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Table of Contents: Volume 16; Issue 05; May 2024

Life Sciences

  1. Dr. Afaf Al-Sharif, Dr. Wael Almaqtri, Angham Al-Gahm, Khulood Mustafa, Doaa Al-Mosanf, Doaa Al-Samet, Somia Saleh, Shams Al-Khawlan, Gadeer Al-Syari and Sokin Al-Shafq
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: EP is a common complication and one of the causes of pregnancy -related deaths. Considering the increased prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in recent years and the increased risk factors such as assisted reproductive treatment, the present study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in a Jiblah University Hospital from 2020to2022. Method: A retrospective cohort research was among pregnant women attending Jiblah University Hospital, Ibb, Yemen through hospital records for the period 2020to2022 using a questionnaire form designed to collect data related to variables of research, which are housing, age, type of contraceptives, presence of pelvic diseases, presence of a previous pelvic operation, smoking, number of previous pregnancies, and first pregnancy. Data were entered using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 26 for analysis. A descriptive analysis was conducted to explore the data and present some variables. Result: Many factors influence the management option of tubal EP. In our study, we analyzed 198 cases, to evaluate factors contributing to the increase in ectopic pregnancy through a study in Jiblah University Hospital from 2020to2022 In the present study majority of ectopic pregnancies, occurred in the year 202194 (48%) comparison 60 (31%) 2020 and 40 (21%) 2022 the distribution of cases according to governorate 182 (94%) Ibb, 7 (4%) Al-Hodaydah, 3 (2%) Dhala and 2 (1%) Taiz and most of them had ectopic pregnancies, occurred in the females between age group 20-35 years (78%). There is a relationship between the use of contraception and smoking with the risk of ectopic pregnancy (This information was not mentioned in the patient's files). Found that there was a significant relationship between risk factors like pelvic surgery and the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Since the incidence of ectopic pregnancy is likely to be considered an important role in future fertility, we designed this research to evaluate factors contributing to the increase in ectopic pregnancy through a study in Jiblah University Hospital from 2020 to 2022. Ectopic pregnancy is still a major challenge in obstetrical practice because of its bizarre clinical presentation and it is one of the commonest causes of pregnancy-related deaths in the first trimester. It can be diagnosed early by keeping a high index of suspicion. Despite exhaustive efforts to prevent ectopics, the numbers are constantly rising due to increased reporting of cases and improved diagnostic modalities.

  2. Pallavi Sharma and Tulika Mishra
    ABSTRACT:

    Gloriosa superba L. is associated with a plethora of medicinal benefits and ethnomedical applications since time immemorial. The current rare state of this plant is the result of over-exploitation for its medical uses. To address Gloriosa superba's low seed set issue, tissue culture and somatic embryogenesis techniques needed to be standardized. In the present study, we tried to develop a standard protocol for in-vitro propagation of G. superba in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh. G. superba was cultured under circumstances designed for in vitro regeneration utilizing nodal segment explants. The combination of MS+1.5 mg/l BAP+0.5 mg/l NAA produced the most number of shoots (7±0.18), demonstrating the best shoot induction. The number of shoots per culture increased by adding 10% coconut water (CW) to the previously mentioned medium, and the length of the shoots increased by adding 100 mg/l of urea to the media. Shoots cultivated on half-strength MS supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA + 0.5 mg/l NAA showed the best rooting. The medicinal and conservation components of G. superba will benefit from this established approach, enabling it to satisfy future economic demands.

  3. Nkasa Liwata Helmont, Mulenga Mbombo Christophe,Taba Kalulu Muzele, Malongwe K’ Ekuboni Joseph, Ngoy Bokolombe Pitchou, Kindala Tinatina Junior and Kayembe Sungula Jean
    ABSTRACT:

    The present study reports a kinetics study of alkaline hydrolysis of a secreted Mycolactone by Mycobacterium ulcerans with the Phytomedicine called “MATHESIA” using the Conductometric measurement during the hydrolysis reaction. We also explored the influence of MATHESIA concentration on the rate constant of the hydrolysis reaction. Experiments were conducted in varying Mathesia concentrations from 173 to 17.30µg/ml. The results obtained demonstrate that the enhancement of reactant diffusion leads to an increased rate of Mycolactone hydrolysis. This effect was observed across a range of rate constants, specifically from 62.147 to 153.894M-1.s-1 when the concentration of MATHESIA decreases from 173 to 34.60 µg/ml, beyond this point (34.60 µg/ml), further dilution led to an inverse effect, resulting in a decrease of the rate constantfrom 139.48 to 56.123 M-1.s-1when the concentration of MATHESIA decreases from 28.83 to 17.30 µg/ml.This decrease could be attributed to the significant dilution of the solution, subsequently reducing the concentrations of reactants within the medium.

  4. Manjula, K.V. and Renukadevi, D.N.
    ABSTRACT:

    Epilepsy is a common problem among the people and it is a disorder of brain characterized by repeated seizures. It is having social discriminations due to lot of stigma and misconceptions about the disease with fear and anxiety. This stigma presents in many countries today also and we can see the impact on the quality of life for people with the disease and their families. The objective of the study to assess the attitude and knowledge among the people resides around the suttur village, Mysore. The methods was used a descriptive study designs was adopted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Among 100 samples 60% were male and 40% were female. Their majority age around 18 to 45 years, 47% people were agreed with Epilepsy is caused by punishment of god, 88% people were dis agreed with Epilepsy caused by Evil spirit. 72% people were dis agreed with Epilepsy only seen in poor people. 88% people were dis agreed with Epilepsy person should isolate from family. 55% people were dis agreed with Epilepsy person can lead healthy lifestyle. The result suggests that still stigma was present There are no significant difference in the attitude scores of with misconception and gaps. There is a need for multi educational programme improving the awareness of the Epilepsy and can remove this stigma and discrimination.

  5. Anuraj, Satya Shandilya and Dr. Dharmshila Kumari
    ABSTRACT:

    Iron (Fe) is a heavy metal critical in trace amounts for the cellular functions of humans, plants, and animals, playing an important role in oxygen transport through hemoglobin protein. Nevertheless, excessive Fe intake can lead to toxicity in organisms. In this study, the mitigating effect of Tachyspermum ammi seeds against genotoxic damage induced by Iron on PCEs and NCEs in mice bone marrow cells was assessed using the Micronucleus test. The results revealed a significant increase in micronucleus formation in the FeSO4-treated group compared to the control. However, concurrent treatment with T. ammi leaf extract and FeSO4 resulted in significantly lower micronucleus formation compared to the FeSO4-treated group, nearly reaching levels equivalent to the control. Hence, while Fe is essential in trace amounts for maintaining metabolic activities in organisms, it is observed that excessive Fe exposure can induce toxicity, potentially affecting genetic integrity.

  6. Ardhendu Kumar Mandal and Sunit Kumar Chakraborty
    ABSTRACT:

    Cancer is one of the dreadful diseases having the highest mortality rate throughout the year worldwide. The treatments with conventional chemotherapeutics face the problems of drug resistance, insolubility, non-selectivity, toxicity and biological barriers that weaken the patient to cure effectively. To overcome these barriers, fluorophore-drug conjugates as imaging based targeted delivery and therapy systems have emerged as attractive platform against cancer to maximize their therapeutic efficacies to the specific site/s of interest, reducing the potential side effects. Anticancer drugs and other ligands anchored to fluorescein based chemosensors by various linkers have been investigated to monitor the real time fluorescent imaging in drug delivery followed by stimuli responsive therapies. The drug liberation triggered by bio and chemo hydrolytic environments is visualized based on ‘switch on’ fluorescence of the fluorophore-moiety of fluorescein-drug conjugates for non-invasive cancer imaging. The conjugation of free phenolic hydroxyl or carboxylic groups of fluorescein chemosensor to the hydroxyl group of drugs or specific carriers are employed by biodegradable amino and oxy acrylate linkers for targeted drug delivery applications. This review mainly demonstrates the biomedical applications of small molecule-based non-cleavable and cleavable fluorophore-drug conjugates as delivery systems through fluorescent monitoring of drug liberation, accompanied with chemo, photothermal and photodynamic therapies to avail higher targeted therapeutic efficiencies against cancer.

  7. Tripathi, S., K.P. Singh and Gopesh, A.
    ABSTRACT:

    Pseudobranchial neurosecretory system (PSNS) belongs to the category of “diffused neuroendocrine system” (DNES) and is located in the gill region of certain fishes close to pseudobranch/ carotid gland/ carotid labyrinth. Earlier investigations revealed the presence of PSNS in fishes that are either air-breathing or have an ability to tolerate low oxygen concentrations of water. A recent report revealing the presence of PSNS in the cold water carp Barilius bendelisis opened up the possibility of existence of this system in hill-stream carps as well. Therefore, to confirm this it was aimed to investigate the presence of the PSNS in another hill stream carp Schizothorax richardsonii. Specimens of snow trout were collected from Alaknanda River, Srinagar, India and dissected on-site to procure the tissues of PSNS close to pseudobranch and processed for paraffin microtomy with Acid Violet staining. The histological observations confirmed the presence of PSNS close to pseudobranch. The PSNS was endowed with different neurosecretory stages of pseudobrancial neurosecretory cells (NSCs) forming neurosecretory cell mass (NSM) along with their numerous cell processes forming thick bundles, entangled with blood vascular structures as neurohaemal complex at several places. This is the first report of the presence of PSNS in S. richardsonii and the system has been discussed from a new functional and evolutionary point of view in hyperoxic cold waters to maintain the respiratory homeostasis of the fish.

  8. Manisha Rani and S.K. Singh
    ABSTRACT:

    Herbicides, Insecticides or pesticides etc may play a role in the development of adverse effects in human and animal bodies. Data concerning its mutagenic and carcinogenic properties have conflicting. In the present study, Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Sperm count and Sperm head abnormalities. Adult Swiss albino mice of the same age group were selected for the research experiment and were divided into three groups (n = 5) consisting of Group C, CPF-1& CPF-2. Group C (Control Group) dosage of 1 ml/per day Distilled water (DW) orally for 6 weeks. Group CPF-1 (Lower dose Group) dosage chlorpyrifos in a dose of 10mg/kg body weight/per day orally for 6 weeks. Group CPF-2 (Higher dose Group) dosage chlorpyrifos in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight/per day orally for 6 weeks. After the completion of dose duration, the experimental animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation and exposed both caput and cauda epididymis for the analysis of sperm count and sperm head abnormalities. The data obtained from the control and treated group are expressed as Mean% ± SE and ANOVA was used to determine by SPPS Software and the level of significance is p< 0.05. The frequency of sperm head abnormalities was significantly higher than that found in the control group. The frequency of sperm head abnormalities was found 3.09 ± 0.99(Control), 6.92 ± 1.46*(CPF-1), and 14 ± 2.00** (CPF-2) and it is a significant difference between to control and treated groups at p < 0.05. The mean value of the sperm count was 157.02 ± 2.68 (Control), 82.1 ± 2.81* (CPF-1) and 46.5 ± 2.78** (CPF-2). The result show that in both CPF-1 & CPF-2 were significantly decrease the sperm count Hence, results indicate the potential of chlorpyrifos to be gonadotoxic.

  9. Tithe Saha, Md. Sahidul Islam, Solama Akter Shanta, Zannatul Ferdous, Dilruba Akter Mir and Sabuj Kanti Nath
    ABSTRACT:

    The local economy and animal health are significantly impacted by PPR (Peste des Petits Ruminants). The study aims to determine the demographic analysis, risk factors, trends, and antibiotic prescription patterns of PPR in goats by using a passive surveillance system at Sreepur, Gazipur. After classifying the animals according to breed, age, sex, and vaccination history, the study based on 150 case records from Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Sreepur, Gazipur discovered a peak of 26% PPR cases in July. Mawna union has the highest percentage of PPR cases (26.67%). The age group most afflicted was 18 months (38%), followed by females (72%), and Black Bengal goats (73.07%). Pneumonitis (26%), enteritis (58.67%) Goats that have not received vaccinations are more vulnerable (76%) than those who have (24%). The result of this study reveals that the development of knowledgeable manpower, in-time surveillance, vaccination, and early warning of disease outbreaks are the keys to reducing mortality rateand producing safe food from animal origin. Further studies are needed to fill the laps and gaps as the study was limited to only a particular geo-ecological area of the country, therefore, this does not reflect the true real image of the PPR of goats in Bangladesh.

