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Table of Contents: Volume 16; Issue 06; June 2024

Life Sciences

  1. Dr. Manorama Gupta

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin, or when the body cannot make proper use of the insulin it produces. Not being able to produce insulin or use it effectively leads to increased glucose levels in the blood (known as hyperglycaemia). In India, more than half of patients have poor blood sugar control and have diabetes complications. The primary objective in the management of diabetes mellitus is the attainment of near-normal blood glucose levels. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a food containing complex carbohydrates with a higher amount of dietary fibre. In this context, to improve the hypoglycemic effect, healthy nutritional high fibre flour is developed with the combination of germinated whole grain cereal, millet, and pulses to formulate low glycemic index pasta. The formulated all three variations of pasta were organoleptically evaluated and checked their glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL). All variations of pasta show that the overall acceptability of Mix I Pasta was high score than Mix –II and Mix-III and the GI of Mix I pastas was (51.03 ± 1.75) Mix II (56.47 ± 2.02) and Mix III (58.02 ± 1.95). The GL of mix I was 20.49, Mix II was 22.68 and Mix III was 24.27. Hence the developed pasta Mix-I from sprouted mix flour of millet, cereal, and pulses is low in glycemic index with a high score of overall acceptability. The formulation of enriched pasta able to control glycemic response could represent a strategy to improve the nutritional value of pasta.

  2. Vandana singh and Bhuwal Ram

    Objective: Vinca rosea Linn. is a commonly used plant for treating malaria, diabetes, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The main objective of this study is to assess the antitumor activity of V. rosea roots in Dalton’s Lymphoma ascites mice model. Methods: Antitumor activity of hydroalcoholic extract of V. rosea (HAEVR) roots is evaluated against Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumor mice. After 24 hrs of tumor inoculation, the extract with doses 200 and 400 mg/kg is administered daily for 15 days. After administration of the last dose mice are sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity. Antitumor activity is assessed by monitoring the tumor size, cancer cell count, increase in body weight, haematological and biochemical parameters, and histopathological evidence. Results: The results evidenced significant results of HAEVR roots in the treatment control group against the above-mentioned parameters when compared to the mice of the DLA control group. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the HAEVR roots have antitumor activity against DLA-induced mice. Hence, it is evident that this extract could be a natural anticancer agent for human health.

  3. Dayananda, G.Y. and Shivaraju

    The toxicity tests using early life stages of fish are of great importance in assessing risk of growth, reproduction and survival in polluted environments are important tools for good environmental monitoring. In the present study, the toxic effect of Lambda-cyhalothrin to the fingerlings of Common carp Cyprinus carpio was evaluated. The aim of the present work was to study the toxic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on the total protein, total carbohydrates, amount of cholesterol and sterols. The LC50 of lambda-cyhalothrin were estimated by Static renewal method. The Lambda-cyhalothrin of LC50 was 0.2μl/l, 0.18μl/l, 0.12μl /l, 0.1μl/l at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h respectively. The fish exhibited erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, copious mucus secretion and hitting to the walls of test tubs prior to mortality. During the present investigation we observed significant alterations in the total protein, total carbohydrates and amount of cholesterol and sterol contents in the tissue of Cyprinus carpio exposed to Lambda-cyhalothrin compared to control group. So, that the indiscriminate uses of synthetic pesticide have caused environmental contamination and toxicity to living organisms. The study strongly suggests that the use of eco-friendly products such as bio-pesticide agents which are available abundantly in nature.

  4. Renuka, M, Margret Nisha, C, Reena Evency, A.

    Introduction: Cardiovascular Aim: To explore the lived-in experience and challenges of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Design: A qualitative phenomenological research design was adopted to explore the lived-in experience and challenges of patients undergoing hemodialysis. 10 patients based on predetermined criteria were selected using purposive sampling technique and the data were collected using interview guide which consists of 34 open ended questions. Results : The findings of the study revealed the lived-in experience and challenges of patients undergoing hemodialysis. From the data collected, the experience and challenges of patients undergoing hemodialysis were thematically analyzed as physiological experience, experience during dialysis, psychological experience, financial experience, physiological challenges, psychological challenges and financial challenges. Conclusion: The research findings identified the lived-in experience and challenges of patients undergoing hemodialysis. By exploration of the lived-in experience and challenges of patients undergoing hemodialysis, the researcher found that this qualitative study can be a foundation stone to conduct further interventional studies for the people who are undergoing hemodialysis.

  5. Siva Shankar Reddy Sabbela and Shaik Lakshman

    In this investigation, a new Lewis acid-based was synthesis of novel series of 8,8-dimethyl-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-5,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-(1,3,4)thiadiazolo(2,3-b)quinazolin-6-one promoted by camphorsulfonic acid . The catalytic ability of camphorsulfonic acid was ascertained in the efficient synthesis of a novel array of thiadiazolo (2,3-b) quinazolin-6-one scaffolds via a one-pot three-component reaction of dimedone, substituted aromatic aldehydes, and 5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-amine under solvent ethanol conditions. This intermediate such as 5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-amine is one of the three component of this process which is nitrogen sources .This component can be obtained from 4-nitrobenzoic acid and semithiocarbazide in the presence of ethanol and con H2SO4 at reflux and among the several notable benefits of this recently established technology are its low E-factor, high reaction mass efficiency, atom economy, scalability, short reaction time, avoidance of hazardous organic solvents, and ease of enforcement.

  6. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Sword bean belongs to the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae, genus Canavalia and species Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. and Jack bean belongs to the species Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. Although related, jack bean and sword bean are two different species beans. While Sword bean is Canavalia gladiata, Jack bean is Canavalia ensiformis. The seeds of Sword bean are reddish pink or light brown and seeds of Jack bean are white or light tan. C. ensiformis has numerous names in English viz., Brazilian broad bean, "Coffee bean", Chickasaw lima bean, Ensiform bean, "Horse bean" (usually applied to Vicia faba), "Jack bean" (also applied to other species in the genus Canavalia), Mole bean, Overlook bean, Pearson bean, "Sword bean" (usually applied to Canavalia gladiata), Wonder bean. Common name in English: Sword Bean, Jack bean, Scimitar bean, Jamaican horse bean; Hindi: Khadsampal, Badi sem ; Manipuri: Tebi ; Tamil: Segapputampattai; Malayalam: Valpayar, Valaringha ; Telugu: Tamma ; Kannada: Tumbekonti, Shambi, Sambe, Shampe ; Bengali: Makhan shim and Sanskrit: Mahasimbi, Asisimbi. Leguminosae is one of the largest families of flowering plants with about 690 genera and 18,000 species of herbs, shrubs, trees and climbers. They are believed to have originated in the late Jurassic period and expanded and diversified in the Cretaceous. Although evidence of the cultivation and utilization of dry beans as food extends to prebiblical times, accurate records of legume cultivation go back only to the 16th century. In many of the less-developed countries and tropical areas, the food grain legumes are important sources of protein and calories. In addition, legumes are an important source of several B-complex vitamins, minerals and fiber. The genus Canavalia to which the plant Canavalia gladiata, commonly known as the sword bean, belongs is one of these genera with about 48 species. This genus is tropical and subtropical with two major pulses contributing to agriculture, namely jack (Canavalia ensiformis) and sword (Canavalia gladiata) beans, which have been exploited fully as food sources. The jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) is very closely related to the sword bean. However, the seeds can be distinguished by the length of the hilum which is nearly as long as the seed in the sword bean, and less than half its length in the jack bean. The mature seeds of Canavalia gladiata were originally consumed by people of ancient India, and are now consumed even by the urbanized population. Jack and sword beans are advocated to be good sources for extending protein since the protein quality is similar to most edible food legumes. Sword bean (SB) is also a good source of medicinal properties. The Canavalia gladiata possess biological functions such as anti-inflammatory, haematopoietic improving, hepatoprotective and anti-angiogenic activity. Some studies have reported that C. gladiata efficient for protecting against bone loss, increase in antioxidant activity and improving cell profiles. Sword bean, the seed of the leguminous plant Canavalia gladiate, also has been treated as traditional medicine for containing canavanine, hemagglutinin, and concanavalin A. It has been reported that sword bean may exhibit antioxidant activity of eliminating free radicals and against oxidative stress. In addition, it also has strong anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. India is often referred to as a predominantly vegetarian nation due to a combination of cultural, historical, religious and economic factors. While it's essential to note that not every individual in India is vegetarian, a significant portion of the population does follow a vegetarian diet. legumes are highly preferred in India for vegetarian diets due to their nutritional value, affordability, cultural significance, versatility, satiety, environmental considerations, and alignment with religious and cultural practices. These factors collectively make legumes an integral part of the Indian vegetarian diet and contribute to their widespread popularity. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Sword Bean are discussed.

