th and 7th standard students. The data were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results of the study revealed that the significant difference between the mean pretest and post test knowledge scores was statistically tested using paired ‘t’ test and was found to be significant at 0.05 level of significance t(58)= 14.3 and The results also depicted that knowledge of children regarding dental hygiene had no association with their selected personal variables. Conclusion: The study has revealedthat the child-to-child approach was effective in increasing the knowledge of children regarding dental hygiene among children. Therefore the study recommends that, it is essential to organize health campaigns and child-to-child approach to enhance the knowledge regarding dental hygiene among children.

  2. Jhancy Pavithra, G. and Usha M Thomas

    Introduction: Chronic Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their associated risk factors have emerged rapidly and are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. The impact of NCDs is devastating in terms of premature morbidity, mortality, and economic loss. The rise of NCDs has been driven by primarily four major risk factors: tobacco use, physical inactivity, the harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diets. NCDs are chronic diseases of long duration and generally slow progression and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioural factors. India being a patriarchal society, women have very little role to play in their health care issues. A famous slogan, “Healthy Women, Healthy World”, embodies the fact that as custodians of family health, women play a critical role in maintaining the health and overall well-being of her communities. In developing countries like India, where resources are limited, preventive measures and lifestyle modification appears to be the only essential weapon. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the risk factors for NCDs among women residing in selected urban communities of Mysuru and to find the association between the selected non communicable diseases and the selected personal variables of women. Methods: Research design adopted for the study was an exploratory survey method. Non probability purposive sampling was used to select 150 women for the study. Risk factors of women for NCDs was assessed by using risk assessment tool for NCDs. Risk scores of women were entered into a datasheet and classified as low, moderate and high risk groups. 72 women were having low risk and 78 women were having moderate to high risk for NCDs. Results: The results of the study revealed that 52% of women had moderate to high risk for NCDs. There was a statistically significant association between the risk factors of women for NCDs and their selected personal variables viz. age, family history of NCDs, BMI, and waist circumference. Conclusion: The study findings stress the increasing responsibility of health professionals in planning and implementing various educational strategies to improve the knowledge of the public regarding prevention and management of selected NCDs which in turn help to reduce their risk for NCDs in their later life.

  3. SK.Wasim Nawaz

    Leukoplakia is the most potentially malignant disorder. Genetic mutations often produce early phenotypic changes that may present as clinically apparent, recognizable lesions. The study was undertaken with a view to assess p53 mutation in oral leukoplakia, OSCC and risk of progression from pre-cancer to cancer. A total number of 15 OL and/or OSCC patient studied. Clinical diagnosis, histopathological analysis and sanger sequencing are done. Among them 6 SNPs were detected in 5 OSCC & 3 OL patients. Two TP53 somatic mutation detected in patient sample.

  4. Baskaran, K., Safana. A., Namitha, V., Abishek, M., Dinesh Raja, S., Sijo Henry, Haseera, N. and Shalet Varghese

    The nutritional profile of minerals and antioxidants in Indian spice extracts was evaluated in order to examine their efficacy in treating various diseases, disorders, and allergies in human health. Medicinal plants Ocimum basilicum, regularly consumed as spice products in South Asia, have been studied using elemental analysis, antioxidant studies. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration process using methanol and ethylacetate. The methanol and ethylacetate extract were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoid, alkaloid, polyphenols, glycosides, tannin, saponin etc. Estimation of total flavonoids, phenolic content was based on aluminium chloride method in the sample extract by spectrophotometrically. Phytochemical screening test showed that the presence of saponins, proteins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, alkaloids in leaves parts when extracted with methanol and ethylacetate solvents. In this study, Ocimum basilicum, has phytochemicals properties in the leaves which are used in curing the ailments and higher flavonoid content indicated the natural antioxidant activity signifying their medicinal importance and potent source in pharma industries. We conclude that Ocimum basilicum, is a highly useful medicinal plant. However, there is necessary to explore natural plant sources with their medicinal value used in medical field.

  5. Dr. Rasool Karim Nizaro Siyo, Dr. Anjali, N., Dr. Parson Paul, Dr. Navedha, Dr. Gayathri, Dr. Jishnu and Dr. Veena, K.A.