  10. Shalu Kumari, Ritu R Saxena, Kanushree Nandedkar, Luchika Rana, Suman Rawte, Ravi R Saxena and Mangla Parikh
    ABSTRACT:

    This study investigated the relationship between flower colour, seed coat colour, seed index, seed yield, and protein content in desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum). The objective was to understand the potential impact of these traits on the productivity and nutritional quality of the crop. Forty two desi chickpea accessions were evaluate. Seed yield, measured in kilograms per hectare, was recorded from field trials. Protein content, representing the nutritional quality of the seeds, was determined through laboratory analysis. The results revealed significant variability in flower colour, seed coat colour, seed index, seed yield, and protein content among the desi chickpea accessions. Flower colour was found to be diverse, with pink being the most prevalent, followed by blue. Seed coat colour exhibited variations, with dark brown and brown being the most common, while yellow and green were comparatively less frequent. Seed index varied across the accessions, indicating differences in seed size and weight. Seed yield ranged from moderate to high, highlighting the potential for improved productivity. Protein content also showed considerable variability, with accessions exhibiting a wide range of nutritional quality ranging from 13.87 to 26.85 % in seed and 21.70 to 48.50% in leaves of desi chickpea. Correlation analysis demonstrated a positive relationship between plant height, number of secondary branches, pods per plant, seed index, biological yield, harvest index and seed yield, suggesting that larger seeds may contribute to higher yield potential. However, no significant correlation was found between protein content and seed index, although, it showed significant association with days to 50% flowering, plant height, pods per plant and plot yield. Plant height exhibited significant positive correlation with height of first pod.

  11. Hiralal Jana
    ABSTRACT:

    India has done well to expand food production and build up adequate safety stocks of food grains. For over 70 percent of rural Indian households, agriculture, including livestock, still remains the principal source of livelihood. With a six-fold increase in food grain production from 50 million tonnes in 1950-51 to nearly 300 million tonnes in 2019-20, India has become a net food exporter, being the ninth largest exporter of agricultural products in the world. The share of agriculture and allied sectors in the total Gross Value Added of the Economy have improved to 20.2 per cent in the year 2020-21 and 18.8 per cent in 2021-22. The Indian economy is an agro-economy and depends highly on the agricultural sector. Despite just supporting the Indian Economy, the agricultural sector also supports the industrial sector and international trade in imports and exports. Although the contribution of the Agricultural Sector to the Indian Economy is reducing, it is the sector with the most number of people working in it around the country. Adequate nutrition is a basic human need. Only if people can satisfy their nutritional requirements on a regular basis, and use and utilize adequate and safe food with the respective energy, protein, vitamin and mineral content, is one of the most important pre-condition for an active, healthy and decent life. For nutritional security we need recent days, farm diversification and crop diversification. There are many not so recognized food plants those are nutritionally rich, among those Carambola is one. Carambola, also known as star fruit. The edible fruit has distinctive ridges running down its sides. When cut in cross-section, it resembles a star, giving it the name of star fruit.The entire fruit is edible, usually raw, and may be cooked or made into relishes, preserves, garnish, and juices. Carambola fruits contain oxalic acid and the neurotoxin caramboxin. Consuming large quantities of the fruit, especially for individuals with some types of kidney disease, can result in serious adverse health effects. The center of diversity and the original range of Averrhoa carambola is tropical Southeast Asia. It was introduced to the Indian Subcontinent and Sri Lanka by Austronesian traders. They are grown as ornamentals. Carambola is considered to be at risk of becoming an invasive species in many world regions. The showy fruits have a thin, waxy pericarp, orange-yellow skin, and crisp, yellow flesh with juice when ripe. Each fruit can have 10 to 12 flat light brown seeds about 5–15 mm (1⁄4–1⁄2 in) in width and enclosed in gelatinous aril. Once removed from the fruit, they lose viability within a few days. Carambola is known by many names across its regions of cultivation, including kamranga (Kamaranga) in Bengali (India and Bangladesh). The entire fruit is edible, including the slightly waxy skin. The flesh is crunchy, firm, and extremely juicy. It does not contain fibers and has a texture similar in consistency to that of grapes. Carambolas are best consumed shortly after they ripen when they are yellow with a light shade of green, or just after all traces of green have disappeared. Ripe carambolas may also be used in cooking. The juice from carambolas is also used in iced drinks, particularly the juice of the sour varieties. Carambolas contain caramboxin and oxalic acid. Both substances are harmful to individuals suffering from kidney failure, kidney stones, or those under kidney dialysis treatment. Consumption by those with kidney failure can produce hiccups, vomiting, nausea, mental confusion, and sometimes death. Caramboxin is a neurotoxin. Major pests are carambola fruit flies, fruit moths, ants, and birds. Crops are also susceptible to frost. Top producers of carambola in the world market include Australia, Guyana, India, Israel, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States. The trees are also grown as ornamentals for their abundant brightly colored and unusually shaped fruits, as well as for their attractive dark green leaves and their lavender to pink flowers. Knowing the importance of this star fruit crop, the extension agencies who are working at grass-root level, they must include this crop in their knowledge and extension activities to educate and aware the farmers which will ultimately reflect the total agricultural food production and that will support food security and nutritional security to countrymen.

  12. Dolores Vargas-Álvarez, Jesús Tadeo Hernández-Moreno, Agustín Damián-Nava, Francisco Palemón-Alberto and Roxana Reyes-Ríos
    ABSTRACT:

    Traditional medicinal practices in Mexico often involve the use of aromatic and medicinal plants to treat gastrointestinal diseases, as they have shown significant antibacterial activity against various clinically relevant bacterial strains. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosiodes, Psidium guajaba, Citrus lemon, Lippia graveolens, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha spicata, and Ocimun basilicum. Materials and Methods: The essential oils' chemical composition was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and their antibacterial activity was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer method. Additionally, antioxidant activity was determined. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. Notably, Lippia graveolens exhibited remarkable efficacy against most bacterial strains, except for B. subtillis. In conclusion, the essential oils of Lippia graveolens, Citrus lemon, Thymus vulgaris, and Mentha spicata demonstrated the highest inhibition activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Shigella dysenteriae.

  13. K.R.M. Swamy
    ABSTRACT:

    Winged bean belongs to the legume family Fabaceae, sub-family of Papilionoideae, tribe Phaseoleae, genus Psophocarpus and species Psophocarpus tetragonolobus. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus is a twining, perennial herb that’s characterized by its tuberous roots and its winged pods. Psophocarpus comes from a Greek word that means “noisy fruit.” The winged bean also known as cigarillas, goa bean, four-angled bean, four-cornered bean, manila bean, princess bean, star bean, kamrangi bean, pea, dragon bean, and is a tropical herbaceous legume plant. There are two types of varieties viz., 1) Day-Neutral - Blooms during longer days, allowing out of season production. 2) Pang Daeng Nawk – Short day-length variety from northern Thailand, produces long, tender pods (30 cm). Winged bean is a climbing plant similar in appearance and growth habit to pole beans. Winged beans are also known as Goa bean or princess bean. As with other legumes, these bean plants can help add nitrogen to your soils. They are propagated by seed, but stem-cutting under mist may also be used for propagation. There is a serious germination problem with winged bean seeds, but germination can be improved by scarification. Winged bean is adapted to tropical conditions and is grown in Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, various Pacific Islands, and Africa. The tender pods are the most widely consumed part of the plant, especially throughout Asia, but the leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and tuberous roots are all nutritionally valuable and are used as food. Winged bean is another of the legumes with elevated seed oil content; varieties typically average 15% oil, with protein levels of 30–37%. The tuberous roots are a good source of energy in the form of starch, and they contain 8–10% protein. Many tuberous legumes are underutilized, with little or no research attention given to their genetic improvement, thereby limiting their potential to support food, nutritional, and economic security. Understanding and exploiting the potential of winged bean will enhance its role in regions where it can be cultivated. This crop is utilized as seeds and as tuberous roots, as both have high nutritional value. Winged bean is popularly known as “One Species Supermarket” for its nutrient-dense green pods, immature seeds, tubers, leaves, and mature seeds. This underutilised crop has potential beneficial traits related to its biological nitrogen-fixation to support low-input farming. Reliance on a handful of “major” crops has led to decreased diversity in crop species, agricultural systems and human diets. To reverse this trend, we need to encourage the greater use of minor, “orphan”, underutilised species. The crop originated in South-East Asia or perhaps Papua New Guinea. It is widely grown in hot humid equatorial countries throughout Southeast Asia and East Africa, and is an important leguminous vegetable crop in Thailand, Burma, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Ghana, and Nigeria. Although the young pod of the winged bean is the most popularly consumed part, the rest of the plant parts are also edible when appropriately prepared. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Winged Bean are discussed.

  14. K.R.M. Swamy
    ABSTRACT:

    Broad bean belongs to family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae, tribe Fabeae, genus Vicia and species Vicia faba L. It is also known as broad bean, aba bean, fava bean, field bean, horse bean, tick bean. Bakela (Ethopia), Boby kurmouvje (former USSR), Faveira (Portugal), Ful masri (Sudan), Feve (French) and Yeshil Bakla (Turkey) are the few names used in different parts of world. In India in Hindi language, it is popularly known as Kala Matar and Bakala as well. In much of the English-speaking world, the name "broad bean" is used for the large-seeded cultivars grown for human food, while "horse bean" and "field bean" refer to cultivars with smaller, harder seeds that are more like the wild species and used for animal feed, though their stronger flavour is preferred in some human food recipes, such as falafel. The term "fava bean" (from Italian: fava for the bean) is used in some English-speaking countries such as Canada and the US, and "broad bean" is the most common name in Commonwealth countries like the UK, Australia and New Zealand. Though, its green pod is mainly used as vegetables, dry cotyledons are one of the excellent and cheap sources of lysine rich protein for poor’s. Faba bean is also a good source of levadopa (L-dopa), a precursor of dopamine, can be potentially used as medicine for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. It is one of the best crop that can be used as green manure and one of the best bio factory of nitrogen by fixing 130 to 160 kg N/ha. Broad beans are stiffly erect plant in the Fabaceae family, native to North Africa and Southwest Asia but now widely cultivated elsewhere. Faba bean is an important legume crop because of its high‐yield potential and nutrition‐dense grains. There have been significant achievements in faba bean improvement in the last four decades, which led to the doubling of the global yield average. Faba bean is cultivated primarily as a human food source in Asia and Africa and as animal feed/silage in the European region. Fresh faba bean seeds are used for a variety of savory dishes, and dry grain are used for paste and snacks, while sprouts for traditional food. The dried fresh stems and leaves of faba beans are good fodder for cattle, sheep and pigs. Faba bean flowers contain a large amount of L-DOPA and can be used to make flower tea. Faba bean is a macronutrient-rich legume known for its great potential for yield and a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. It is one of the most important winter crops for human consumption in the Middle East. Faba bean is grown worldwide under different cropping systems such as a dry grain (pulse), green grains/pods, and a green-manure legume. Fava beans were first grown thousands of years ago in the Middle East and southwest Asia. They can grow in many different places around the world. They are a staple in cooking across cultures, from Chinese to South American dishes. Fava beans, or broad beans, are a type of bean that is eaten around the world. They are high in protein and other important nutrients. Eating fava beans can help with weight loss, aid in your body's immunity, and provide other health benefits. It is grown worldwide and popularly in Morocco, France, Italy, Germany and Egypt. Ethiopia and China are largest producers. In Indian subcontinent, it is important Rabi season crop cultivated popularly in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are major producers and minorly produced in localized areas of Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Karnataka. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Broad Bean are discussed.

  15. Shilpashree and Ashadevi, J.S.
    ABSTRACT:

    Male infertility is a worldwide problem. Oxidative stress can damage the membrane of sperm, affecting motility and morphology. The alternative and complementary medicine for oxidative stress and infertility problems is antioxidant rich herbal medicine. Medicinal plants are considered to be the best source for antioxidant compounds, as plants produce significant amount of antioxidants to prevent the oxidative stress. One of the well-known herb extensively used in Indian Ayurveda for the treatment of male infertility is Withania somnifera (WS) commonly known as Ashwagandha, that has been studied for its potential effects on various aspects of health. The present study evaluates the antioxidant potential of ethanolic root extracts of Withania somnifera grown in black soil and red soil through in vitro analysis. A comparative phytochemical analysis has been carried out in W. somnifera grown in red and black soil. The bioenergetics molecules estimation and oxidative stress resistance ability has been done in extract fed group of Drosophila melanogaster. WS extract grown in black soil fed D. melanogaster increases the total antioxidants by 27%, increases 2.41 folds of resistance ability against oxidative stress with the increase of bioenergetics molecules in the flies. Further it increases testis size and sperm count in male D. melanogaster. This is due to high degree of antioxidants and natural polyphenols found in Withania somnifera grown in black soil compared to WS grown in red soil.