  7. Rashmi Pujar, Amrita G Kulkarni and Vedamurthy, A.B.

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a dietary staple food crop and the grain being consumed by atleast 50 per cent of the world’s population. In Karnataka, rice is a staple food, grown under a variety of soils and wide range of rainfall and temperature. Aromatic rice varieties have been most sought-after commodity among the farmers as well as the consumers across the world due to their greater economic returns and palatability, respectively. Many aromatic genotypes exist across the world, Basmati and Jasmine rice being the most popular among them in the international trade. Besides, there is a huge diversity of aromatic landraces meeting the taste and specific quality preferences of many consumers across the world which have gained attention in the international forum. Short grained aromatic rice of eastern India, popularly known as ‘Medini’ rice is one among the few other groups of non-Basmati aromatic rice prevailing in our state and their trade potential is yet to be realized. They are quite different from Basmati in terms of their physical and biochemical characteristics as well. These groups of genotypes are popular among the people in the area for making several indigenous dishes like Paysam, pulao, fried rice, khichdi, pitha, momos, thupka, many breakfast items and also used in different rituals in this region. However, the major factor affecting the aroma in rice is based on their genetic makeup. The review gives an insight into identifying and documenting the climatic and social aspects of traditional rice ‘Medini’ variety in village called Medini in Kumta taluk, Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka. Make a comparative study on aromatic rice (medini) and nonaromatic rice, further exploring the plant, microbial interaction, and its metagenomics.

  8. Dr. Sirisha, D.V.L., Dr. Prathap, K., Durgarao, B.V., Suresh Gowd, V., Dr. Krishnarao, N. and Dr. Shaik Lakhman

    In this study, a novel series of 8,8-dimethyl-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-5,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-(1,3,4) thiadiazolo (2,3-b)quinazolin-6-one was synthesized using a novel Lewis acid-based method with CuI2 as a catalyst. CuI2 catalytic potential was determined by a one-pot three-component reaction involving dimedone, substituted aromatic aldehydes, and 5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-amine in the presence of ethanol as a solvent, which produced an array of new thiadiazolo (2,3-b) quinazolin-6-one scaffolds. This component can be produced by refluxing 4-nitrobenzoic acid and semithiocarbazide with ethanol and sulphuric acid present. This recently developed technology offers a number of noteworthy advantages, including a low E-factor, high reaction mass efficiency, atom economy, scalability, short reaction time.

  9. Flores-Encarnación M., Hernández-Hernández F.C., Cabrera-Maldonado C., Ocaña-Lozano D. and García-García S.M.C.

    As is known, in the last decade many emerging infectious diseases have become evident that have affected the world population. Bacterial and viral infections stand out, however there are infections caused by various fungi that are today considered emerging pathogens. Among the emerging pathogenic fungi, we can mention the case of S. cerevisiae, a yeast that has been used since time immemorial, for example for the manufacture of bread or some fermented drinks. Thus, this work shows some important aspects in relation to S. cerevisiae as an emerging pathogenic fungus.

  10. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    Rice and wheat production hold paramount importance in India due to their critical role in ensuring the nation's food security, contributing significantly to the dietary needs and economic sustenance of its population. The rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) is the predominant agricultural practice in South Asia, covering an extensive area in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, and is vital for producing over 70% of the country's total grain output, which is essential for meeting the food requirements of its vast population. This system not only supports the livelihoods of millions but also accounts for a substantial portion of India's GDP, emphasizing agriculture's central role in the economy. India's position as the second-largest producer of both rice and wheat globally underscores the significance of these crops in its agricultural landscape. Rice and wheat together form the backbone of India's food security system, contributing to a large extent of the total food grain production and ensuring a stable food supply for the nation. The cultivation of these crops is crucial for sustaining the livelihoods of a significant portion of the Indian population, with more than 50% relying on agriculture for their nutritional needs. Moreover, the RWCS is instrumental in addressing the challenges posed by a growing population and shrinking agricultural resources. The adoption of resource conservation technologies (RCTs) and precision farming within this system is aimed at enhancing productivity and sustainability, thereby securing food and environmental security for the future. The strategic importance of rice and wheat in India's agricultural exports further highlights their role in the nation's economy, making their production not just a matter of national security but also of economic advancement. In a nutshell, rice and wheat production is crucial in India due to its significant contribution to food security, economic stability, and the livelihoods of a vast majority of its population, while also playing a key role in addressing future challenges of food and environmental sustainability. In this background, for rice production in our country, an institution is carrying major responsibilities; the institute is Indian Rice Research Institute (NRRI). Gaining knowledge about what are the purposes, objectives, origin, location, goal, vision, mission, opportunities, thrust areas of research, salient achievements, various divisions under this institute, regional stations, KVKs, HRD activities, recent achievements, released varieties, agril. implements, and NRRI technologies ready for commercialization were the major aspire of this present study. Govt. should give more care and emphasis on several activities of this Institution and will assist to remove the challenges upto a great extent whatever the Institution is facing which will ultimately reflect of agricultural production which will secure country’ food requirement.

  11. SORO Soronikpoho, ABOLY Bosson Nicolas, AMAN Jean-Baptiste and DIOMANDE Dramane

    A study was carried out in the town of Korhogo, the general objective of which is to contribute to improving the production of fresh cow's milk in the locality. The snowball method was used to carry out the survey. It appears that 40 actors including 35% producers, 12.5% collectors and 52.5% traders were investigated. Indeed, the socio-demographic profile of these actors showed that 50% of the producers were illiterate, including 42.86% of Ivorian nationality. Concerning the collectors, the majority (80%) were of Malian origin and illiterate. The same goes for retail traders, 52.38% of whom were Malian and 76.19% illiterate. It should be noted that 85.71% of breeders had zebu breed cattle within their herds while 42.86% had crossbreeds. The average number of cattle per park was 42.79 ± 24.34 head. The production system was extensive with the use of natural forage ranges. Milk production is low with 42.9% of farms producing 12 to 25 liters of milk per day while 35.7% of farms produced less than 8 liters. The marketing of fresh milk was done in detail by traders and the majority (52.3%) of them sold 10 to 30 liters per day. Milk production in the town of Korhogo remains informal.