    Background and Objectives: Attachments with sufficient bond strengths and a low failure rate are required for a fixed orthodontic appliance to be successful. For bonding brackets to enamel surfaces, a variety of adhesives have been employed and optimal color and shade match of composite resins and teeth, make identification of adhesive–tooth interface difficult and complete removal of adhesive remnants may not be easily achieved. Color-change light-cured composites were recently introduced to the orthodontic market to enhance differentiation of adhesive and enamel. The objective of this study is to compare the shear bond strength, adhesive remnant index and enamel loss while debonding between two color changing adhesive with a conventional orthodontic adhesive. Methods: 120 human maxillary teeth freshly extracted was collected and stored. Then specimen was randomly divided into three groups and bonded accordingly. Among 40 samples prepared in each group, 20 samples were taken for shear bond test. Remaining 20 samples was debonded manually by using a debonding plier. The debonded tooth surfaces of 20 samples were examined under stereomicroscope of 10x magnification to assess residual adhesive on tooth surface and site of bond failure using Adhesive remnant index. The debonded bracket base of 20 samples was examined under Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy to detect calcium and phosphorus. Result and Discussion: There was no statistically significant difference between the shear bond strength of Grengloo and Transbond Plus color changing adhesives. Energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy analysis showed a significantly high amount of elemental Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) on Transbond Plus. There were significant differences found in enamel loss by color changing adhesives. Significant result was found between shear bond strength of color changing adhesive and Transbond XT conventional adhesive. Conclusion: Metal brackets bonded with color changing adhesives have shown good shear bond strength with minimal enamel loss with Grengloo. Transbond plus showed significantly high amount of elemental Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P).

  6. Dr. Rasool Karim Nizaro Siyo, Dr. Veena, K.A., Dr. Parson Paul, Dr. Navetha, Dr. Gayathri, Dr. Jishnu and Dr. Anjali, N.

    Background and Objectives: Orthodontic brackets are important part of fixed appliances, which are used to deliver forces from the wires or other power modules to the teeth and will be in the oral environment for long periods of time. The most widely used stainless steel bracket in orthodontics is the austenitic type, containing 18-20% chromium and 8-10% nickel. The combination of chromium and nickel increases the bracket resistance to corrosion. The oral environment is highly conducive to corrosion and pH changes. Metallic orthodontic appliances are known to release metal ions leading to changes in the mechanical properties. Among the metal ions released nickel is the most common cause of metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis and second in frequency is chromium. The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the rate of release of nickel and chromium ions from stainless steel brackets of three different manufacturers at two different time intervals. Methods: 90 standard stainless steel orthodontic brackets of three different manufacturers (Group A-3M ESPE, Group B- JJ Orthodontics, Group C-Modern Orhtodontics) were collected. The brackets were divided into three equal groups. Each bracket was incubated at a room temperature of 37°C in individual 30ml plastic containers containing 15ml of artificial saliva at pH 6.7. 2 ml of artificial saliva was taken from each plastic containers for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric (ICP-OES) evaluation on seventh day and twenty eighth day. The artificial saliva was replaced after each sample collection to avoid saturation with corrosion products. Result and Discussion: In all the three groups, Nickel release was more on seventh day. And chromium release was more on twenty eighth day for 3M and Modern. And for JJ Orthodontics, Chromium release was more on seventh day. Conclusion: Stainless steel brackets of 3M shows less amount of Nickel ion release on twenty eighth day compared to JJ and Modern. Stainless steel brackets of Modern shows less amount of Chromium ion release compared to 3M and JJ on both days.

  7. Seema Gur and Dr. Daljit Kaur Gill

    In this chapter have been briefly analyzed the impact of the Arya Samaj on the Condition of Women in Society. The Arya Samaj create a challenge to the process of Westernization, it was also deeply influenced by the ideology of the rulers, have been written about the efforts made by Arya Samaj in the Emancipation of Women. The period of later half of 19th century was an age of definition and redefinition

  8. YAO-ASSAHI Akoissi Ida Natacha and ANOH Kouassi Paul

    Industries release suspended particulates (PM 2.5, PM10, TSP) with high concentrations in the various industrial sites and their surroundings in South Abidjan Region. However, the exposure to fine particles leads to an increased risk of cardio respiratory mortality such as lung cancer, asthma and obstructive lung disease. This study aims to highlight the impact of industrial activities on the health of populations living in and around industrial areas. The methodological approach is based on documentary research, interviews, surveys of people living in industrial and control areas, of the Autonomous Port of Abidjan staff and employees of some health centers. The results show the prevalence of pathologies such as asthma, allergic cough, pollen allergy and respiratory cancer in the populations interviewed, in both control and industrial zones. This study indicates that there is a strong presumption that all these diseases could be related to industrial activities in South Abidjan Region.

  9. Vitalisgoodwell Chipfakacha, MD.M.SC

    Traditional Medical Practitioners are found in every part of the African continent; and are the backbone of primary health care fulfilling the three As of primary health care namely; availability, affordability, and acceptability. Unfortunately, most African governments do not recognize the roles of traditional medical practices and do not utilize them as part of human resources for health, particularly during disease outbreaks. Methodology: The paper reviews the roles of traditional medical practitioners during past epidemics such as Ebola, HIV and AIDS, and cholera on the African continent. A literature review of scientific journals and newspapers was done during the review. Results: UNESCO has written a few policy documents on the roles of traditional medical practitioners during the 2019-2022 COVID-19 pandemic (UNESCO 2019). In Ethiopia, research showed that 50 percent of communities consulted traditional medical practitioners to manage COVID-19 (Belachew U. Chali et al 2021). The World Health Organization has shown that the use of traditional medical practitioners as human resources for health in the Democratic Republic of Congo and West Africa during the Ebola epidemics reduced both morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: Utilizing traditional medical practitioners as human resources for health reduces both morbidity and mortality.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Tegawende Stephane Ouedraogo