  16. Prakash B. Jadhavar and Jadhavar, V. R.
    ABSTRACT:

    The Desmidiaceae is a family of green algae, commonly referred to as desmids. Desmids are characterized by their unique cell structure, which often appears symmetrical due to the presence of a median constriction. They are predominantly freshwater algae and are found in various aquatic habitats worldwide. Several genera within the family Desmidiaceae are notable for their diversity and ecological importance. Desmids have a single cell that is typically divided into two symmetrical halves, each containing a nucleus and chloroplasts. The two halves are joined by a narrow band known as an isthmus. They play a crucial role in freshwater ecosystems as primary producers, contributing to the food web by converting sunlight into organic matter through photosynthesis. They also serve as indicators of water quality, with certain species being sensitive to pollution and environmental changes.

  17. Sunil Kumar Dorga, Manpreet Kaur Saini and Dr. Jatinderpal Singh
    ABSTRACT:

    The present study was conducted on 10 vermicomposting units of the Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts of Punjab. Eisenia foetida dominated all vermi-composters mainly with cattle dung. This epigeic species is capable of better growth, multiplication, cocoon formation, and vermicomposting waste material efficiently and can withstand cold and heat environment conditions. Bacteria and multicellular organisms populate vermicomposting. Vermibin fungi include Aspergillus, Corynascus, Penicillium, Thermomyces, and Trichoderma where Aspergillus dominates all fungi. All ten vermicomposting units had Meloidogyne nematodes. Decomposer dung bugs were numerous in cattle-dung vermibeds. Fungal gnats eat vermibed waste, Dipteran larvae eat rotting produce and debris and Summer's grey slug moved centipedes. The predatory nature of red mites and decomposing nature of white and brown mites were also observed during the investigation. Spider webs near vermicomposting operations may indirectly contribute whereas Pseudoscorpions and pot worms aid composting. Fruit flies, which eat earthworms, were more abundant in vegetable and fruit waste vermibeds. Earthworms and primary decomposer springtails accelerate decomposition. Red ants harm vermicomposting by eating earthworms. Termites harmed earthworms by delving into decomposing waste. Vermibeds' upper millipedes digest waste without harming earthworms. Vermicomposting beds only have centipedes in summer. Sparrows, crows, birds, snakes, lizards, and toads frequently visited vermicomposting beds.

  18. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu
    ABSTRACT:

    The agricultural sector employs nearly half of the workforce in India. However, its contribution to the GDP has been declining steadily in recent years from from 18.2 percent in 2014-15 to 16.5 percent in 2019-20 according to the Economic Survey 2019-20. As high as 61 percent of the farmers practice rainfed farming with 55 percent of the crop area in India being rain dependent, while the rest is irrigated using tubewells, canals, wells, tanks, and other sources. Fifty percent of agriculture depends on groundwater in India with 39 million hectares of land irrigated by groundwater, 22 million by canals with about 100 million hectares being rainfed. Agriculture consumes around 80 percent of India’s available water and 90 percent of the total production includes water-guzzling varieties like sugarcane, wheat, and rice. This inefficient use of water has led to a dip in India’s per capita water availability from 4000 m3 in 1947 to 1545 m3 in 2015 making India a water stressed country. Farm Pond is one such program initiated. The Farm Pond program has triggered a grassroots‐level movement for sustainable agriculture. It helps farmers engage in sustainable agricultural practices involving rainwater conservation and harvesting. Although the farm pond technology is well known in the country, its adoption has been quite low due to number of constraints like high initial cost, short life of the lining materials, lack of suitable lifting systems and above all low awareness among farmers about its utility and cost benefit analysis. There is also lack of authentic literature on the design and performance of farm ponds in different agro ecological zones and soil types. Several programs of the Government of India like RADP (Rainfed Area Development Program), NHM, MGNREGS and IWMP have farm pond as one of the important components. The field staff involved in the implementation of such schemes often face difficulties in designing these structures at a given site considering the rainfall, slope and soil characteristics.

  19. Monisha, M.N., Asima Banu and Raasiya Farooq
    ABSTRACT:

    Aim:To investigate the correlation between biofilm formation and its potential association with genes involved in biofilm production and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in MDR A. baumanniiclinical isolates. Through phenotypic assays and molecular analysis, we characterized biofilm production and determined antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Methods: A total of 50 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from endotracheal aspirates of the ICU patients’ samples received at the Department of Microbiology, BMCRI were collected and identified by VITEK 2 automated system as per laboratory protocol.Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing was performed as per CLSI 2023 guidelines using Kirby bauer disc diffusion & vitek2 system. The biofilm production capability of the isolates was evaluated by qualitative tube method and bap gene &gyr A gene were detected by PCR. Result: Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were predominantly found in Endotracheal aspirates. A total of (41/50)82.5% isolates were MDR organisms.(39/50)78%isolates formed biofilms. (24/39) isolates (61.5%) were strong biofilm former, (9) weakly adherent, (6) non-biofilm producers.36 isolates (72%) showed the presence of bap gene of which 5 isolates were negative for biofilm producers and 30 isolates (60%) showed presence of gyr A gene of which 3 isolates were negative for biofilm producers and all were multi drug resistant. Discussion and Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a positive correlation between biofilm formation and associated genes in A. baumannii, the frequency of bap gene and gyrA gene were 72 % and 60% respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between frequency of gyr A gene and biofilm formation (p=0.017) and significant correlation between bap gene and biofilm formation (p= <0.001). Biofilm production promotes increased colonization and persistence leading to higher rates of device related infections. Strict adherence to infection control practices, such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning and patient isolation can help mitigate the spread of these resistant organisms.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. Himanshu Maithani, Sandeep K. Goel and Anurag K. Swami
    ABSTRACT:

    Lithium-ion batteries are state-of-the-art energy storage technology. Instead of having remarkable features, a highly accurate, reliable, and cost-effective battery monitoring technology should continuously monitor the battery cell parameters and ensure the parameters are within the safe operating area recommended by the manufacturer. Direct measurement of the Li-ion cell's state of charge or SOC is impossible but can be estimated with reasonable accuracy with the help of state estimation algorithms. A precise estimation of SOC is always needed to enhance the cycle life and safety of lithium-ion batteries. Since the internal electrochemical kinetics of the Li-Ion cells are highly complex and non-linear, the non-linear variants of the Kalman filter, such as the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Sigma-Point Kalman filter (SPKF) perform exceptionally well in the presence of uncertainties in initial estimates and sensor measurements. This article evaluates the performance of EKF and SPKF for SOC estimation accuracy in terms of RMSE error. The experiment results show that SPKF slightly outperforms EKF. Both EKF and KF demonstrate strong robustness against current noise.

  2. Rama Devi Neerukonda, Anunsha Kandi, Venkata Mallikarjun Reddy Kuppireddy, Sampath Komu, and Swathi Chunduru
    ABSTRACT:

    Solar photovoltaic systems play a pivotal role in renewable energy generation, offering a sustainable and envi- ronmentally friendly alternative to conventional power sources. Maximizing the power output of photovoltaic arrays is essential for unlocking their full potential as renewable energy sources. Maximum power point tracking methods continuously monitor and adjust the PV array’s operating point to track the maximum power point on the voltage-current curve, thus boosting system efficiency. This paper explores the utilization of maximum power point tracking techniques to optimize the performance of solar photovoltaic systems. The integration of a DC-DC boost converter facilitates this process by dynamically adjusting the voltage in response to variations in temperature and irradiance levels, ensuring optimal power extraction from the solar array.In this paper, the two commonly employed algorithms such as incremen- tal conductance and perturbation and observation, are discussed for their effectiveness, adaptability and ease of implementation even under light and wind speed variations.

  3. Dr. Mohan Kumar, B.N., Anjali, P. and Naveen Puralla
    ABSTRACT:

    The Bank vault security system project aims to enhance bank security through the implementation of advanced facial recognition technology. Traditional methods of bank security often rely on keys, cards, or PINs, which can be lost, stolen, or duplicated. By leveraging facial recognition, this project offers a more secure and convenient alternative. The system consists of several key components. An admin interface allows authorized personnel to securely upload customer facial data to a central server. This data is stored with stringent encryption protocols to safeguard privacy and prevent unauthorized access. At the bank entrance, a facial recognition module captures and analyzes the faces of approaching customers in real-time. Upon successful recognition, an instruction code is generated, signalling the Node MCU controller to unlock the bank door. The Node MCU serves as the bridge between the facial recognition module and the locking mechanism, ensuring seamless integration and communication between the components. Security measures are paramount throughout the system, with encryption used for data transmission and storage, and robust access controls implemented to prevent tampering or exploitation. Testing and integration phases validate the functionality and reliability of each component individually and as a cohesive system. Compliance with regulatory standards, particularly regarding data privacy and banking security, is ensured throughout the project lifecycle.

  4. Delphin Kabey Mwinken
    ABSTRACT:

    This paper introduces a novel framework for analyzing granular materials, leveraging grading entropy and statistical entropy, enhanced by the adoption of advanced automatic nonlinear model fitting techniques that include parameter error estimation. This integrated approach is designed to significantly improve the understanding and predictive analysis of granular system behaviors. By combining theoretical insights with empirical evidence, the framework represents a substantial progress in granular matter research, with the potential to revolutionize existing methodologies.

  5. Stephen K. Rwigi, Gilbert O. Ouma, Bessy Kathambi, Pascalia W. Kaguara, Clinton O. Ogola, Martha W. Mugo and Justin Sheffield
    ABSTRACT:

    Water in this climate change era is perceived as a treasured commodity that can be traded but to be managed for human survival. The ballooning population further exacerbates climatic shocks evidenced in drylands with land fragmentation and degradation increasing in an effort to settle the growing populations. Increasing demands for food and shelter continue to contribute to land use changes which hamper the biophysical tenets required to sustain water availability in these regions. Turkana County was chosen for this study because of its unique location and its contribution to water availability for the communities. Further, challenges of water availability from rainfall in the drylands were addressed in relation to livelihood sustenance. Drylands often experience disruptions of livelihoods brought about by extremes of water availability. It was established that rainfall in the county is highly variable in both space (36% ≤ CV ≤ 135%) and time (1.0 ≤ SAI ≤ 4). Increasing rainfall trends and intensities provide a potential for runoff rainwater harvesting while high variability makes rainfall unpredictable thus calling for the development of an early warning system to support community resilience to floods and droughts. Land use is also changing with time and this has tended to complicate the biophysical aspect of water availability which is always the starting point in defining water availability for livelihood activities.

  6. Lili Zhu, Shihuo Wang, Cuiyu An, Yalin Xie, Yue Yin and Shaobai Wen
    ABSTRACT:

    The ecotoxicological impacts of microplastics (MPs) on aquatic organisms have garnered considerable attention; however, the toxic effects of MPs on aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations have been underreported. In this study, juvenile marine medaka were exposed to polyethylene and polylactic acid at concentrations of 20 μg/L for a duration of 60 days. The findings revealed that prolonged exposure to different types of MPs at low concentrations did not exhibit significant detrimental effects on the growth and intestinal tissues of juvenile fish. Nonetheless, long-term exposure led to alterations in gut microbial composition in juvenile fish, potentially influencing their functional roles. PICRUSt2 prediction analysis demonstrated a significant down-regulation in Isoleucine Biosynthesis function within the PE-exposed group at Level 3. Overall, further attention is warranted regarding the adverse consequences associated with prolonged exposure to environmental MPs on aquatic organisms.

  7. Ira Das, Surat Priya Sethi, Chanchal Sharma, Himanshi Solanki, Nandini Dubey and Khushbu Gupta
    ABSTRACT:

    Dignity of labour means equal respect for all types of mental or manual jobs without discrimination. A double group design was made to test the significance of difference. 'Dignity of Labour' scale by Das and Sharma (2020) was used. A sample of 214 students selected randomly from the city of Agra and Mathura. All the students in the sample were between 18 to 25 years of age. Mean of DEI Students (N=66) came out to be 63.86 with standard deviation of 4.47 and mean seore of Non-DEI students (N=154) was 61.10, with standard deviation of 5.73. At degree of freedom 212, the value of t = 3.8 was found to be significant at .01 level.