  12. Kumaresan, T

    The present investigation infected fresh water fish Catla catla were collected from Chidambaram area, Tamil Nadu and bacterial species were isolated. Totally five different bacteria were isolated from the infected carp gill, intestine and muscles samples, namely species of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia species and Enterobacter aerogen. These bacterial strains were caused by diseases in the fishes.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. Dhuha Emad Tarek^, Murtadha Jameel Edam, Hawraa Mohammed Khadier and Samir Mahdi Abdul Almohsin

    Hybrid inorganic–organic perovskites have emerged over the last 5 years as a promising class of materials for optoelectronic applications. Most notably, their solar cells have achieved power conversion efficiencies above 20% in an unprecedented timeframe, A theoretical investigation into Quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals have been proposed for high-efficiency solar cells due to their exceptional qualities, and this research is focused on examining the quantum efficiency of perovskites. Perovskites / ZnSe Assuming that QDs have the geometry of a quantum disk assuming n and p perovskites/ETL as QD layers.

  2. Dhirendra Kumar Sharma and Ravi Kant Mishra

    The ultrasonic velocity studies in liquid mixtures are wonderful use in understanding the nature and strength of intermolecular interaction. The excess sound velocity (uE), excess molar volume (VmE), and excess viscosity (ηE) have been investigated from sound velocity(u), density (ρ) and viscosity (η) measurements of six binary liquid mixtures of 1, 3-dioxolane with pentanol. Hexanol, heptanol, octanol, nonanol and decanol over the entire range of mole fraction at 298.15K. The present paper represents the nonlinear variation of ultrasonic velocity lead to dipole –dipole interactions between unlike molecules through hydrogen bonding and positive values indicate that the effect due to breaking up of self-associated structures of the components of the mixtures is dominant over the effect of H-bonding and dipole-dipole interaction between unlike molecules. The deviation has been fitted by a Redlich-Kister polynomial equation and the results are discussed in terms of molecular interactions. The excess properties are found to be eighter negative or positive depending on the molecular interactions and nature of the liquid mixtures. Excess properties provide important information in understanding the solute-solvent interaction in a solution.

  3. Prof. Sunil S Patil

    Education is a lifelong process. It starts at the birth and continue till the death. India has seen various era of education right from Vedic education system up to the post independent period. In the start the education system was totally teacher centered. Whatever teachers taught was considered as an ultimate truth and reality. Teacher centered learning is not sufficient to fulfil the requirement of education hence there is a need of strategies based on the student centered approach. Cooperative learning is one of the teaching techniques where student’s involvement in teaching learning process has given importance. Cooperative learning strategies are based on social constructivism which is one of the main stream of constructivism. In this concept students works in a small group and collectively for better learning. Students get the chance for the activeparticipation than the passive listener like in traditional teaching methods. If teachers are developed allroundly in their life directly it would help the students to develop their personality and help them in their future careers. Right from the ancient education system more stress was given on the cognitive developmentof the students and emotional development has been totally ignored as our curriculum is mainly based onintellectual development of the child. Hence it is a need of today to strengthen the emotional intelligence of the students and it would be possible if we introduce new strategies of cooperative learning the curriculum.The success of teaching is depends upon the required professional skills. Cooperative learning can help the teacher training students to improve their professional skills.

  4. Ahmed Salah, Khaled Heiza, Ibrahim Mahdi, Waleed Abbas and Nagwan Elsayed

    Supply chain management becomes a global trend in different disciplines. Construction industry occupies a huge sector of these disciplines. From this point of view, the interest of construction supply chain management becomes very important to maximize the profits of the organizations and minimize their losses to the lowest level. In thispaper, sustained CSC risk factors which have a significant effect on the construction industry in Egypt are investigated and assessed through a survey conducted with association of governmental agencies, construction firms and consulting companies. CSC risk factors are detected and categorized based on ESG metrics and also based on their type as well.

  5. Anuj Kumar and Ram Autar

    A dual phase lag mathematical model for the temperature evolution in the dentin layer of a human tooth exposed to Er: YAG solid-state laser is presented by including the phase lag in heat flux and the phase lag in the temperature gradient in the Fourier heat transfer model and a laser source term, described by the Beer-Lambert law. The Laplace transformation technique is used to obtain an analytical solution to the model and the computational results are presented through the graphs. The influence of various model parameters on the temperature distribution and difference in the dentin are investigated and illustrated. It displayed and described how several common characteristics, such as the heat flux phase lag and the number of pulses, affect temperature distribution and changes.

  6. Abeer Omar, Reem Najeeb Alshkeili, Saher Alsabbah, James Branes and Afreen Faiza

    A considerable body of evidence highlights the profound effects of internet addiction on the younger generation. It has been observed that TikTok influences the self-concept of studentsby shaping their self-images. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between internet addiction, online self-presentation and self-concept clarity among UAE undergraduates. 592 students with age 18-30 years recruited from Fatima College of Health Sciences completed online questionnaires for Internet Addiction Test (IAT; Pawlikowski, Altstötter-Gleich, & Brand, 2013); Presentation of Online Self Scale (POSS; Fullwood, James, & Chen-Wilson, 2016) andSelf-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS; Campbell et al.,1996). Results indicated a significant positive correlation between internet addiction and online self-presentation (r=.508; p<0.01) self-concept clarity (r=.443; p<.0.01) and its subscales. The outcomes and future implications are discussed based on the findings.

  7. Dapap D. Datak, Nwoga N. Charles, Audu D.Moses and Goar G. Suwa

    Background: There has been growing concern both locally and internationally about the increasing abuse of opioids. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. Aim : To estimate the prevalence and annual prevalence of opioid use disorder from 2018 to 2022, and the pattern of opioid use disorder. Method: A retrospective cross-sectional study carried out on 482 clients admitted between 2018 to 2022 at a drug treatment center in Jos,Nigeria. Data was collected from the patient’s information documented in their case notes. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Result: The prevalence of opioid use disorder among 135 clients was 28%, while the annual prevalence of opioid use disorder from 2018 to 2022 were; 37.3% in 2018 and 35.4% in 2019. Between 2020 and 2021 it decreased further from 22% to 19.3%, but it increased in the year 2022 with 26.5%. OUD was more among young adults while, codein containing syrup was the most abuse opioid with 53 (15.3) clients and most of them were poly drug users 77(57%). Conclusion: In our study, there was an upsurge of prevalence of OUD in the year 2022 (26.5%).The number of individuals with OUD is likely increasing, particularly among young people.