    Trauma is undeniably part of the quotidian life of modern as well as contemporary African American characters. This trauma is multifaceted and multigenerational. It is prevalent so much so, that some critics associate for better or for worse, the loss of identity to the African American characters. Drawing links with slavery on the one hand, many critics hold the view that what characterizes the identity of modern as well as contemporary African American characters is hyper vigilance, schizophrenia, ambivalence, a foreshortened sense of the future etc., which echo the biases, stereotypes and clichés people of African descent have always been subject to worldwide. The African roots of the African American characters is also used to question the American identity of the African American characters in exile in the U.S., which creates the rationale for this research paper. In this paper, I provide an answer to the issue of the identity as experienced by African American characters. To do so, I pose questions like, can a people without losing his own culture and identity, truly embrace a new culture under the hot irons and the whips of slavery, the mockeries of racism as well as the oppression of discrimination in a foreign land? Going deeper into the subconscious of the African American character in exile in a foreign land, and scrutinizing the unconscious behaviors of African American characters may help answer the question pertaining to the identity of modern as well as contemporary African American characters. Through the lenses of psychotherapist Joy DeGruy’s Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome theory (PTSS), I probe into the life of John Grimes, the hero of James Baldwin’s semi-autobiography Go Tell It on the Mountain (1969) in order to unravel the unconscious trauma which serves to build his American identity. At first, I deal with the theoretical framework, which is Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome (PTSS), and then the historical background of African American characters before addressing the identity of John Grimes in Go Tell It on the Mountain.

  2. Dr. Dev Prakash and Dulee Chand Mahala

    The total quality of an individual’s behavior as it is revealed in his habits of thought and expression, his attitude and interests, his manner of acting and his personal philosophy of life. Personality traits are any particular characteristic of an individual which change and develop according to the experience, surroundings and time.

  3. Emmanuel Obed Acquah

    The study of Ghanaian choral music composers and their works has become significant in recent times for scholars in composition and ethnomusicology as well as Music Education, in order to add to the dearth of literature on Ghanaian composers and their unique styles. Indeed, some few living music composers in Ghana have received attention through dissertation writing in the academic institutions. Using the concept of biography, the Cultural-historical activity theory, as well as case study design with non-directive interview and purposive sampling technique, the study takes a cursory look at the events of the life and unique style of Tsemafo-Arthur, and presented as biographical facts that have influenced his artistic creativity in music composition. It is concluded that Tsemafo-Arthur is a unique stylized choral music composer resulting from his mastery use of syncopations as an artistic device in his compositions. His usage of Fante texts as libretto for his songs, emanating from the Christian Asɔr Ndwom (Methodist Hymn Book), portrays the source of his textual materials. The study contributes significantly to educational function in music composition at various levels of music education.

  4. Dr. Shivaji Jadhav

    Fake news, misinformation and disinformation are an ingrained disease in the information world. In the Gujarat assembly elections held in December 2022, information was also polluted with the help of fake news. In Gujarat, three parties—the Bharatiya Janata Party, the Congress, and the Aam Aadmi Party—fought against each other. In this election, the digital armies of all the parties tried to defame each other. Fake news, misinformation, and disinformation were widely used. Spreading fake news created confusion among the voters. Old videos and photos were tampered with in an attempt to send the wrong message. There was also an attempt to endanger the religious unity of India. In fact, political mudslinging and the worst kind of influence on the voting process were also done. Social media was widely misused during the election period. There was a deliberate attempt to spread false information, the wrong message, and misleading content on all platforms, like text, audio, video, photo, digital board, posters, and pamphlets. Social media platforms like WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, etc. were used to spread fake news. Furthermore, fake news was purposefully spread using the logos of major mainstream media in order to confuse voters.

  5. Dr. Mexan Serge EPOUNDA

    The present work deals with the Artistic Representation in Nigeria: A Study of Festus Lyayi’s Violence. Its purpose is to show how the author paints life aspects in post-independence Nigeria. In fact, in his writing, Festus Lyayi doesn’t limit himself only on diagnosing and exposing the socio-political malevolent facts that harass the contemporary society but also on proposing some exit tracks to the suffering masses. This is noticeable through the protagonist’s awareness for he denounces the social injustice between leaders and popular masses on one hand, and expresses the need to reach a new order on the other hand. This leads us to think of Festus Lyayi’s commitment that we intend to unveil basing on sociological and psychological approaches. As a matter of fact, in depicting facts and events inherent to the Nigerian society and with it its people, the author claims the change of existed reality, conditions which he believes pathetic and rough into better conditions where people could live in peace without fear, arbitrariness and violence.





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