Health Sciences

  1. Sangalala Mtingele and Dr. Furaha August
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: Multiple pregnancies are commonly accompanied by adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Common adverse maternal outcomes are postpartum haemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, premature rupture of membranes, anaemia, antepartum haemorrhage, and delivery by cesarean section considering the presentation of the first twin. Perinatal outcomes of interest were prematurity, low birth weight, birth asphyxia, congenital anomalies, perinatal death, and admission to the neonatal unit. These adverse outcomes are seen more in the multiple pregnancies than in the singleton pregnancies. This study assessed the proportion of multiple and singleton pregnancies and associated outcomes among women delivering at Amana Regional Referral Hospital, in Dar es Salaam from July 2022 to February 2023. Materials and Methods: A cross-section descriptive study was conducted from July 2022 to February 2023 at Amana Regional Referral Hospital, involving a total of 751 women of which 251 were multiple pregnancies. 500 women with singleton pregnancies were recruited from 15th November to 15th December 2023. Data were obtained using a structured questionnaire and from partographs and registered books of labour wards and were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 23. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were done and outcomes of maternal and neonatal with a p-value of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The proportion of multiple pregnancies at Amana Regional Referral Hospital was 2.6% from July 2022 to February 2023. The adverse maternal outcomes observed were: Postpartum haemorrhage was 10.4% (AOR 4.95 95% CI = (2.42 – 10.12) preterm delivery 27.9% (AOR 2.04 95% CI = (1.40 – 2.97) and delivery by caesarean section was 35.1% (AOR 2.16 95% CI = 1.50 – 3.12). Neonatal admission was 24.8% (AOR 7.38 95% CI = (3.34 – 18.35), low birth weight was 29% AOR 31.25 95% CI = (5.81 – 168.12) Perinatal death was 4.2% (AOR 12.10 95% CI 1.49 – 101.52) and Prematurity was 28.2% (AOR 6.65 95% CI = (2.27 – 19.45). Conclusion: Premature delivery, delivery by caesarean section, and postpartum haemorrhage were adverse maternal outcomes to the multiples than singletons, and for the neonates adverse outcomes were low birth weight, prematurity, and perinatal death were more to the multiples than to singletons. Therefore; with an increased proportion of multiple pregnancies early diagnosis of twin pregnancy is important to take care of the women to minimize the anticipated adverse outcomes.

  2. Dr. Samidha Chouksey, Dr. Shraddha, K.S., Dr. Shweta Patel and Dr. Ajay Halder
    ABSTRACT:

    Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) area group of rare autoimmune diseases affecting mainly the central nervous system. The optic nerve and spinal cord are commonly involved in the disease process. Prevalence is higherin females ofreproductive age groupthan males at a ratio of 3–9:1. [1-5]Diagnosis and managementof NMOSD cases with pregnancy is challenging and needs a multidisciplinary approach for management. We are presenting the case of primigravida with sudden onset of weakness of both lower limbs at 20 weeks of gestation, diagnosed as a case of Neuromyelitis OpticaSpectrum Disorder; in her third trimester, pregnancy was complicated with oligohydramnios and fetal growth restriction.

  3. Dr. Vina Dhurve
    ABSTRACT:

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the common mesenchymal tumour of gastrointestinal tract which origin from interstitial cell of cajal (ICC) or its precursor cell. These tumours arise rarely from structure other than stomach like ileum, mesentery etc. This is a case report of 65-year-old female with malignant GIST arising in ileum part of intestine. On surgery a large 10 x 9 x 6 cm intraluminal bowel mass, with other small nodules resembling lymph node present on and adjacent to it. Histopathology study of mass confirmed to be the malignant GIST which show positivity for IHC like C-kit, Vimentin, SMA. We report this case due to very rare occurrence of GIST in ileum location.

  4. Tharcitus Chilaka Onwudiwe, Ifeanyi Malachy Obi, Ngozi Ukamaka Madubuogwu and Emmanuel Onyebuchi Ogbuagu
    ABSTRACT:

    Many degenerative diseases are caused by oxidative stress, which is linked to excessive generation of pro-oxidants (free radicals) over antioxidants. Plants have been reported as cheap and rich source of natural compounds with notable bioactivities. This study was therefore designed to assess the free radicals scavenging and antioxidant activities of ethanol leaf extracts of six ethnomedicinal plants from Nigeria using in-vitro methods. This was done by conducting preliminary phytochemical screening, estimating total phenols and flavonoids contents, and determining free radical scavenging/antioxidant activities of the six plants extracts in different models, viz: DPPH radical scavenging, Nitric Oxide (NO) scavenging and Ferric reducing-antioxidant power assays. The results show that PGE and PMEhave highest (51.36±7.44mgGAE/g Extract) and lowest (35.42±5.91mgGAE/g Extract) phenols content respectively, while OGE and SAE have highest (49.71±4.50mg QE/g Extract) and lowest (27.16±5.34mg QE/g Extract) flavonoids contents respectively. All the six plants exhibited significant (p<0.05) antioxidant activity, but interestingly, PGE, GLE and OGE respectively produced highest DPPH scavenging (62.68%), NO scavenging (67.95%) and Ferric reducing (69.33%) activities, and thereforecan be exploited as important sources of antioxidant compounds. We therefore recommend for further isolation, characterization of active principles and testing in animal models, with a view to develop natural antioxidants that can used in management of oxidative stress-related disorders.

  5. Sujatha Peethala, Harshitha Sivadanam Sridevi Garapati, Trimurthulu Bunga4and Sreedevi Arepalli
    ABSTRACT:

    Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by Novel-coronavirus. The virus spreads through droplets of saliva or from the nose of infected person. The best way to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 is, be well informed about the cause, spread and prevention. Medical students with good knowledge regarding disease can serve as information providers to the community. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and perceptions regarding COVID-19 among medical students, so as to involve them in prevention and control of COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Cross-Sectional Web-based study, conducted during September 2020 among Undergraduate medical students, Kurnool medical college. Sample size was 400 using formula 4pq/l2, (p -50%, l as 10% of p); 100 per each professional year have been included in the study and data was obtained by structured questionnaire based on W.H.O course materials on COVID-19. Analysis done by Microsoft excel 2010 & SPSS Version 21. Chi-square test & One-way Anova tests were applied for statistical significance. Results: A total of 400 medical students participated, 56.25% were males. Mean age of the participants was 21.19±1.84yrs. Majority (80%) of the students have good knowledge about causative agent, infectious nature of disease, incubation period and those who are at risk. All the participants were aware of the symptoms of COVID-19. Social media was reported as the predominant source of information (95.5%) and 58% of the study participants attended awareness programme conducted in the college. Conclusion: Medical students had adequate awareness about COVID-19. Social media was the main source of information. Study revealed gaps in the knowledge of students about diagnosis and prevention. The current study identifies that students can be used as information providers to the community after addressing the gaps in their knowledge through orientation programmes.

  6. Fatuma. T. Kibao and Enica Richards
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a minimally invasive technique used to restore sinus ventilation and normal function. FESS like any other surgery is also associated with both intra and post-operative complications. Due to lack of local data on FESS the burden on indication and complications of this procedure is not known, so this study will help to identify them and develop a local guideline for proper management of FESS. Material and Method: Descriptive cross sectional study hospital based study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital for 8 months from February 2022 to September 2022and involved all patients who underwent FESS and consented. One hundred and twelve (112)patients were studied; were followed from admission, intra-operatively and four weeks post-operative for complications. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS version 23, to determine the complications, the proportion of all patients undergoing FESS and those with complications were calculated. Findings were presented using tables, graphs and text. Results: A total 112 patients who met inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study, comprising female 57(50.9%) and male 55(49.1%).The age ranged from 8 years to 77 years and majority belonged to age group 25-39 years. The indications for FESS were CRS without NP 49(43.8%), followed by CRS with NP 34(30.4%) and others 3(2.7%) which were, two (2) synechiae released with sinus opening and one(1) was sinus tumor excision. The complication rate was 8.1% whereby there was no intraoperative or major complications. The lead complication was crusts 3(2.7%)and the complication were decreased during the time of follow up where endoscopic toilets was done, though one(1) patient had synechiae till last week follow up scheduled for release later. Conclusions: The indications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery were similar to other studies where majority had chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. There were minor complications which were managed during the time of follow up with endoscopic toileting. So post-operative follow up is the main stay for reducing complications post operatively.

  7. Gagandeep Ahuja, Shivam Sharma and Sumeesha Jaswal
    ABSTRACT:

    We present a case of 41 year old female with history and examination suggestive of acute onset behavioural changes, delusion of persecution, irritability and hostility who went into delirium and later on treatment for scrub typhus responded with complete resolution of psychotic manifestations.

  8. Sahana J., Jyoti S Kabbin and Ambica, R.
    ABSTRACT:

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection, caused by encapsulated fungi, belonging to genus Cryptococcus, it’s a fungus that lives in the environment which has the ability to cross Blood-Brain barrier .Cryptococcus neoformans is more commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals due to widespread use of Immunosuppressive therapy. A38 year old male patient with history of post renal transplant status was diagnosed with cutaneous cryptococcosis. Patient came to Nephrology OPD, Victoria hospital with complaints of non-healing ulcer over left buttock region with on and off fever for 3 months. Later patient was referred to Dermatology and Venerology department where he was examined and under aseptic precautions, biopsy was taken for histopathological examination and Tissue bits was sent for bacterial and fungal culture and sensitivity. The fungal culture report yielded Cryptococcus neoformans. Patient was started on IV amphotericin B for 2 weeks, later shifted on to oral drugs fluconazole and flucytosine at the time of discharge. Ulcer was completely healed by the end of 3 months, with no significant side effects. Cryptococcosis infection can spread to humans when they come in contact with pigeon droppings which usually occurs after inhalation of the fungal spores.

  9. Hema J. Shobhane and Garima Singh
    ABSTRACT:

    The ecotoxicological Background: Intra uterine foetal death is an emotional distress for mother, her family and for the obstetrician also. Timely intervention reduces this. The study determine the possible causes of stillbirths or IUFD. Material and methods: This was a Prospective observational study was conducted from September 2022 to August 2023. The study included all pregnant women who were delivered at the hospital with Intrauterine Fetal Demise or Still Birth at or after 24 weeks of pregnancy. Results: Intra uterine fetal death was found 42.98 per 1000. The most common maternal cause of IUFD was Pregnancy induced hypertension (30.0%) followed by Antepartum hemorrhage (22.43%) and congenital malformation (5.75%). Out of 140 IUD, 22 still births were due to involvement of multiple factors. Conclusion: Intrauterine foetal mortality may be prevented by modifying maternal risk factors such as hypertension, severe anaemia, and diabetes management. IUFD can be prevented by early registration of pregnancy, good nutrition, regular ANC visits and early referral to tertiary centre.

  10. Shahin Ibn Rahman, Lubna Ahmed, Md Jubaidul Islam, Mohammad Tajul Islam, Rushda Sarmin Binte Rouf, Kazi Nazmul Hossain, Azimun Nessa, Nausher Azimul Huq, Bimol Kumar Agarwala, Md Feroz Amin, Faria Afsana, Rubyat Hasan Chowdhury and Ranodhir Chakraborty
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: Micropenis is a medical diagnosis which often incorrectly detected. A misdiagnosis may cause parental anxiety which may lead to unnecessary examinations and tests. The correct diagnosis is made by measuring stretched penile length. When the penile length smaller than 2.5 standard deviations (SD) below the mean is considered as micropenis & which varies from one ethnicity to another. It may occur as an independent abnormality by itself or as a clinical finding of many syndromes. Objective: To find out the mean of stretched penile length of newborn baby boy of Bangladesh. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Multicenter of Dhaka city In & out patients Department from January 2022 to December 2022. The newly born male baby (upto age 28 days) will be considered as study population. Data was collected from patients (mother) file and physical examination findings of the newborn. Subject selection was done as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. After full explanation of the study procedure informed written consent was taken. Data was collected in a structured questionnaire and analyzed using MS Office tools and SPSS Version 23.0. Results: The mean age was 39.7±47.7 & most age distribution of the study subjects was 50% between 24-48 hours. Out of 100 newborn baby 82% were born at term. About 30% of mother suffered from different types of illness. The mean stretched penile length of all (n=100) newborn baby was 2.25±0.66 cm & there were significant differences of SPL among the different age groups (p<0.001) such as SPL was 2.36±0.65 cm of <24 hours age group (n=30), 2.06±0.47 cm of 24-48 hours age group (n=50), 2.14±0.62 cm of 48-72 hours age group (n=14), 3.60±0.62 cm of >72 hours age group (n=6). This study also shows significantly higher mean SPL (2.33±0.67 cm) at term compared with preterm (1.90±0.52 cm) (p<0.013). Conclusion: The mean stretched penile length of all (n=100) newborn baby boy was 2.25±0.66 cm & there were significant differences of SPL among the different age groups.