  8. José Guilherme, Carla Martins, Maria Cristina Nunes and Saúl Neves de Jesus

    The objective of this study was to understand physical self-concept and how it relates to the variables physical condition, academic achievement, age, and gender. With a total of 1533 participants, 46,44% are boys, aged between 12 and 17 years old, 3rd cycle, from the Algarve region, Portugal. Physical condition, academic achievement and physical self-concept were assessed. It was found that physical condition and physical self-concept have a statistically significant relation, globally and in both genders. The averages between female and male participants differ significantly, with boys' averages being higher. The association between physical self-concept and academic achievement at a global level was positive, weak, but significant at a significance level of 0,05. In boys and girls, the correlation is equally significant, positive, and weak. Age influences in a statistically significant and opposite way the physical self-concept in the overall sample and at the female level.

Health Sciences

  1. Abid Manzoor, Adil Abbas, Tarun Raikwar, B. Jahnavi, Heera Lal Kumawat and Sadaf Iqbal

    Background: The human brain's cognitive processes vary across genders, intriguing neuroscientists for decades. Visual memory, crucial for daily tasks, involves recalling visually presented information. While known factors like age and education influence memory, gender differences in visual memory remain less explored. Aim: This study aimed to investigate gender-specific variations in visual recall performance to enhance understanding of cognitive disparities between males and females. Material and Methods: Eighty healthy participants (40 males and 40 females), aged 18 to 24 years, were recruited for this observational study at the Research Lab, Department of Physiology, NIMS&R, Jaipur. The study used the Auditory Word Memory (AWM) test as the primary assessment tool. Participants viewed slides with word stimuli and recalled them after a delay. Data were analyzed using an independent samples unpaired t-test. Result: Significant gender differences were found in visual memory (p = 0.0128), with males averaging 5.6 and females 4.95 recalled items. This indicates males outperformed females in visual memory tasks. Conclusion: Our study reveals significant gender disparities in visual memory recall, suggesting males have advantages over females in such tasks. These findings contribute to understanding cognitive differences between genders in visual memory performance.

  2. Thaisa Maria da Silva Sousa MD,, Daniel Gurgel Fernandes Távora MD, Beatriz Viana Parente MD, Renata Moreno Martins MD, Lyvia Gonçalo da Silva MD, José Saturnino de Albuquerque Segundo MD, Arthur Castelo Rocha MD and Francisco Barbosa de Araújo Neto MD

    Cryptococcosis is an invasive infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated pathogenic fungus found globally in bird excreta, soil, and trees. Inhalation of the organism is the usual route of infection. If the fungal cells survive their initial interaction with alveolar macrophages in the lungs, they migrate to the systemic bloodstream and cross the blood-brain barrier, resulting in a central nervous system (CNS) infection. Cryptococcal infection can occur in individuals with normal immunity but is most common in immunocompromised hosts. Chest tomography typically shows solitary or multiple parenchymal nodules or consolidation with a surrounding area of ground-glass opacity, and cavitation may be observed, particularly in immunocompromised patients. On neuroimaging, the most common findings are leptomeningeal enhancement, followed by perivascular space dilatation with gelatinous pseudocysts. Cryptococcal infection results in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays a critical role in the diagnosis of the illness, monitoring therapy response, and identifying related complications. Early detection can optimize treatment and clinical management.

  3. Dr. Manoj Pathak and Sapna Tiwari

    Estimating the time of human death remains one of the most challenging questions in forensic medicine. Since ancient times, the determination of the time of death has struggled all professional figures involved around corpses because time since death determination can be a remarkably difficult goal to achieve. Time since death is defined as the amount of time that has elapsed between the death of the decedent and the time of the post mortem examination. In this present systematic review paper, we have reviewed some online journals and some of the standard books of forensic medicine and toxicology. All the methods used for the determination of time since death are not totally accurate and they only offer a simple approximation, but due to the development of new scientific fields like molecular biology, has meticulously evaluated the rate of degradation of biological markers (e. g. Proteins DNA, RNA) in order to obtain more accurate time since death.

  4. Dr. Ashwini Katole and Dr. Ajeet Saoji

    Introduction: Biomedical Waste causes hazardous impacts on health and the environment. Biomedical waste is also depending on the medical specialties and developed or developing countries. In India, biomedical waste is produced approximately 2/kg/bed/day. India produces 960 million tons of solid waste yearly. As a result, this research was conducted to examine the awareness amongst the staff of tertiary care hospitals as regards BMW management practices in order to examine the respondent’s Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice. Methodology: The analysis was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital based at a tertiary care hospital. The data on biomedical waste’s knowledge, attitudes, and practice was collected from a variety of healthcare workers, paramedical staff, and nurses working in the hospital. The data was gathered by predesign and pretested structured questionnaires. Ethical approval is taken from the respective committee. Results: The study revealed that although the attitude about biomedical waste management was high among the nursing staff than the other paramedical staff which was having knowledge and practice comparatively low. Conclusions: There should be repetitive training programs for medical and paramedical staff. Continuing health education programs are yet another effective method in imparting awareness among the health care personals.

  5. Baya H. Kisssiwa, MD

    Background: Placenta abruption is an obstetric emergency that rise to major maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low resource countries. It is usually unpredictable, but the risk factors identification is important. These include premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, antepartum hemorrhage, advanced maternal age, multifetal gestation and abdominal trauma. This study aims to review annual data in women with placenta abruption so as to identify the risk factors, presentation mode, management and immediate maternal and perinatal outcomes at Amana Regional Referral Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods : Retrospective observational study using medical records of all women who delivered from 28 weeks of gestation at Amana Regional Referral Hospital from January 2023 to December 2023 (n = 159) were analyzed. The results were presented in percentage and frequencies. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 23 software. Results: The incidence of placental abruption was 2.1%Risk factors for placenta abruption were hypertensive disoders of pregnancy, Premature rupture of membranes, previous Caesarean delivery, anaemia during antenatal period and multifetal gestation. Placenta abruption occurred more commmonly in the age group between 20 - 29 years (40%), in their second pregnancy (49.2%) and at a gestation age of 28 - 33+6 weeks. Maternal complications associated with placenta abruption were postpartum hemorrhage , Caesarean delivery, and need for blood transfusion. Coagulopathy, admission to intensive care unit and renal failure were also observed. There was no case of maternal death. Immediate neonatal outcomes were fetal death (83.1%), prematurity (11.9%), early neonatal death (13.6%) and low APGAR score at 5th minute of life. Conclusions: A higher frequency of placenta abruption was observed. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy was the main risk factor for placenta abruption. Many women with placenta abruption were left to deliver vaginally. Nearly 90% of placenta abruption cases had perinatal death .More efforts should be put in antenatal management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy to prevent placenta abruption and its complications.

  6. Ashish Kumar Yadav, Ankit Chaudhary, Harkishan Mamtani, Arnab Dutta, Narendra Kumar Singh, Vinit Kumar Singh and Mohit Shukla

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is being employed more and more frequently in medicine for applications relating to physical health, but its adoption in the field of mental health has lagged. The topic of mental health holds a lot of potential for AI technology. AI has enormous potential to transform how we identify and understand mental illnesses. However, we only have a limited understanding of how these social, psychological, and biological systems interact. The pathophysiology of mental illness is extremely diverse, and the discovery of biomarkers may enable more accurate and useful classifications of various diseases.AI makes it possible to diagnose mental diseases early or prodromally, in this review, we highlight an overview of chatbot systems for mental health. Such systems use artificial intelligence to analyse natural language, simulate human conversation, and generate relevant recommendations based on a particular user's utterance and mental state. However, there are other restrictions and moral dilemmas that need to be taken into account, such as the effect on the patient-therapist relationship, the danger of over-reliance, and the limited capabilities and emotional intelligence of chatbots that might restrict their usefulness. Though the use of artificial intelligence in medicine has increased over the past few years, the issue of how it will affect mental illness is still complex and open for debate. This review discusses the application of artificial intelligence (AI) to the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of psychiatric illnesses.

  7. Gueu Patrice NAMAN

    Since 1967, as an independent state, Côte d'Ivoire has dedicated the teaching of natural resources to its geography textbooks. From 1970, it experienced armed conflicts linked to natural resources: theGuébié war known as the “Kragbé Gnagbé affair” in 1970, the armed rebellion of 2002, the electoral wars of 2010-2011 and 2020. Without being actors in the theater of conflict operations, the knowledge transmitted on natural resources by the geography textbook devoid of links with the geopolitical nature of the conflicts generates institutional insufficiency and economic weakness, the basis of the country's underdevelopment. In fact, the present study intends to discover whether the geography student book can be used to prevent geostrategic conflicts linked to raw materials.

  8. Jafar Ali K, Hansaram, Daisy Thomas and Sarita Shokanda

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally, claims an estimated 17.9 million lives each year. It is a major cause of disability and premature death throughout the world, and contributes substantially to the escalating costs of health care. Modifications of risk factors were found to reduce mortality and morbidity in people with diagnosed or undiagnosed cardiovascular disease. Teaching programme was found to be helpful in prevention of absolute cardiovascular risk among young adults. Objectives of the study: 1. To evaluate the impact of structured teaching program (STP) on knowledge and practice regarding prevention of cardio vascular diseases among college students. 2. To find out relationship between knowledge and practice of college students regarding prevention of cardio vascular diseases. Methodology: A one group pre-test, post-test design, quasi-experimental was carried out at Najath College of Science And Technology, Karuvarakundu, Malappuram, Kerala. A total enumeration sampling technique was used to select 62 undergraduate students for the study. Structured knowledge questionnaire and an expressed practice questionnaire were used to collect the data. Results: The administration of structured teaching programme (STP), significantly increased the knowledge (P< 0.001) and improved practice (P< 0.001) of the students regarding prevention of cardio vascular diseases. The study reported a statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, P=<0.001) between post-test knowledge and practice. The study found that the knowledge of the students was not dependent of a selected demographic variables whereas practice was influenced by gender (χ2=4.14, P = 0.041). Conclusion: The study emphasizes the importance of a structured teaching module in prevention of cardiovascular diseases among students at different levels of professional education. Therefore, the pre-tested regular health education programs would be instrumental to improve the knowledge and practice of the students in prevention of cardiovascular diseases

  9. Ning Xiao, XiangxiYao, Rongyu Tang, Chaobo Xie, Wenjie Qiu, Ziming Wang, Jingyun Liang, Lianhua Chen, Dan Chen, Qiuxia Huang and Huasheng Zhao

    Background: To explore the effects of bladder volume and intravesicalpressure on bladder neck descent (BND) in female patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and to provide a base for standardization of evaluation for pelvic floor mobility in female SUI. Methods: The urodynamic data of 30 female patients diagnosed with SUI by sonography video urodynamic studies (SVUDS) at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University and Shaoyang Central Hospital from January 2021 to January 2024 are retrospectively analyzed. The changes of pelvic floor mobility in female patients with SUI were observed by comparison of the differences of BND in female patients with SUI between different bladder volume (100 ml, 200 ml, 300 ml) with various various intravesical pressure (resting state, 60 cmH2O, 90 cmH2O). Results: In this study, the difference of the bladder neck descent (BND) was statistically significant (P<0.05)at different intravesical pressure with an identical bladder volume and the BND at 90cmH2O was greatest. In Valsalva state, the difference of BND was statistically significant(P<0.05)at various bladder volume with asame intravesical pressure, in which200ml of bladder volume could generate the most remarked BND compared to that of 100ml and 300ml(P<0.05). Conclusions: Higher of intravesical pressure was associated with more obvious BND of female patients with SUI. The effects of intravesical pressure on pelvic floor mobility is more obvious at 200ml of bladder volume compared to that of 100ml and 300ml. Therefore, beside intravesical pressure, bladder volume also was an important factor affecting pelvic floor mobility of female patients with SUI and 200mlof bladder volume should be recommended as the standard volume of bladder in evaluation of female SUI.

  10. Das Kanhu Charan Prof., Dr. Utsav P., Dr. Amit Kumar and Mr. Sanjib Kumar

    Esophageal lipomas are rare tumors. Most of these lesions are clinically silent as a result of their small size, however, the majority of lesions over 3 cm have been reported to cause dysphagia, regurgitation and/or epigastralgia. Accurately diagnosing an esophageal lipoma is crucial in order to rule out potential malignant lesions, relieve patient symptoms and plan the appropriate treatment. We report a rare case of largesymptomatic midesophageal lipoma treated with band ligation successfully.

  11. Fernando Filipe Paulos Vieira and Francisco Lotufo Neto

    Background: Depressed and anxious patients experience of intense discomfort in the chest. Anguish is a feeling that causes discomfort in the chest that translates into physical sensations or bodily manifestations such as tightness, pain, hole, suffocation or compression in the chest. Method: Were included in the research 100 patients treated at the general, anxiety and adult affective disorders outpatient clinics of the Institute of Psychiatry of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Result: Diagnosis of depression was selected in the model (at the 10% level) and its interpretation corroborates the central hypothesis of the study. Correspondence analysis also points to clues in the direction of the research hypothesis. As for the second objective, under the same logistic model, the following variables were shown to be related to the state of anguish: Gender, Reduced HAM-A Score, BSI Somatization, BSI Hostility, BSI Obsession-Compulsion, Age and MINI Depression. Conclusion: The results of this research highlight the need for promoting a more criterious investigation about the role of anguish in mental health.

  12. Selvi, I., Thirumalaikolundu Subramanian, P. and Uma, A.

    Background and Objectives: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections, resulting in prolonged hospitalization with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis with appropriate antibiotics can reduce the emergence of resistant pathogens. The objective of this study is to find the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial resistance patterns among patients diagnosed with VAP. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study carried out at a tertiary care hospital. All endotracheal specimens from mechanically ventilated patients with a clinical suspicion of VAP sent to the department of microbiology. All isolates were processed as per standard laboratory procedures and antibiogram was determined. Results and Interpretation: The study comprised 100samples, in which 40 bacterial isolates were obtained, most of them were gram-negative organisms (90 %) and only 10 % were gram-positive organisms of which Klebsiella pneumoniae (30 %) Acinetobacter baumannii (22.5 %) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%) were the commonest. High rates of resistance to cephalosporins were noted. Among gram-negative bacilli, multidrug-resistant organisms constituted 27.50%. Conclusions: Due to high rate of multidrug resistant organisms in ICU, early and correct diagnosis of VAP is an urgent challenge for an optimal antibiotic treatment and cure. Hence, knowing the local microbial flora causing VAP and effective infection control practices are essential to improve clinical outcomes.