  11. Elius Malale, Theophil Christopher, Emau Saturday, Samuel Mwashiuya and Xavery Mbunda
    ABSTRACT:

    This philosophical reflection delves into the intricate relationship between democracy and gender in Africa, focusing on the complexities of power dynamics, rights, and opportunities. It explores the concept of gender, its social construction, and its relevance in African cultures, histories, and political contexts. The discourse emphasizes the importance of inclusivity, equality, and participation in shaping democratic processes and outcomes. It argues that gender equality is an essential component of a thriving democracy, ensuring fair representation and the realization of human rights for all citizens. The reflection also examines the struggles faced by women in Africa in their quest for gender equality and political participation. It examines the impact of patriarchal norms, socio-cultural practices, and institutional barriers that hinder women's advancement in democratic systems. The significance of feminist movements and collective action in challenging gender inequalities is also highlighted. The reflection critically analyses the role of African governments, civil society organizations, and international actors in promoting gender-responsive democratic practices. It examines the implementation of legal frameworks, policies, and affirmative action measures aimed at promoting gender equality, representation, and women’s empowerment. Drawing on the concepts of philosophers Locke, Wiredu, and Hountondji, the reflection suggests potential pathways for advancing democracy and gender equality in Africa. It emphasizes the importance of education, awareness-raising, and cultural transformation in dismantling gender stereotypes and promoting gender-sensitive democratic values.

  12. Manika Sharma, Isha Gupta, Brij K Gupta and Kanav Gupta
    ABSTRACT:

    Introduction: A needle stick injury is a serious occupational health hazard in health care settings. Health care workers are at risk of blood borne diseases and the psychological consequences of these injuries. These injuries are a major source of infections with blood-borne diseases like Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The risk of transmission of this infection after exposure to percutaneous injuries with infected blood is 2–40% for HBV, 2.7–10% for HCV, and 0.3% for HIV. Additionally, studies show an influence on the mental health of the injured HCWs. Anxiety, depression, and worry about being infected or transmitting the infection to their family affected their quality of life. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A tertiary care hospital in Panipat. Participants: 105 resident doctors, and consultants. Results: A large percentage (32.4%) of HCWs reported having had one or more NSIs in their career.43.8% of males and 56.2 females were affected .More than half (29.8%) ascribed fatigue, work load as a cause in their injury. Most of the injuries (35.2%) occurred during recapping. In addition, heavy work load (44%), caused the highest rate of injuries, followed by inattention and hasty work (25.8%). Regarding post-exposure actions of the 39% respondents first washed the injury site with soap and water while 8.6% just squeezed the blood. Only 15% of the HCWs took post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against HIV/AIDS after their injury. Conclusions: Avoidable practices like recapping of needles were contributing to the injuries. Prevention of NSI is an integral part of prevention programs in the work place, and training of HCWs regarding safety practices indispensably needs to be an ongoing activity at a hospital.

  13. MS. Lincy Abraham
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: The skin is the largest organ of the body and serves a variety of important functions in maintaining health and protecting the individual from injury. Impaired skin integrity is not a frequent problem for most of the healthy people, but it is always a threat to older people, clients with restricted mobility, chronic illness or trauma and to those undergoing invasive health care procedure. Any patients experiencing prolonged pressure is at risk for Decubitus ulcer. Elderly patients have increased risk because of normal aging changes of the skin. Because thin patients have little padding when pressure is present. Obesity also is a contributing factor because adipose tissue is poorly vascularized and is therefore more likely to develop ischemic changes. Method: A non-experimental descriptive design was used with a sample size of 30 nursing personnels with a structured questionnaire to achieve the objectives of the study. Data collection was carried out for a period of 2 weeks from 21-07-2013 to 22-07-2013. This data were entered into the excel sheets and analyzed using SPSS for windows, Version 16.0, Chi-square test was used for the evaluation of the level of significance. The researcher adhered to several critical ethical considerations regarding obligations and responsibilities in the recruitment of participants and data collection. Approval has obtained from Institutional human ethics committee. Formal administrative permission was obtained from a nursing institute administration. Informed printed agreement was taken from the subjects.4] Maintain the confidentiality of data. Results: In the pretest 43% of the respondents had inadequate knowledge, 37%of the respondents had moderate knowledge and 20% of the respondents had adequate knowledge regarding Decubitus ulcers. Conclusion: the findings of the study concluded that majority of the nursing personnels had inadequate knowledge regarding Decubitus ulcers.

  14. Punitha Rani Singh, Kavita Chandrakar, Jestin Jacob and Vinette Saldanha
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: This research project endeavors to address challenges in patient safety and nursing leadership within healthcare. By delving into nursing leadership competencies, it aims to reshape healthcare practices, mitigating issues such as patient falls, pressure injuries and medication errors. Through proactive measures, including targeted training programs, it seeks to cultivate a transformative patient safety culture. The outcomes are anticipated to establish evidence-based practices and act as a catalyst for continuous improvement in healthcare nursing leadership and patient care. Methods: Embarking on a transformative journey within healthcare, this research embraces Metamorphosed Leadership, blending skills in Amalgated Empowerment for a harmonious environment. It aims to revolutionize healthcare leadership with seven potent forces, ensuring excellence, innovation, and Cultural Competence. The study adopts an Analytical Evaluatory Approach, assessing interventions' effectiveness across 22 units of HCG Group of Hospitals using Non-Randomized Pre-test & Post-test Design. Targeting Nursing Heads & Mid-level managers, a sample of 207 individuals has been selected via Convenient Sampling, with Descriptive Analysis interpreting findings for improved patient safety. Results: The research examined nursing leadership across 22 units of HCG Hospitals, involving 207 individuals with diverse qualifications and experience. Data collection spanned January 2023 to April 2023, followed by interventions from May 2023 to July 2023, aiming to enhance patient safety culture and reduce performance indicators with promotion of Hand Hygiene. Meticulously selected leaders drove outcomes, leading to organizational achievements such as AACI (American Accreditation Commission International Accreditation) and AHPI (Association of Healthcare Providers India)Award of Nursing Excellence. Initiatives like Fall Prevention posters, Safe Injection Posters, development of Drug calculation checklist, extravasation prevention steps and scientific forums fortified patient safety, fostering continual improvement. Successful nursing conclave and conference underscored collaboration, culminating in excellence and future strides for sustained nursing innovation and excellence in healthcare practices. Conclusion: Augmented clinical excellence, seen in reduced pressure ulcers, medication administration errors, extravasation and fall rates, which enhances patient care & enhances nurses’ satisfaction, curbing turnover, underscore success. Nursing conclave and conference bolster team building, concluding in a transformative healthcare improvement journey.

  15. Dr. Mahesh Dave, Dr. Deepanshu, Dr. Kanishk Amera, Dr. Nishant Mangla and Dr. Anubha Sukhwal
    ABSTRACT:

    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome (DDMS)also known as cerebral hemiatrophy is a rare neurological disease characterized by Seizures, hemiparesis, cerebral hemiatrophy, facial and body asymmetry with mild intellectual disability. DDMS can be diagnosed by characterized by classical radiographical findings, that is cerebral hemiatrophy, ipsilateral dilated ventricle, ipsilateral osseus hypertrophy and excessive pneumatization of ipsilateral frontal and other sinuses. DDMS presents withearlypartial onset seizure with hemiparesis. Later in adolescence facial and body asymmetry is evident with mild cognitive dysfunction. We are presenting a case in which a23 year oldmale presented with uncontrolled partial onset seizures with secondary generalization, right hemiparesis, right sided hemiatrophy of limbs and body with characteristic radiological findings suggestive of DDMS.

  16. Living D. Nyaki, Nazima Dharsee, Rachel J. Mtei and Fileuka Ngakongwa
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: Depression is among the public health problems across the world and the leading cause of disability. A cancer diagnosis can lead to depression with global and Tanzania prevalence of 24% and 28% respectively. However, the associated factors of Depression in Cancer Patients in Tanzania have not been studied. This study seeks more recent information on the prevalence as well as the associated factors, and the results intend to raise awareness among healthcare providers on the importance of early diagnosis and management of depression in cancer patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among cancer patients at Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) in Dar es Salaam. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study, using consecutive random sampling. Logistic regression was applied for the identification of independently associated factors. Results: The prevalence of depression is 62.6% among 369 participants. A higher risk of depression was found in those with Low levels of education,low perceived social support, low general self-efficacy, and low level of hope. Conclusion: This study shows depression in cancer patients is high, which can lead to poor prognosis of cancer; hence the need for psychosocial interventions at cancer centers.

  17. Dr. Renuka Nagrale, Dr. Neetu Kadu, Rehan Bagban, Yashwanti Yeorikar, Aditi Mudkhedkar and Ahtesham Shah
    ABSTRACT:

    Aim: Veterinarian dentistry is one branch of the veterinary sciences that has grown substantially due to increasing dental issue and lack of ability of veterinarian doctors to handle every single dental issue that occurs in an animal. Veterinary dentistry includes intricate procedures in besides scaling and extractions. Managing animals presents a number of challenges, including possible risk factors and the need to complete all treatments in a single visit to avoid multiple Anesthesia and monitoring episodes. The aim of our study was to add literature addressing Veterinary dentistry in order to raise awareness and knowledge about the subject and to suggest that this intriguing issue be included. Methodology: A qualitative study including veterinarian practitioner, nurses, doctors was conducted all around Pune city was conducted. After Providing complete explanation of study objectives, the questionnaire was distributed to veterinarian Professionals in Pune. There were in total 30 questions on google form based on its response result is evaluated. Result: A total 178 responses were collected and analyse Out of which 81.7% were familiar with veterinary dental professionals while 18.3% were lack knowledge about dental professionals. With regard to knowledge about home care of pets 29.8% avoid feeding any treats 54.5% brush their pets teeth regularly and 15.5% limit water intake of Pets.

  18. Liappis, E., Papadeli C., Aetopoulos I., Venetis G. and Triantafyllidou, A.
    ABSTRACT:

    Background & Objective: According to the RDC/TMD classification of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), one very often diagnosis is osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint (TMJOA). TMJOA is a slowly progressive and degenerative disease affecting all TMJ structures, mainly the articular cartilage. Its etiology is trauma and joint overloading. TMJOA’s management has been attempted with several treatments, but the most usual choice is intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of such injections at patients with TMJOA. Methods: Thirty five (35) patients, 9 men and 26 women, have been included in the study. They are divided into two age groups: seventeen (17) of age 40 – 59 years old and eighteen (18) of age over 60 years old. Their medical records have been gathered and examined, and a follow-up visit was scheduled for each of them for clinical examination and discussion over a structured questionnaire. Results: Regarding the pain, the average value of painful symptoms is 3,780 out of 5 before treatment, whereas after treatment the same average value is equal to 0,457. It seems that the number of patients that stopped complaining about TMJ sounds is higher after their treatment by 16 patients (10 out of 35 before treatment, 26 out of 35 after treatment). Finally, a reduction of mouth opening was pointed out in only 3 patients at the follow-up visit, much less that the initial number of 33 patients with reduced mouth opening before treatment. Conclusion: Intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid appear to be of great value for patients with TMJOA. TMJOA is usually expressed with painful symptomatology, but the prevalence of asymptomatic patients is not very low. So, it is important to suspect TMJOA clinically and refer patients for radiological assessment.