  13. Nitika Kaushal

    Background: Behavioural problems in children are actually the characteristics that do not meet the criteria of mental disorder, but can lead to the development of mental disorder in later life if not taken care of. Behavioural problems can be different types- both externalizing and internalizing that is hyperactivity, thumb sucking, sleep problems, temper tantrum, depression, anxiety, aggression, disobedience, peer problems, nail biting etc. Behavioural problems in children should be identified and managed as early as possible to prevent further complications. Objectives: The objectives of the study are:  To assess the level of knowledge regarding behavioural problems of children among mothers.  To find out the association between the behavioural problems of children and selected demographic variables. Methodology: The present study is a descriptive study that is conducted among 100 no. of mothers selected purposively from the rural area or Hukumatpur, Sahaspur, Dehradun. The tools used for data collection are socio-demographic Performa and self structured questionnaire. After collecting the data, statistical analysis of data has been done with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The analysis of the study revealed that 48% mothers have good knowledge, 52% mothers have average knowledge and 0% mothers have poor knowledge regarding behavioural problems. There is significant association between behavioural problem and selected demographic variables. Conclusion: Behavioural problems exist at the early stage of human development that is childhood. It is important to identify the child with behavioural problems at the earliest where the parents must realize their parental role in order to help and guide the children to lead their life in a healthy manner both physically and mentally. Mothers can spend as much time as possible with children to express their feelings and thoughts, this will help to reduce their behavioural problems.

  14. Abhilasha Borgohain, Ambica, R. and Sathyanarayan, M.S.

    Enterobacter cancerogenus, although rare, is known to cause infections in humans following a traumatic injury or crush injury. They are related to environmental contamination and are potential nosocomial pathogens. Here we report a post operative case of Dacrocystectomy with previous history of ocular trauma. A 65-year-old female patient came to the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Victoria Hospital campus with complaints of watering from left eye for 6 months alongwith regurgitation of mucoid fluid from punctum since 5months. It was insidious in onset and progressed gradually. Patient had a history of ocular trauma to left eye 5 years back for which she was operated. Her present medical history was diagnosed as Chronic Dacryocystitis and she underwent Dacryocystectomy under local anaesthesia. Conjunctival swab specimen was isolated under aseptic precautions and was sent for culture and sensitivity. The bacterial culture report yielded Enterobacter cancerogenus.She was started on Ciprofloxacin 500mg twice daily for 5 days and Moxifloxacin eye drops thrice daily. Patient improved after antibiotics and was discharged.

  15. Dr. Akshay Sharma, Dr. Anil Singla, Dr. Harupinder Singh Jaj, Dr. Vivek Mahajan, Dr. Indu Dhiman and Dr. Shikha Thakur

    Introduction: Dermatoglyphics analysis proven to be useful preliminary diagnostic investigation aid in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Palatal rugae serves as a stable landmark and are formed during similar time of intrauterine life as the teeth, so one can assume the relationship exist between the two. Similarly the lip prints are also unique to an individual just like fingerprints and shows a strong hereditary pattern. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the comparison of Lip prints, Palatal rugae pattern and Dermatoglyphic Patterns in different sagittal skeletal relationships. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients, aged 12-18 years, were selected from those who attended the outpatient clinic of the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics. The patients were divided into 3 groups as Class I, Class II, and Class III based on ANB angle. Palatal rugae, fingerprints and lip prints were recorded based on patterns in each group, then compared. Results: The correlation of vertical lip pattern with skeletal class III malocclusion was found. The wavy rugae pattern was most common in all skeletal groups. There was increased distribution of whorl pattern in the skeletal Class II and increased distribution of loop pattern in the skeletal Class III. Conclusion: A significant correlation was found between vertical lip pattern and skeletal class III malocclusion, and current study showed no specific palatal rugae pattern among the sagittal classes of skeletal malocclusion. There was significant correlation of whorl pattern in the skeletal Class II and loop pattern in the skeletal Class III.

  16. Pooja Chavan, Pankaj Badarkhe, Payal Mahagaonkar-Badarkhe, Venkat Bhosle and Meenakshi Gajbhiye

    Introduction: Multidetector Computed tomography is an efficient modality for characterizing colorectal pathologies. As colorectal carcinoma is the second most common cancer and has the highest mortality rate, its early detection and preoperative staging help plan treatment and surgery to prolong survival. Purpose: The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MDCT in diagnosis of benign and malignant pathologies as well as pre operative staging of colorectal cancer. Method:60 patients were referred to the Department of Radiodiagnosis of the Government Medical College, Akola, and were evaluated with appropriate CT protocol and multiplanar reconstruction performed.Data was collected and various benign and malignant bowel wall characteristics were studied. Results: The study showed that MDCT was efficient in characterizing bening and malignant colorectal pathologies.MDCT showed 100 % sensitivity and 92.5 % specificity in diagnosing malignant pathologies. Conclusion: The study showed that degree of bowel wall thickening with pattern of enhancement was most effective in characterizing benign and malignant pathologies. Multidetector computed tomography is the most cost-efficient , easy , faster method of imaging in colorectal pathologies and helps in early diagnosis of malignant colorectal lesions with pre-operative staging and planning surgery and management.

  17. Dr. Vina Dhurve and Dr. Anupama Gupta

    CSF metastasis is an extremely rare event. Here, we report a case of CSF metastasis in 4-year female child patient came to OPD with the convulsion and vomiting. Clinical diagnosis was tuberculosis. They send CSF to emergency OPD and on studying CSF we see group of large number of mononuclear cells. Patient was operated in the past for retinoblastoma. The diagnosis of metastasis of retinoblastoma was given.CSF cytology is helpful for detection of metastasis. So, it should be done on mandatory basis.

  18. Akshaya Raj, M., Sam Paul, Varun Peter and Prince Chacko

    Background: Enhanced durability and bond strength between the bonding material and the enamel is essential for the clinical success of the orthodontic treatment. Bonding failures are inconvenient, delays treatment, costly and might compromise the outcome of the treatment. Hence this study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with 3 different composites viz the Transbond-XT, Ormco Grengloo, and EZ-Bond. Methods: 36 freshly extracted maxillary premolars was collected and stored. Then specimen was randomly divided into the following groups and bonded accordingly with the adhesives planned for the study. 1 GROUP 1- Transbond XT with Transbond XT primer 2 GROUP 2- Grengloo with Ortho solo primer 3 GROUP 3- EZ bond adhesive Appropriately bonded samples were taken for shear bond test done using an Instron testing machine. Results: The mean SBS of Grengloo with Orthosolo primer, Transbond XT and EZ bond were 14.28 MPa, 13.99 MPa and 12.01 MPa respectively. There were no significant differences found in shear bond strength between Grengloo and Transbond XT but significant differences found in shear bond strength between Transbond XT and EZ bond adhesive as well as Grengloo and EZ bond adhesive. Conclusion: Metal brackets bonded with color changing adhesive Grengloo have shown superior shear bond strength. The color changing adhesives offer a viable alternative in cases demanding robust bond strength. Each presents unique advantages allowing the clinicians to select based on their preferences and specific requirements

  19. Sumol Ratna, Satwat Maitra, Simran Gangwani, Liza Jha, Ira Sharma and Divyansh Singh

    Drug induced lupus erythematosus (DILE) is a subset of lupus, defined as a lupus-like syndrome that develops in temporal relation to exposure to a drug and resolves after cessation of the drug exposure. It can be induced by various medications. The presentation is often vague and needs a high index of suspicion to diagnose this condition which has a potential to cause significant morbidity[1]. It should be distinguished from multi systemic, auto-immune systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The clinical manifestations of DILE are usually mild to moderate and are rarely severe [2]. We present a 31-year-old female with severe multi-system dysfunction probably due to drug-induced lupus erythematosus that required immunosuppressive therapy. Specific classification criteria for drug-induced lupus have not been published [3].Based on the WHO-UMC [4] and Naranjo’s causality assessment criteria[5], an association between the reaction and the offending drug was deemed possible. The reaction was severe (level 5) according to the Hartwig severity assessment scale [6].

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Rajkumar Singh

    The narratives of indentured labourers from India are not just their memoirs of pain, anguish, trauma, and betrayal; they are also their accounts of courage, belongingness to their roots, and rage against Western imperialism. This representation of the Girmitiyas has not found enough space in academia, and their connection to literature has been marginal. Therefore, the paper attempts to analyze the available accounts of their experiences and memories as Girmitiyas documented by the Girmit Organization. This paper is an attempt to trace the representation of Girmitiya in literature and their experience, culture, identity, and trauma caused by the forced immigration and torture at the hands of whites in the name of agreement. It also evaluates the collective consciousness of the indentured labourers and their belonging to their homeland. For the study, the paper considers the narratives of the Girimitiyas available on the website of Girmitya. These narratives are the recallings of their experiences during the Girmit, the corrupted word for ‘Agreement’. The paper relies on the post-colonial discourse of being and belonging.

  2. DALLY Mustapha

    Cette étude a pour objectif général d’analyser les déterminants de la violence éducative dans les établissements de l’enseignement technique et de la formation professionnelle à Yopougon. L’hypothèse de travail soutient que des déterminants psychosociaux favorisent la violence éducative contre les élèves. Pour rendre compte de l’objet d’étude, nous avons eu recours aux théories du fonctionnalisme et de la domination. L’étude documentaire, l’enquête-interrogation (questionnaires et guides d’entretien) et l’observation ont aidé à la collecte des données. Celles-ci ont subi l’épreuve des analyses qualitative et quantitative. Les résultats de l’étude montrent que ces violences éducatives se déclinent sous plusieurs formes telles que verbale (55,5%), psychologique (27,8%) et physique (16,7%). Divers auteurs ont été associés à ces violences notamment des enseignants (46,3%), des éducateurs de niveau (19,1%) des chefs d’établissements (9,9%), des inspecteurs d’orientation (9,3%), des inspecteurs d’éducation (8%) et des parents d’élèves (7,4%). Comme tout phénomène social, ces violences éducatives ne sont pas le fait d’un seul facteur. Plusieurs facteurs sont à l’origine de leurs manifestations, il s’agit de l’absence d’une équipe de coordination chargée de détecter la violence éducative (43,2%), de l’absence de guide pour dénoncer les agressions du personnel scolaire sur les élèves (32,7%) et du recours à la violence par des enseignants et des personnels d’encadrement pour affirmer leur autorité sur leurs élèves (24,1%). A travers ces données, nous pouvons retenir que les déterminants de ces violences sont d’ordre personnel et social. Notre hypothèse de recherche est ainsi confirmée.

  3. Putu Ngurah Dhimas Pratama Sanjaya and Nyoman Satyayudha Dananjaya

    In an agreement, self-protection clauses are often found included by the Notary. This research aims to determine the authenticity of a deed if the deed includes a self-protection clause. The writing method used in this writing is a qualitative descriptive method. In this research, even though the inclusion of a self-protection clause has no legal basis in the Law on Notary Positions, otherwise known as UUJN. However, this does not necessarily make a deed inauthentic. When making a deed, a Notary is directed to make a deed by the provisions in the UUJN.

  4. Prof. Prosper M. Ng’andu, PhD and Dr. Wanga Haipeng

    The unprecedented scale of global crises, including armed conflicts, climate change, and socio-economic disruptions, has led to a significant increase in the number of refugees worldwide. This paper examines current challenges and proposes comprehensive strategies to enhance regional protection policies and effective resettlement of refugees. By analyzing case studies from various regions, the research highlights best practices and innovative approaches for managing refugee influxes. It underscores the importance of international cooperation, policy coherence, and the strengthening of regional frameworks to ensure the protection and integration of refugees. The study advocates for a shift towards more sustainable and inclusive resettlement programs, emphasizing the need for robust support systems and community involvement. These efforts aim to not only meet immediate humanitarian needs but also promote long-term stability and development within host countries. The findings provide actionable insights for policymakers, humanitarian organizations, and stakeholders committed to addressing the multifaceted challenges of refugee protection and resettlement in the modern era.

  5. Gokhan Ugur

    This article focuses on how the personalities destroyed by the military coup of September 12 are reflected in cinema. in this sense, after giving brief information about the military coup of September 12, and about Trauma Theory, we will focus on the film The Voice, which stands in a different place with its cinematography, which has created a separate place for itself among September 12 films.

  6. Richard Acheampong, PhD., Charles Koomson, PhD., Prof. Yaw Ameyaw, PhD. and Denis Asante Asare and Boye Sampson

    This study focused on the assessment strategies and objectives to be followed for integrated science learning in basic schools within Sunyani municipality. In line with the convergence of parallel mixed methods research design, the study included eleven (11) integrated science teachers from public and private basic schools in the municipality. Data were collected by means of a lesson observation schedule, an interview and a questionnaire. In the analysis of data, standard deviations, T-test and mean scores have been used. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the priorities of integrated science teachers to carry out classroom assessments according to their school type, P = .735. However, it was noted that the most frequently used methods of assessment by teachers surveyed were classroom tests, homework and class exercises. Finally, the findings showed that teachers did not use self-assessment or peer comparison in their lessons. Unique contribution to assessment: It was recommended that peer and self-assessment be mandatory in assessing pupils learning to enable them to be part of their own assessment.

  7. Dr. Lalhruaitluangi Sailo, Samuel Lalruatfela and Reddy, K.V.

    This study examines the key challenges pertaining to governance and development in the state of Mizoram. This paper elucidates the various reasons that impede the progress and advancement inside the State. The paper also analyzed the significant problems and constraints, while placing emphasis on showcasing the achievements and positive anecdotes that had facilitated the progress of the State. Additionally, it places emphasis on the potential of governance to facilitate socio-economic advancement. The paper underscores the importance of reevaluating the concept of governance in order to achieve improved governance and development.

  8. Liu Yalan

    The physical health of college students is the foundation of various national undertakings, a favorable driving force for promoting continuous social development, and an important external manifestation of the comprehensive national strength and national vitality of the country. Based on a questionnaire survey of 1560 students, we found that older students, female students, non-only child families, and rural students are more actively involved in sports. To improve the physical health level of college students, efforts can be made to ensure exercise intensity, increase the coverage of physical education courses, vigorously promote the construction of sports clubs, and strengthen the academic linkage between physical health test scores and student awards. To increase the participation rate of college students in sports, we can start by continuing to maintain the development of “lifelong sports” education, increasing the recognition of parents and family members for physical exercise, emphasizing the updating of teaching methods, emphasizing financial support and functional development of sports facilities, and cultivating a strong cultural atmosphere of sports.