  19. Feyera Dubale, Alem Deksisa, and Delayehu Bekele
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: Early developmental stages are susceptible to disruption because it is the period for organogenesis which refers to the 4th to 8th weeks of development. Congenital malformation is defined as “a permanent change produced by an intrinsic abnormality of development in a body structure during prenatal life”. Major congenital malformations in different population around the world has shown considerable variation and ranges from less than 1% up to 8%. For various reasons, there is scarce of data and research on birth defects in Ethiopia. Objective: - To assess the incidence of major congenital anomalies and their pattern of distribution at Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at SPHMMC for 4 months, from September 1, 2022 to December 31,2022.All Women admitted for elective termination of pregnancy for fetal congenital anomaly were involved in the study.Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were cleaned and entered into Epi Info version 7 and then exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. In the analysis process, the frequency distribution of variables was calculated. Results: Among a total of 4050 outcomes, there were 3675 deliveries and 375 cases of 2nd trimester abortion including elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies (ETOPFA), safe and spontaneous abortions. Out of the total outcome, there were 115 major anomaly affected cases making an incidence of congenital anomaly of 312.93 per 10,000 births or overall proportion of birth defects 2.8%. The mean age of mothers was 28+5. Of all 115 major anomaly affected cases: nervous system accounted 33.3%, congenital heart disease 19.6%, digestive system 19%, genitourinary system 12.4%, musculoskeletal system 5.9%, genetic/chromosomal4.6%, respiratory system 3.9% and the rest 1.3% were unclassified. Conclusions: The overall magnitude of birth defect was 2.8%. Seven patterns of major congenital anomalies were identified; nervous system was the most frequent by accounting one third, followed by congenital heart disease and digestive system each accounting almost one fifth of major congenital anomalies. The medical workforce and managers should give emphasis to congenital anomalies.

  20. Doctorant DJAN Arthur Philippe, Docteur ABROU N’Gouan Emmanuel-Joël, Docteur AKAFFOU Sopie Elvire Vanessa and Professeur TIEBRE Marie-Solange
    ABSTRACT:

    The land-use dynamics of Hopea odorata, an invasive species, are being monitored in Banco National Park. The aim was to examine the spatial evolution of the species from 2000 to 2021. To this end, vegetation cover was mapped and analysed using Landsat satellite images from the years ETM + 2000 and 2010 and OLI 2021 acquired on the USGS platform. The rate of change of the area occupied by Hopea odorata was also assessed. The study showed that the area occupied by Hopea odorata increased by 56.44% from 2000 to 2010, i.e. from 20.29 ha to 31.74 ha, and by 36.07%, i.e. from 31.74 ha to 45.27 ha during the period from 2010 to 2021. Thus, from 2000 to 2021, the area occupied by Hopea odorata rose from 20.29 ha to 45.27 ha, representing a 123.12% increase in the Park's surface area. In view of the upward trend of this species, management measures need to be considered in order to protect and conserve the Park's biodiversity in the long term, and to prevent the invasion of this forest massif.

  21. Dr. Sajad Nazir Malla, Dr. Asif Mehraj, Dr. Waseem Ul Rahman dar and Dr. Sheikh Bisma Ramzan
    ABSTRACT:

    Hydatid disease (HD) is due to infection by tapeworm Echinocococcus granulosus in its larval or cyst stage. The tapeworm lives in canids which are infected by eating the viscera of sheep that contain hydatid cysts. Most of cysts are found in liver, lungs, spleen brain and bones. The localization of hydatid cyst in muscle is rare (0.7-0.9%), even in endemic countries. Muscle hydatidosis is rare, possibly because of muscle lactic acid content and muscle contraction, two factors that likely prevent cyst growth in striated muscle. Herein we report a case of muscular hydatidosis, with concomitant hydatid liver in a 43 year female who is a known case of systemic sclerosis

  22. Dr. Siddhant Rajput, Dr. Hamid Ashraf and Prof. Zafar, K.S.
    ABSTRACT:

    Introduction: Sheehan's syndrome is hypopituitarism due to pituitary gland necrosis resulting from hemorrhagic shock during pregnancy. It is a rare complication with varied manifestations and a considerable delay in diagnosis. Case Presentation: We present the case of of a 38 year old woman, who presented to emergency with complaints of acute abdomen and decreased sensorium. She had no previous treatment history. On haematological and radiological assessment, she was diagnosed to be a case of Sheehan’s syndrome with primary insult 18 years back. Investigations: Patient was investigated for all the hormonal axis- LH, FSH, Estradiol for HPO axis , Thyroid Profile, ACTH and Cortisol for HPA axis. Brain imaging using Pituitary protocol was done, which found complete Empty sella. Discussion: Patient was treated with replacement therapy for steroid and thyroid axis, which lead to unmasking of Diabetes Insipidus as free water clearance improved, desmopressin supplementation. There was a rapid improvement in patient outlook within one week of institution of therapy. Conclusion: Previous case reports describe patients being diagnosed after one or more complications from long-term panhypopituitarism. The present case illustrates that undiagnosed Sheehan's syndrome is associated with long-term morbidity, and we want to emphasize that a high index of suspicion is crucial for the early diagnosis of the syndrome in routine clinical visits in order to prevent complications arising with delayed diagnosis. Awareness among clinicians is also essential so that such cases are not overlooked, especially in developing nations, where home delivery is still common and obstetric care is limited.

  23. Chawla, Bhawna, Gupta, Kanav and Gupta, Brij, K.
    ABSTRACT:

    Background- Globally, pathologic myopia is a leading cause of visual impairment. Pathologic myopia is characterized by the presence of typical fundus changes (posterior staphyloma or myopic maculopathy). Many eye and vision professionals have been alerted to the global incidence of pathological myopia and are taking steps to stop its progression. Methods- This systematic review article is carried out after comprehensive analysis .Analysis is carried out following a thorough search of academic and guideline database for a period of one month.Once all searches were combined, observations were noted down in one month. Results - Evidence have shown that a proactive reshaping of the eyeball is the core point of myopia developing process, which particularly includes the weakening, thinning, and expanding of the sclera. As a result, it is thought that the sclera is a prime target for therapeutic modification to stop the progression of myopia. Hypoplasia and loss of RPE are characteristics seen during the progression of myopic maculopathy.The preliminary work has shown a promising way in stem cell-based therapy of patients with myopic maculopathy. Therefore, it is possible to achieve the ambitious goal by stem cell-based therapy. Conclusion- In this paper, we postulate that through shaping the eyeball and inhibiting abnormal scleral remodelling, scleral collagen cross-linking, or SXL, has enormous potential for stabilizing the myopic process.Also, replacing atrophic RPE cells with healthy ones through transplantation of RPE cells appears to be a better method of improving the visual outcomes of pathological myopia patients.

  24. Dr. Ravi Kumar, Dr. Vineender Reddy, B., Dr. Rashi Srivastava, Dr. Ashutosh Chajjed, Dr. Dinesh Saini and Dr. Mannan
    ABSTRACT:

    SLE is an autoimmune disease in which organ damage is mediated by auto-antibodies and immune complexes. Around 90% of patients are women of child bearing age. It is ~9 times more prevalent in women than in men. SLE is newly diagnosed in 4 lakh people each year worldwide 1,2. SLE can involve many organ systems likewise musculoskeletal, dermatological, renal, neurological, hematological, cardiopulmonary, ocular and gastrointestinal. Severity of SLE varies from mild and intermittent to severe and fulminant. Neurological manifestations are common in SLE occuring in ~ 60% of patients but Myelopathy is rarest presentation among neurological manifestations (< 1%). Hence we are reporting a rare case of a young female patient of SLE presented with cervical myelopathy Subject Area: Internal Medicine and Rheumatology

  25. Dr. Vimal Ranka and Dr. Jimit Patel
    ABSTRACT:

    Takayasu’s arteritis is a chronic vasculitis of medium and large vessels. The most involved vessel is the aorta and its major branches. The disease is primarily seen in young women. The described incidence of the disease ranges from 0.3 to 3.3 million per year. The vessels are characterized by mononuclear infiltration and granulomatous inflammation of vascular media, which leads to arterial wall thickening with stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysmal dilation. Here we present a case of Takayasu’s arteritis in a 58 year-old woman who presented with fever and rashsince 1 month. . Early diagnosis and treatment are warranted. When the disease is dormant, the outcome seems favourable.

  26. Dr. Ligil A.R., Dr. Rosaline Tina Paul, Dr. Roshna Mandayapurathu, Dr. Joseph K. Thanikunnel and Dr. Parsen Paul
    ABSTRACT:

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a potentially serious and life-threatening disorder affecting millions of people around the world. It is a sleep-related respiratory condition, characterized by the complete or partial collapse of breathing because of a narrowing or closure of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in intermittent cessations of breathing (apneas) or reductions in airflow (hypopneas) despite ongoing respiratory effort. The symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness, Mood changes, Fragmented sleep, as well as the decreased health-related quality of life. Patients often complain of snoring, Gasping or choking, frequent nocturnal awakenings, early morning headaches, poor concentration and coordination, anxiety, irritability, and insomnia, yet many patients are unaware of these symptoms and disease onset is insidious. This article details the obstructive sleep apnoea

  27. Dr. Ligil A.R., Dr. Rosaline Tina Paul, Dr Roshna Mandayapurathu, Dr. Joseph K. Thanikunnel and Dr. Parsen Paul
    ABSTRACT:

    Cephalometric measurements on radiographic images are subject to errors that may be caused by: • Radiographic projection errors- magnification, distortion. • Errors within the measuring system – digitized,,, identification, scaling errors and linearity • Errors in landmark identification - The quality of the radiographic image sharpness, contrast, blur , noice. The precision of landmark definition and the reproducibility of landmark location.The operator and the registration procedure.

  28. Rinku C Rajeev, Mishal Ann Mathew, Mariya Elizabath Sunil, Dr. Merin and Dr. Ancy
    ABSTRACT:

    Hyperdontia, commonly referred to as supernumerary teeth, is a well-known dental anomaly in humans. It is defined as the presence of extra teeth exceeding the normal count in either primary or permanent dentition. The occurrence has been documented to range from 0.2 to 3%, with a higher frequency observed in males compared to females. The etiology of this condition is heterogeneous and highly variable, and a majority of cases are idiopathic in nature. However, the presence of multiple impacted or erupted supernumerary teeth is rare and often associated with specific genetic syndromes. Early detection of abnormalities allows us to implement appropriate patient management strategies and plays a vital role in making well-informed decisions concerning long-term medical care and treatments.

  29. Beavers, P.J., Khan, A.B. and Merhavy, Z.I.
    ABSTRACT:

    Facial proportion changes and volume loss are commonly experienced corporeal changes, whether due to the natural process of senescence or as a side effect of systemic illness. Because these physical transformations are inevitably experienced by most people, treatments that assist in the maintenance or restoration of a youthful, yet natural appearance have long been a subject of great interest in the medical field. Thanks to the relative ease and low cost with which they ameliorate certain aspects of the aging process, facial and lip filling treatments have developed into a point of focus in the world of aesthetic medicine. As it currently stands, facial and lip volume enhancement or restoration can be achieved with a multitude of injectable products, including temporary and permanent fillers. With an ever-increasing number of materials at their disposal, providers in the cosmetic industry have many important choices to make when advocating biomaterials to their patients based on desired aesthetic outcomes. This review aims to meticulously discuss different aspects of the most commonly employed biomaterials in the cosmetic facial and lip filler industry today, as well as the particular treatments for which each material is best suited. The specific biomaterials addressed in this review include: collagen (human bioengineered and bovine), hyaluronic acid (HA), poly(L)-lactic acid (PLLA), calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and autologous fat grafting (AFG). For each biomaterial discussed, the review provides information on how they became commonly used in aesthetic medicine, specific injection techniques, desirable cosmetic medicinal properties, and optimal situational applications for each biomaterial in the setting of elective patient cosmetic augmentation.

  30. Suman Ghosh and Banani Mondal
    ABSTRACT:

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization around has led to the enormous amount of solid waste production. Many nations are facing the impact of environmental pollution due to improper waste disposal. Plastic and wood are the two most globally used materials in all walks of life. The use of plastic is a convenient choice but at the same time also hazardous and disastrous to the environment. Cutlery and crockery are one of the most simple and very useful worldwide devices created for consuming food. The disposal of plastic cutlery and crockery is hazardous to the environment. Though the plastic cutlery and crockery are hard to replace taking into account the convenience and costing but at the same time it is necessary to act wisely and sensibly towards sustainable environmental practices and innovate alternative and sustainable ways to plastic cutlery and crockery. One such innovation is the edible cutlery and crockery. Edible cutlery and crockery can turn out to be the future creating a positive impact on the environment and at the same time being nutritious. The concept of edible cutlery and crockery is being developed by many entrepreneurs. Very little is known about these in the hospitality and service sector. The research paper aims to explore the feasibility of edible cutlery and crockery in the hospitality sector.

  31. Resham Agarwal and Samir Khan
    ABSTRACT:

    The aim of this research is to examine if relationship satisfaction is impacted by Love styles, Sexual styles and Adult Attachment styles. An attempt is also made to find out if the independent variables have any relationship among them. The sample chosen for this study were individuals who are in a relationship currently for at least 3 months. The results indicated that the attachment style does not impact relationship satisfaction. The love styles and sexual styles did impact the relationship satisfaction for this population. There were also correlations found in attachment style and love styles, and sexual styles and love styles. Other factors like the type of relationship had an impact on love styles, however the duration of the relationship did not influence any of the variables.

  32. Atallah Habahbeh, Ph.D.R.N., Murad Alkhalaileh,Ph.D.R.N., Ibrahim Ayasreh, Ph.D.R.N., NiaserAlhroob, Ph.D.R.N., Liath Alousofe, Ph.D.R.N. and Renad Habahbeh, M.D. and Ahmad Aljabery, Msc. RN.
    ABSTRACT:

    The main purpose of this study is to identify the competencies of Jordanian nurses in patient safety. Using convenience sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study from January to June 2023 in governmental hospitals. Furthermore, Descriptive data are presented as frequencies, percentages, mean values and standard deviations of variables, Pearson correlation was use to examine the relationship between certain demographic variables and patient safety competences. A significant positive relationship between age and work experience (.741**) and a significant negative relationship between age and separate module for patient safety (.-276**). Moreover, a negative relationship was detected between work experience and separate module for patient safety (.-364**). t- test was applied to examine the mean differences between patient safety competences and certain demographic variables, no statistical differences were detected. We recommend that a separate module for patient safety should be included in nursing curricula, continuous education on patient safety toprovide high quality of nursing care, further research is required including different hospitals in Jordan to identify different intervention to ensure patient safety.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Dr. Deborah Darlianmawii
    ABSTRACT:

    Manipur is a state in the northeastern region of India that has witnessed numerous conflicts where women and children are among the most affected. Innumerable studies show women in Manipur as agents of change but these were mostly the non-tribal women. In light of this context, this paper looks into the roles of tribal women, especially the Zomi women in Churachandpur town in bringing change concerning children. This work is based on primary data collection through a semi-structured interview method. The paper highlights that Zomi Mothers’ Association (ZMA) focuses on emancipating children by providing shelter, education of girl children, and psychological support. Hence, women themselves, though largely affected by conflict, are working for the emancipation of another ‘vulnerable’ social group, i.e. children.

  2. Shraddha R Gotmare and Anna Maria Jose
    ABSTRACT:

    In this paper, we have taken data on crimes in Kerala from 2008 to 2022 and analyzed them using time series modelling. The data used in the research paper is obtained from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) and State Crime Records Bureau. The findings of this research paper have implications for developing effective crime prevention strategies and enhancing public safety in India. This research paper aims to predict overall crime trends in India using ARIMA (Auto-regressive integrated moving average) model.

  3. Dr. Uttam Kumar Das
    ABSTRACT:

    Co-curricular activities are a crucial and essential component of the curriculum in today's educational system. Often referred to as extracurricular activities, these extend beyond conventional academic subjects and hold a unique place in the educational landscape. They cover numerous activities, from sports and the arts to social gatherings and volunteer work. Participation in co-curricular activities fosters critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity. Whether it's organizing an event, writing for a club, or designing a robot, students engage their minds in ways that complement their formal education. Co-curricular activities promote the growth of diverse mental and personality dimensions, including intellectual, emotional, social, moral and artistic development. These activities include disciplines that are not part of the usual academic curriculum but are beneficial for an individual's overall development. Educational system includes knowledge-based curriculum along with co-curricular activities that in turn builds up the sense of creative skills and leadership skills. Therefore, we’ve done a survey on how the co-curricular activities foster the administrative skills as well as leadership qualities within the school students.

  4. Banshaikupar Lyngdoh Mawlong
    ABSTRACT:

    The state of the environment has direct impacts on human lives and development. In fact, environmental conditions has never remained static, it changes in time and space. Further, the unprecedented growth of human population, unsustainable economic development, the absence of an efficient environmental management model and the lack of political will has resulted in an alarming rate of environmental degradation. An efficient environmental management mechanism involving all stakeholders is, thus, the foremost and mandatory requirement in environmental conservation and management. One of the features of the environmental governance structure in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya is the existence and the indispensable role of traditional institutions at the local level, besides the state machineries. This paper will attempt to examine traditionalthe environmental management practices and the efforts undertaken in the Marpna protected forest in Meghalaya.

  5. Dr. Moamen A. Shazly, Dr. Khaled Abd ElAlim and Dr. Hesham Zakaria
    ABSTRACT:

    The main objective of this research is to study the impact of Artificial intelligence on Audit quality. To achieve this objective, the researchers collected literature review about research variables. A field study was conducted on audit firms in Egypt. Data collected through structured questionnaire distributed. The completed respondents are 391 from 400 respondents and data were tabulated and presented using statistical tools such as correlation coefficient, regression and ANOVA analysis by using SPSS program. The research results showed that there is a positive weak correlation between artificial intelligence and audit quality with significant impact. As well as Using AI to improve audit quality, through helping auditors to find errors and issues of financial reports faster. However, the potential of using AI is significantly decrease the need for human auditors.

  6. Wendsongré Jean Claude Yanogo
    ABSTRACT:

    The covid19 crisis revealed the air transport sector's great vulnerability to health crises, to the point of drawing questioning glances at the sector's accumulation model. Between March and May 2020, the management of flights cancelled due to the pandemic was the subject of a cacophony resulting from conflicts between airlines and their customers. Drawing on regulation theory, the article analyzes the accumulation model in the air transport sector and presents the limits of this sector regulation model.

  7. Pascal Wery
    ABSTRACT:

    Black matter is one of the greatest unknowns in the cosmos, despite being the most important gravitational component. Indeed, black matter is the most prevalent matter, and its bulk has an impact on the design of the universe. It has permitted the construction and preservation of cosmic structures. As a result, understanding the cosmos without knowing its qualities is extremely difficult. However, it only reacts to gravity and not to the other fundamental forces. It is not a weak reaction, but rather the complete lack of direct reactivity with full spin (even in our particle accelerators). Indeed, black matter is not only opaque to us because it lacks a measurable electromagnetic field, but it also exhibits no nuclear reaction at all. Finally, it appears to be able to influence only wide areas, implying that it lacks concentration. So the only thing we know about black matter is its non-properties, or what it does not do, which is react with our own fundamental forces (save gravity) and cover only enormous areas (big gravitational lenses). As a result, black matter remains a big mystery. There is, however, a solution if the problem is phrased differently.

  8. Nyamota, Geoffrey, Prof Kiambi, Dionysious and Dr. Mburugu, Kirema
    ABSTRACT:

    Globally, leadership styles are endorsed as factors that determine the performance of enterprises. Certain approaches to leadership continue to be implemented despite facing widespread disapproval. A performance evaluation of agricultural enterprises in Kenya was conducted to assess the influence of leadership styles and capacity development. The assessment of agricultural enterprises' performance in Kenya encompassed both financial and non-financial indicators. The overarching aim of the research was to assess the influence of different leadership styles and capacity development initiatives on the performance of agricultural enterprises in Kenya. The study was guided by the Systems Theories and Path Goal Theory. The study evaluated the influence of Transformational, Transactional, Democratic and Autocratic leadership styles on the Performance of Agricultural Enterprises in Kenya. The moderating influence of Capacity Development on the relationship between Leadership Styles and the Performance of Agricultural Enterprises in Kenya was assessed. Explanatory sequential mixed methods approach was adopted using cross-sectional survey design to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were gathered using closed-ended questionnaires, while qualitative data were gathered using interview guides and focused group discussion guides. A stratified random sample of 222 leaders and employees was selected from a population of 525 leaders and employees drawn from a census of 105 agricultural enterprises for the quantitative study. Qualitative data drew a sample of 40 participants. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics as provided for in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The overall findings of the study indicate that agricultural enterprises in Kenya perform better under transformational, transactional, and democratic leadership styles but adversely affected by autocratic leadership. The study revealed that the performance of agricultural enterprises in Kenya is significantly moderated by capacity development. The study recommends the implementation of capacity development initiatives by governments, donors and capacity building organizations to enhance the performance of agricultural enterprises in Kenya.

  9. Tripti Tripathi and Dr. Sweta Vyas
    ABSTRACT:

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness practices, relaxation techniques, and lifestyle modifications in managing menopausal symptoms and their underlying physiology. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies that demonstrate the impact of mindfulness, relaxation, and lifestyle changes on menopausal symptoms, as well as those that shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind these symptoms. We could assume that mindfulness practices, relaxation techniques, and lifestyle changes could be valuable tools for managing menopausal symptoms like stress reduction, relaxation, and hormone balance. Nevertheless, there is a need for more studies to prove their effectiveness among different population groups and account for individual variability in treatment. Some of the recommendations include putting these innovative strategies into practice and creating education and support networks for women in menopause.

  10. Jun Jing Zhao and Wei Jun Xu
    ABSTRACT:

    Under the background of COVID-19, the process of education informatization, digitalization and intelligence has been greatly accelerated. Block chain technology has the characteristics of decentralization, distributed data storage and high data reliability. Its application in education domain is conducive to solving the problems of data barriers, information security and trust crisis in the process of education informatization. It is of great significance for integrating education data resources and systems and building an education credit system. For students, teachers, schools and other four types of education credit subjects, this paper analyzes four scenarios and specific functions of block chain technology applied to education credit information collection and recording, information interconnection and sharing, information transparency management and refined supervision of education credit system, and introduces two application cases. The application of block chain technology in the construction of education credit system is in essence to use technical means to promote the reconstruction of education governance thinking and governance mode and the innovation of education governance system, and finally to realize the modernization of education governance ability.

  11. Shraddha R Gotmare and Anna Maria Jose
    ABSTRACT:

    In this paper, we have taken data on crimes in Kerala from 2008 to 2022 and analyzed them using time series modelling. The data used in the research paper is obtained from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) and State Crime Records Bureau. The findings of this research paper have implications for developing effective crime prevention strategies and enhancing public safety in India. This research paper aims to predict overall crime trends in India using ARIMA (Auto-regressive integrated moving average) model.

  12. Dr. Samarpita Ghosh-Ray
    ABSTRACT:

    This paper explores and reviews extant literature and seeks to critically engage in a discourse analysis of the practice to engage popular cinema stars to host television shows. Media convergence and rise of celebrity culture has allowed for an expanded scope of circulation for stars and celebrities within trans national global mediascapes. Popular film stars hosting reality shows and television programmes opens up a new site for iconization. It may be seen a deliberate ploy to render the star power to attain an intimate neighbourliness as the aura invested persona ruptures the boundaries of separation upheld by the silver screen to enter domesticated interiors of everyday routinized life .Exploding the aura and the myth that surrounds stardom, the commodified and visually consumable star power of a consumerist world is mobilized as purveyors of commodity culture. It often thus becomes a market-driven imperative to draw upon the star power in a realist re-incarnate.

  13. Dr. Venkat Rao, M. and Bojja Trimurthula Swamy
    ABSTRACT:

    Microfinance is a banking service for unemployed or low-income people who have no other financial options. Internationally, SHG microfinance is the modern weapon for poverty reduction and rural development. Microfinance and SHGs reduce poverty, empower women, and raise awareness, resulting in sustained national development. This research examines microfinance's psychological, social, and economic effects on women's empowerment.

  14. Sachin Singh and Dr. Pradeep Kumar Singh
    ABSTRACT:

    Non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) have been very important in the process of capital creation by helping to channel limited financial resources. NBFCs have been helping the organised banking sector by bridging credit gaps, which means they have been addressing the growing financial needs of the corporate sector, giving loans to the unorganised sector, and giving loans to small local borrowers. This has allowed the organised banking sector to focus on its core business of lending money. In the organised financial sector, non-bank financial companies (NBFCs) have a structure that is more adaptable than banks. On occasion, the Reserve Bank of India and the Central Government of India have collaborated on efforts to regulate these non-bank financial companies (NBFCs). NBFCs are subject to the regulatory and supervisory authority of the Department of Nonbanking Supervision of the Reserve Bank of India. It is necessary to acknowledge the contribution that these NBFCs make to the expansion of the economy as well as the satisfaction of the credit requirements of the economy. In addition, it is essential to keep a close eye on the operations of these NBFCs, as some of these NBFCs have been known to steal money from unsuspecting investors. The present research, which is titled "An Economic study of Non-Banking Financial Companies in India," focuses on a variety of subjects, some of which are as follows: defining the term "NBFCs;" NBFC evolution, growth, and development; financial performance and NBFC supervision. This research article's objective is to investigate the growth, change, and analyzing progression of selected Indian Non-banking financial companies.

  15. Dr. Davinder Kour
    ABSTRACT:

    The discipline of translating while recognizing and displaying cultural distinctions is known as cultural translation. This type of translation addresses cultural elements such as languages, gastronomy, and history. The key challenges that cultural translation must address involved transforming a text while demonstrating the cultural distinctions of that text while additionally honouring the originating culture. Translation's involvement in cultural interchange includes the preservation and revival of endangered or minority languages. Translators work to preserve the life of lesser-known languages and cultures by translating books, songs, or stories into more generally spoken languages. India is a culturally very rich country, and it has a very diverse history. The researcher explored the trend of cultural translation in India in a chronological manner .

  16. Imen OUERTANI and Aymen MAMLOUK
    ABSTRACT:

    Enzootic bovine leukemia is a disease of cattle in which the epidemiological cause of the disease is bovine leukosis virus (BLV). Cattle with LSA al most invariably die either suddenly or weeks or months after the onset of clinical signs. The BLV infection has been associated with direct production losses (milk loss, premature voluntary culling and reduced slaughter value, mortality loss and abortion, reproductive loss) and treatment costs (veterinary services, medication cost and extra farm labour cost), with reduced export competitiveness and increased consumer concerns regarding safety. In Tunisia, cattle breeding represents an important component in agricultural production, in the national economy, in the social field and in human health. It has been classified among the priority sectors because it generates two strategic products (milk and meat). This work consists of a descriptive sero-epidemiological survey to estimate the rate of leucosic infection of herds and animals belonging to seven farms in the organized sector of three Tunisian governorates: Jandouba, Kasserine and Sidi Bouzid located in the north and central west.A total random sample of 393 dairy cows over five years of age was surveyed on the seven farms. The ELISA test is the test used in our epidemiological investigation; it made it possible to obtain the following results; animal’s infection rate level is 21.37±1.44%. The results found in this survey, show that leucosal infection is gaining ground compared to those found in previous surveys, hence the need to apply adequate hygienic measures and to establish an action plan in order to reduce an important risk of amplification.

  17. Amgoth Veeranna
    ABSTRACT:

    Measuring organizational performance has become a major preoccupation of many organizations in the modern times. Traditional indicators of performance largely focus on profitability and return on investment. However, with the help of Balanced Scorecard model, organizations both profit and not-for-profit, are adopting performance measurement techniques that go beyond financial performance to cover non-financial indicators of performance. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of strategy implementation on the performance of Catholic parishes in Kenya. This study was anchored on Resource Based View theory and the Balanced Scorecard model. The research employed descriptive survey design. Target population was 90 members of parish pastoral councils of 9 parishes found to be applying strategic management practices at the time of this study. In analyzing and interpreting the quantitative data, descriptive and inferential statistics techniques were employed. Study findings revealed a positive correlation between strategy implementation and performance of parishes. The study recommends strengthening of parish organizational structure to enhance effective execution of parish strategy.

  18. Imen OUERTANI, Aymen MAMLOUK, Hanen NCIBI and Hichem BOUZGHAIA
    ABSTRACT:

    Bovine tuberculosis TB is a major concern in Tunisia and the Maghreb region, impacting both animal and human health. Despite a national program since 1984, knowledge gaps remain. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of bTB in cattle herds using the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). TST testing revealed a 57% individual prevalence, significantly higher than the 11.72% positivity rate obtained with IGRA. This discrepancy highlights limitations in TST specificity. Our findings suggest the need for wider IGRA adoption alongside TST for a more accurate understanding of bovine TB distribution in Tunisia. Further research is crucial to validate these results, investigate transmission dynamics, and evaluate the economic impact of different diagnostic strategies.

  19. Vivek Kumar
    ABSTRACT:

    The article analyzes the complex interrelationships among the Birjia community between indigenous practices, cognitive frameworks, and sustainable habitat development. Over millennia, the indigenous Birjia people—who mostly inhabit the forested areas of Jharkhand's South Chotanagpur division and Palamu division—have created distinctive customs that are intricately entwined with their surroundings. This state is home to eight different kinds of PVTGs, or particularly vulnerable tribal groups. Birjia is from one of those groups. Based on thousands of years of observation and involvement with their environment, the Birjia people demonstrate a deep grasp of their natural surroundings. The indigenous ecological knowledge passed down orally, through ceremonies, and community behaviors are included in their cognitive frames. These knowledge systems emphasize reciprocity and harmony with nature, which helps with resource management and cultivates a spiritual bond with the land. Reciprocity, the idea that human acts have reciprocal effects on the environment, is fundamental to Birjia's sustainable habitat practices. The Birjia people's methods for using resources are shaped by their knowledge perspective, which encourages resilience and conservation in their ecosystem. This philosophy of sustainability is reflected in traditional land management practices, which guarantee resource regeneration while reducing ecological damage. Moreover, Birjia cognition encompasses social organization and cultural identity in addition to practical resource management. The interdependence of Birjia society and their environment is emphasized by communal decision-making procedures and community land ownership, which promote sustainable behaviors through shared stewardship and accountability. Understanding and appreciating Birjia knowledge systems is essential for advancing sustainable habitat development in light of current issues including deforestation, climate change, and encroachment on indigenous territory. This article highlights the importance of indigenous viewpoints in influencing environmental issues and conservation efforts, arguing that the acknowledgment and protection of Birjia's cultural legacy should be a fundamental component of initiatives for sustainable development.

  20. David Ngigi Kariuki, Dr. Daniel M. kitonga and Prof. Robert Arasa
    ABSTRACT:

    Measuring organizational performance has become a major preoccupation of many organizations in the modern times. Traditional indicators of performance largely focus on profitability and return on investment. However, with the help of Balanced Scorecard model, organizations both profit and not-for-profit, are adopting performance measurement techniques that go beyond financial performance to cover non-financial indicators of performance. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of strategy implementation on the performance of Catholic parishes in Kenya. This study was anchored on Resource Based View theory and the Balanced Scorecard model. The research employed descriptive survey design. Target population was 90 members of parish pastoral councils of 9 parishes found to be applying strategic management practices at the time of this study. In analyzing and interpreting the quantitative data, descriptive and inferential statistics techniques were employed. Study findings revealed a positive correlation between strategy implementation and performance of parishes. The study recommends strengthening of parish organizational structure to enhance effective execution of parish strategy.

  21. Feng Zunwu
    ABSTRACT:

    This research employs a mixed-methods approach to examine the interplay of innovation, strategic alliances, and sustainability as fundamental drivers of Chinese entrepreneurial success. Through qualitative analysis of interviews and case studies and quantitative analysis of statistical data, this study sheds light on the nuanced dynamics of these strategies and their impact on business growth and sustainable practices. The findings highlight the pivotal role of continuous innovation in differentiating Chinese businesses in the market, the significance of strategic alliances in expanding their reach and accessing new technologies, and the integration of sustainability across their operational framework. The quantitative analysis further reveals measurable insights into the positive influence of investing in innovation, forming strategic alliances, and integrating sustainable practices on the growth and competitiveness of Chinese businesses.

  22. Dr. Bharati Y Khasnis
    ABSTRACT:

    Teachers can play a significant role in making our environment pollution free by changing the attitude of students and society towards the environment. The Student teachers are the prospective teachers of the nation. So it is the time for the great concern for protection and preservation of natural resources which can only be possible if we have a right type of attitude towards proper awareness in the related matters. Teachers can bring awareness and attitude which can be possible through environmental education. The goal of environmental education in schools and colleges is to acquaint and sensitize the students towards environmental problems and concerns, to inculcate in them healthy personal and social attitude and behaviour towards environment. Hence, it is necessary to know how far the Student Teachers are aware about environment and environmental problems. A pilot study was carried out selecting 120 pupil teachers studying in teacher education colleges located at Vijayapur district .“Environmental pollution Attitude Scale” developed by Dr. M. Rajamanickam and “Environmental awareness ability measures (EAAM)” developed by Praveen Jha were used for the collection of data. The findings show that the female Student teachers were found to be more positive in their attitude towards environmental awareness than the Male pupil teachers.

  23. Dr. Zara Suharwardy, Dr. Anju Bala, Dr. Rajnish K Jain, Dr. Ambica Khetarpal, Dr. Sandeep Kumar and Dr. Umar Hussain Shah
    ABSTRACT:

    Objective: The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of dental caries, encompassing its etiology, risk factors, diagnostic methods, and management strategies. Through Critical analysis of existing literature and emerging research trends, this review aims to elucidate gaps in knowledge, and propose evidence-based recommendations for improving prevention, diagnosis and treatment approaches to mitigate the burden of dental caries on global oral health. Materials and method: Database system PubMed, Google Scholar, land research gate were used to extract the articles. Only English language studies were accessed. A Boolean search of the PubMed data set was implemented to combine a range of keywords. The following filters were applied: abstract, free full text, full text, clinical trial, randomized control trial, systemic review, meta-analysis and review. More studies were also obtained by manual searches and textbooks on dental caries. Results: By using this process, 683 articles and studies were obtained. The most relevant studies were chosen and used in the current review. The selected articles are included in the reference list. Conclusions: Dental caries management requires a multifaceted approach that integrates preventive, therapeutic strategies. While significant advancement has been made, challenges such as early detection and addressing disparities in access to care remain. By continuing to innovate and prioritize patient centered interventions, we can work towards achieving optimal oral health outcomes and reducing burden of dental caries worldwide.

  24. Tian Wang
    ABSTRACT:

    This paper takes the current situation of teaching leadership and educational resources allocation in Qingdao University (QU) and investigates the current situation of teaching leadership and educational resources allocation in the institution through survey questionnaires.In addition, it investigates the current situation of leadership and educational resources allocation in education in QU and analyzes the ability of leadership to effectively mobilize and allocate educational resources in QU. The study uncovered substantial and highly positive correlations between instructional leadership and efficient resource management among administrators. The interconnection between personal attributes, teaching philosophy, skills, and resources emphasizes the importance of a holistic approach to leadership development in educational institutions. These insights stress the need for cultivating not only specific skills but also personal qualities and a coherent teaching philosophy to facilitate effective resource management and the attainment of educational objectives.

  25. Sabornido, Elna B., Ardina, Genaro T., Baguio, Apple Joy P., Empedrado, Ian Rey A., Garma, Vernel A., Lumbab, Sarah Jean C., Red, Pretzel Ann G. and Ybañez, Cristiandion
    ABSTRACT:

    Philippines, one of the requirements that guarantee high-quality instruction is the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). LET aims to differentiate individuals who possess the abilities and competencies required for entry into the teaching profession from those who do not. The performance of Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) graduates and their trend over an 11-year period in the LET was assessed in this study. Regression analysis and a descriptive-quantitative research design was used in this quantitative longitudinal investigation. The study's findings demonstrate that from 2011 to 2023, BSED graduates outperformed the national average in the LET for first-time takers, showcasing the strength of their initial teacher education. However, re-takers struggled, falling below the national average, indicating a gap in support post-failure. There is a need for enhanced support for re-takers, despite strong initial academic preparation among BSED graduates.Hence, it is recommended to establishre-taker support through targeted programs and policy reforms, while research should explore underlying causes of their lower success to refine assistance strategies.

  26. Elna B. Sabornido, Genaro T. Ardina, Ian Rey A. Empedrado and Apple Joy P. Baguio
    ABSTRACT:

    The integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in education is rapidly advancing, offering personalized learning experiences and enhancing teacher effectiveness. However, there is a critical need to assess future teachers' readiness for AI-driven classrooms. This study aimed to determine the Future Teachers’ Readiness in an AI-Driven Classroom (ADC). Using a descriptive-correlational research design, and purposive sampling, data were collected from Teacher Education students. The researchers utilized an adapted research instrument based on the Meta AI Literacy Scale. The analysis involved utilizing descriptive statistics such as the mean and standard deviation, along with inferential statistics such as the Spearman rho-rank order correlation. Results indicated that future teachers demonstrated a strong grasp of AI ethics but showed lower readiness in using and applying AI tools and AI problem-solving. A moderate positive correlation was found between AI literacy and AI self-management. In conclusion, the study revealed that while future teachers displayed a solid understanding of AI ethics, there was a need for further development in utilizing AI tools and problem-solving skills. Recommendations included tailored training programs focusing on practical AI applications, problem-solving strategies, and building AI self-management skills to bridge identified gaps. By addressing these areas, teacher training programs could better prepare future educators to effectively leverage AI tools, ensuring a smooth transition to AI-Driven Classrooms (ADC) and enhancing the overall learning experience for students and teachers alike.

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