  9. Jean –Yves Ndjeussi Fotsa

    Les projets de développement agricole sont aujourd’hui la vitrine par excellence de la politique agricole du Cameroun, gage de réduction de la pauvreté et de l’insécurité alimentaire. Ces derniers constituent une option fondamentale des stratégies initiées par les autorités Camerounaises depuis l’atteinte du point d’achèvement de l’initiative PPTE en mai 2006. Avec l’appui technique et financier des partenaires au développement et à travers les projets de développement agricole axés sur les approches participative et entrepreneuriale, le gouvernement du Cameroun s’engage à implémenter et à matérialiser sa politique agricole sur le terrain. Ainsi, Le Projet d’Investissement et de Développement des Marchés Agricoles (PIDMA) basé sur ces approches a été mis en œuvre par l’Etat dans la région du Littoral qui regorge d’énormes potentialités agropastorales. Il s’agit dans le cadre de ce travail de mettre en exergue les enjeux et les contraintes de la mise en œuvre dudit projet dans la zone d’étude. Au plan méthodologique, la démonstration des résultats est effectuée à partir des données primaires et secondaires obtenues à l’aide des outils d’enquête. Ces résultats relèvent que le PIDMA dans son implémentation présente de nombreux enjeux et doit faire face à plusieurs contraintes qui réduisent de manière remarquable son efficacité et son efficience dans la région du Littoral.

  10. Dr. Deepa Saxena

    As artificial intelligence (AI) continues to permeate diverse sectors of society, the ethical considerations surrounding its adoption become increasingly complex and consequential. This paper delves into the multifaceted landscape of ethical considerations in AI adoption, exploring the guiding principles, emerging challenges, and far-reaching implications for individuals, organizations, and society. Drawing upon a comprehensive review of literature, this research elucidates key ethical dimensions such as algorithmic transparency, bias mitigation, data privacy, fairness, and accountability. It examines the intricate interplay between ethical principles and practical challenges inherent in AI deployment, emphasizing the need for robust governance frameworks and responsible AI practices. Furthermore, this paper investigates the societal impact of AI adoption, including its effects on employment, socioeconomic inequalities, and democratic values. By synthesizing insights from diverse disciplines, this research contributes to a nuanced understanding of the ethical complexities inherent in AI adoption and provides actionable recommendations for fostering ethical AI development and deployment in an increasingly AI-driven world.

  11. Mr. Piyush Bhadani

    The health sector in Bihar plays a crucial role in the overall development of the region. This article examines the current state of the health sector in Bihar with a particular focus on the decent work dimensions for health workers. It explores working conditions, wages, job security, and other critical factors that contribute to the well-being and productivity of health sector employees. The analysis draws on various data sources, including government reports, academic research, and field studies, to provide a comprehensive overview of the challenges and opportunities in improving decent work conditions in Bihar's health sector. The health sector in Bihar faces significant challenges and disparities, impacting both government and private health care workers. This article synthesizes findings on wages, income security, working conditions, social protection, and participation in decision-making processes.

  12. Nawaz Brohi, M., Iftikhar Alam Khan, Usman Ahmad and Arshiya Subhani

    Sustainability is meeting the requirements of present generations without hindering the ability of future generations to meet their own. Principles of sustainable development include that we should conserve the earth's resources for future generations and ensure our actions have minimal impact on the environment as possible (Adham Sayed Mohamed HYPERLINK "https: //www. researchgate. net/ scientific-contributions/ Adham-Sayed-Mohamed-Torky-2281277927"Torky, 2024), So what decisions does the population require in order to lead humanity towards a sustainable future? In terms of biodiversity and resources we need to leave an estimated 38% of the earth's surface undisturbed to maintain a significant proportion of species beyond the next century (Li, X., Zickfeld, et al. 2020), We also need to use no more than the earth can regenerate; this means reducing CO2 emissions to the same absorption rate and only cutting the number of trees that can be replanted. The decisions that need to be made are those that consider the quality of life for future generations and not just the present. Currently in the world there is a divide between the richer and poorer nations, the richer nations live comfortable lives but are generally not sustainable, the poorer nations live sustainable lives but often have a lower quality of life. A decision needs to be made for a middle ground (Solomon, et al. 2009), The current world population is around 8 billion, with the average person living to 65 years of age. Contrast this with the statistics from 1945 where the population was approximately 2.5 billion with an average life expectancy of 46 years. This change and increase in the number of people on the planet has placed huge demands on the earth's resources, and will continue to do so in the future. We are depleting the resources at an unsustainable rate; in the past 10,000 years the earth's ecosystem has been through more disruption than the previous 65 million. To continue using the earth's resources at the current rate may lead the earth to an irreversible state, a situation where future generations will have a lower quality of life due to scarcity of resources, this is what is known as 'sustainability'.

  13. Faridus Mamun Khan

    Higher education is a cornerstone of socio-economic development and individual empowerment. In the dynamic landscape of Assam, India, this study delves into the intricacies of higher education enrolment patterns following the completion of higher secondary education. Leveraging unit-level data from the 75th Round of the National Sample Survey (NSS) on Household Social Consumption on Education in India, our research employs a multifaceted analytical approach, including logistic regression and data visualization, to unravel the determinants shaping enrolment decisions. Our findings reveal that 44.47% of respondents choose higher education, while 55.53% opt not to enrol, shedding light on their motivations and challenges. Gender disparities, especially among Scheduled Tribes, and variations by religion are evident. Factors such as the gender of the head of the household, their education level, family income, and household size significantly affect enrolment. This research contributes to understanding higher education dynamics in Assam and informs evidence-based policies for equitable access and reduced disparities in higher education enrolment.

  14. Dr. Ashish Gupta

    The awful state of Eunuchs in Indian society is depicted in the drama Seven Steps Around the Fire. It highlights the protagonist Kamala’s sorrow, who is a eunuch. The eunuchs are not regarded as honorable or even decent people. They disguise themselves as ladies, yet they cannot be recognized as such. It is known as being “neuter gender.” Dattani talks on the play’s eunuchs’ issues, as well as their identity and implications. It draws attention to the eunuchs’ absurd exclusion from society and their desire for fairness, acceptance, and self-respect. Subject Area: Fiction (Humanities).

  15. Anchal Singh, Parvinder Kaur and Anuj Kumar Gupta

    There is an increasing interest in scientific research and in industry, for medicinal and aromatic plant because of their potential application in medicine and plant disease control measures. In the present study the petroleum, chloroform, and methanol extract of Ageratum conyzoides showed the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas and extract of Ocimum sanctum also active against the E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp. While the synergetic study showed that the mixture of extract of these two species also has more antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus. These results suggested the synergetic antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial sp. The present study claimed for further study of these two plants and their synergetic effect to treat various diseases and would be useful against infection resulting from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus infection.





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Dr. Swamy KRM
Dr. Abdul Hannan A.M.S
Saudi Arabia.
Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
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Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
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Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari