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October 2012

The antioxidant properties of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was tested using standard in vivo and in vitro models. Euphorbia hirta Linn (Euphorbiaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicines for the treatment of various ailments. In anti-lipid peroxidation assay, extract showed a decrease in the absorbance which was comparable with the standard ascorbic acid. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, there was a decrease in the absorbance with increase in concentration, which indicate the antioxidant activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn.

Background: In the process of development of any nation or state, urbanization is an important aspect. The concept of urbanization is the transformation process of the rural agricultural population who moved to lived cities and towns and became an urban non-agricultural population.

This paper presents a new approach to minimize congestion in data networks. The routing algorithm guarantees a loss-free delivery of data packets from congested sources, and a deterministic bound on the route length in arbitrary topology networks. This work shows that routing decisions using Local Greedy method are not optimal, and the performance of the algorithm can be improved substantially by using new look-ahead measures.

A green, simple, practical and efficient copper-catalyzed method forsynthesis of aromatic carboxylic acids has been developed. The protocol uses inexpensive CuCl2/DMSO as the catalyst/solvent and readily available acetophenone derivative as thestarting materials, and the corresponding aromatic carboxylicacids were obtained in moderate to good yields. The method is oftolerance towards functional groups in the substrates.

Glutamate (Glu) dehydrogenase (GDH), enzyme preferentially occurs in the mitochondria of companion cells of a number of plant species grown on nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. For a better understanding of the controversial role of GDH either in ammonium assimilation or in the supply of cadmium, we studied the localization of GDH in tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon 63/5F1) plants grown either on absence of cadmium (AC) or on presence of cadmium (PC). Production of GDH and its activity were strongly induced when plants were grown on presence of cadmium.

Micronutrient deficiencies have been widely noticed in rice, wheat and other crops which causes low yield and increases malnutrition. Zinc deficiency remained a major problem all over country. Zinc deficiency can be overcome by addition of Zn fertilizer. But alternative strategy is use of efficient plant genotype that can more effectively grow on soil with low available zinc. With this background, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate stress indices for identification of rice genotypes with higher yield in zinc stress soil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary dosages of Lyngbya hieronymusii on the immune response and disease resistance against infections due to the opportunistic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophilia, in fish fingerlings of Platycephalus gibbosus. A cyanobacterium, L. hieronymusii was incorporated into the diets of P. gibbosus fingerlings and different biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters were evaluated. Superoxide anion production, lysozyme, serum bactericidal, serum protein and albumin were improved in cyanobacteria treated groups compared with the control group.

The hydrochemistry of groundwater of an estuarine aquifer was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural uses. The potability of ground water was estimated by considering the individual and/or paired ionic concentration, certain indices like alkali hazards (in terms of Sodium Adsorbed Ratio), % Na, Residual Sodium Carbonate, Permeability Index and hardness etc. Scientific interpretation of analytical data was done using hydrochemical computer program, WATCLAST, to classify ground water into different categories.

The iterative algorithmic approach for binary multiplication based on ancient Nikhilam Sutra is described. Nikhilam sutra, one of the Multiplication Sutra of Vedic mathematics is efficient in multiplying large decimal numbers as it reduces multiplication of two large decimal numbers to two smaller numbers. The proposed iterative algorithm is taken from Nikhilam Sutra and is further optimized by use of dropping least significant zeros of the binary numbers and performing bit shifting to take the advantage of bit reduction in multiplication.

Though known to the world as a champion of radical ideas, Annie Besant has today fallen out of favour of critics worldwide. Critics have claimed to find a chasm between her private and public selves which they have interpreted as an inconsistency, almost amounting to a case of double lives. However, much of the readings that have focused on the “inconsistency” of views of Annie Besant have failed to take into account the context in which the shifts in her career took place.

In graph theory, a connected component of an undirected graph is a sub graph in which any two vertices are connected to each other by paths. For a graph G, if the sub graph of G itself is a connected component then the graph is called connected, else the graph G is called disconnected and each connected component sub graph is called it’s components. Circular-arc graphs have variety of applications involving traffic light sequencing, genetics etc. A dominating set D of graph G = (V,E) is a non-split dominating set if the induced sub graph < V-D > is connected.

Chemometric statistical techniques were applied for the evaluation and interpretation of a large complex water quality data set of Vaigai river in South India, monitoring 20 parameters at four different sites in quarterly basis. Principal component analysis resulted in three principal components (PC) explaining 99.9% of the total variance in water quality. The factors indicate that the possible variances in water quality may be due to either sources of anthropogenic origin or due to different biochemical processes that are taking place in system.

Wetlands are an incredibly important resource for wildlife, the public and to all of us as a social being. These productive and diverse ecosystems can be used to learn about many different topics including the water cycle, food chains, food webs, the importance of habitat, human impacts and how to get involved in conservation activities. It is widely accepted that wetland have a significant influence on hydrological cycle. Wetland has therefore become important elements in water management policy at national, regional and international level.

The effective selection and recommendation techniques are needed for increasing presence and adaption of web services in the real world. The collaborative filtering method collects the similar data from other web services and it predicts the current user value. The main assumption of CF is that the users and items have similar behaviors, they will rate or act on other items similarly. Collaborative filtering approach have many challenges, CF algorithms are required highly sparse data.

Tourism involving travel to areas of natural or ecological interest typically under the guidance of a naturalist for the purpose of observing wildlife and learning about the environment and at the same time focus on wildlife and promotion of understanding and conservation of the environment is called wildlife tourism. The Kanha National Park was included amongst fine nine conservation schemes in the world.

The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices among peoples of Tripura, India. A total of 2400 peoples (Rural – 70% & Urban – 30%) from 24 location covering of Tripura were interviewed in their own languages in order to understand their knowledge, attitudes and practices toward disability. A questionnaire was used for the study. Implications for practice are presented.

Land resource provides basic human needs. Soil is the most important component of land resource. Physio-chemical properties of soil are analysed to determine the land quality. Puruliya is the western most district of West Bengal falling plateau fringe area. The main objective of the study is to determine the quality of land on the basis of soil parameters for sustainable land uses. Soil samples are collected in each block of the districts and analysed in laboratory.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an “Iceberg disease”. Worldwide there are about 150 million estimated cases of diabetes and is predicted to double by 2025. The rising prevalence of DM in developing countries is closely associated with industrialization and socio-economic development. Prevalence rates of diabetes are increasing rapidly in both urban and rural India. Hence this study has been undertaken to find at risk individuals before onset of the disease in our service area.

23- central composite design(CCD) optimization and kinetics of coal washery effluent (CWE) coag-flocculation by Afzelia bella seed has been studied at room temperature via standard bench scale jar test. Afzelia bella coag-flocculant (ABC) was produced according to work reported by Ghebremichael. The combined effects of pH, dosage and settling time on the particle removal was studied using surface response methodology. Kinetic data generated were fitted with specified kinetic models for the evaluation of functional coag-flocculation kinetic parameters.

The present study was conducted to find out the health related physical fitness differences among boys of kandi area. In the present study, the subjects for data collection were drawn from the different government schools of kandi areas of Punjab state. Random sampling technique was used to select the subjects. The sample consisted of one thousand and five hundred seventy five (N=1575) boys of Kandi areas of Punjab state. To measure maximal functional capacity and endurance of the cardio-respiratory system of the subjects, the 9-Minute run test was applied.

The interaction between play as a unique phenomenon and culture is one of the controversial issues in Interdisciplinary Sciences. Two broad perspectives, biological and cultural views, have discussed play as an inherent universal aspect of human being or as a socially situated cultural activity. In addition to biological notion, the cultural aspects of play are strong enough to deduce that play is a social and cultural ‘pathway’ for socialization.

The development of in vitro propagation of plants holds tremendous potential for genetic manipulation of crops and other applications. In the present study, attempts have been made to develop a simple, reliable and reproducible protocol for micropropagation from different explants of Brassica oleraceae L var botrytis. Callusing at a frequency of 100% was observed when hypocotyls segments derived from 6-days-old seedlings of cauliflower were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1mg/L) and Kinetin (1mg/L).

The phytochemical and antibacterial activity of different organic solvent extracts (methanol, Ethyl acetate and N-butanol), of the wild mushroom- Ganoderma lucidum was evaluated at different concentrations 200mgml-1, 150mgml-1, 100mgml-1, 50mgml-1 and 25mgml-1. The antibacterial activities of the extract were investigated using the disc diffusion method. All the test microbes showed resistance against methanolic and N-butanolic fractions.

Imidacloprid (I - [(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine), is a chloronicotinyl insecticide used to control biting and sucking insects. Enrichment cultures from soil samples were made to isolate imidacloprid degrading bacteria. Soil isolates were tested for their ability to degrade imidacloprid in minimal salt medium (MSM) and tryptic soya broth (TSB). Further plasmid was isolated and curing was performed with acryflavin to establish the role of plasmid in degradation. Two soil-free stable enrichment cultures imi-01 and imi-05 were obtained.

Glutamate (Glu) metabolism and amino acid translocation were investigated in the control and cadmium stressed leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) using 15N-ammonium and 15N-Glu tracers. Regardless of organ type, 15N-ammonium assimilation occurred via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.1.1.3), both in the control and stressed plants, and it did not depend on Glu dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2). The 15N-ammonium and ammonium accumulation patterns support the role of GDH in the deamination of 15N-Glu to provide 2-oxoglutarate and 15N-ammonium.

The culture filtrate of Aspergillus clavatus isolated from mangrove environment grown in corn meal broth was extracted and antimicrobial potential was tested. And filtrates were extracted with four different solvents, such as ethanol, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Their antimicrobial potential was tested against eight pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated by agar well diffusion method.

The landscapes on the earth are more or less sculptured with the foot points of human civilization. The anthropogenic activities changed the natural landscape significantly with the passage of time. Presence of human being on earth and his use of land had profound effect on the natural environment and vice versa; which results into an observable change in the land use and land cover over time. Information of land use land cover in the form of maps and data is very important for spatial planning, management and utilization of land.

Laccase is the chief ligninolytic enzyme produced by the white-rot mushroom fungi and it has several biotechnological applications including removal of toxic organo pollutants, dye degradation and in melanin synthesis. There is a growing need for isolation and identification of new laccase producing organisms to be used in industries.

Wardha Valley Coalfield is known to be the oldest coalfield in Maharashtra state and is ideally situated in the centre of India. The properties of coal fly ash are strongly dependent on the geological origin and the combustion process of the coal. It is important to characterize fly ash in detail to ascertain its potential uses as raw material in the production of high value products. A study conducted for the characterization of Wardha valley coal ash sample using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX).

Mature seeds of apple (Mallus pumila) Mill. (Cv. Golden delicious) are dormant and do not germinate unless their dormancy is removed by several weeks of moist-cold treatment. We investigated the effect of short-term growth regulator (NAA, BAP, Kinetin and 2,4-D) pre-treatment on breaking of apple embryonic dormancy.

The efficacy of three fungal and one bacterial bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzanium, Trichoderma viride, Gliocladium verns and pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated in vitro conditions against pea root rot pathogen. Among the bio-agents, Trichoderma harzanium proved superior over other bio-control agents by exhibiting a maximum of 17.28 radial mycelial growths as against 89.00 recorded in check. Trichoderma harzanium maximum mycelial growth inhibition of 76.33 and minimum of 66.33 per cent by pseudomonas fluorescens.

The present study emphasizes on the decolorization of reactive dyes by the bacteria isolated from paper industry waste water. The isolate VBH1 was selected based on its maximum decolorization of 150mg/l of Reactive red 31and Reactive yellow 81. Based on phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain VBH1 belongs to the genus Streptococcus. The optimal conditions for the decolorization of dyes by the isolate VBH1 for 150 mg/l of dyes remained shaker with glucose as carbon supplement and tryptone as nitrogen supplement at pH 8.0 and temperature 35ºC.

Observed Ozone Concentrations are valuable indicators of possible health and environmental impacts. They are also used to monitor changes and trends in the source of Ozone and its precursors. The influence of meteorological variables is a confounding factor. The paper examines Ozone concentration and meteorology in Chennai at Koyambedu which is a major big Bus terminus. We were the first researchers measuring Ozone and meteorological parameters in this site. We have made an effort to understand seasonal variation of Surface Ozone and meteorological parameters.

The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation along with high fraction of organic, recyclable and other types of wastes is the current scenario in religious places and many tourist resorts of Kashmir valley in India. As a response to this problem, we carried out a study on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and present scenario of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) during Yatra season (July-August 2011) in Pahalgam. The purpose of study was to evaluate the quantity, composition of MSW generated by Yatries, to recommend appropriate management practices.

Totally 34 different kinds of marine Actinomycetes isolates were obtained from marine soil. Among them five predominant Actinomycetes cultures were used for plastic degradation such as Streptomyces sp (2), Pseudonocardia sp, Actinoplanes sp, Sporichthya sp. Ten - days heat treated plastic films were inoculated in to the yeast extract broth with Actinomycetes cultures were incubated with shaking condition for different time interval at 37oC. After completion of incubation time the plastic film weight was measured and find out the degradation capacity.

The degree of hazard due to landslide in any region is difficult to assess manually. Landslides are considered as one of the most destructive geological processes causing not only the enormous damage to roads, bridges, houses but even cause loss of life. Though, landslide hazards cannot be completely prevented but their intensity and severity can be minimized by taking effective mitigation measures and by planning for disaster preparedness. For this purpose, landslide hazard zonation maps are prepared.

Most work done to advance sustainable production and marketing of woodcarvings in Kenya is unsystematic and scattered. Therefore, the review was aimed at synthesizing information on production and marketing of the woodcarvings. The woodcarvings industry has a rich history in the country. However, the production and processing of woodcarvings has not fully embraced newer technologies and innovations. The production technologies applied are ineffective and inefficient.

The study has been conducted to determine the effect of the androgen hormone, 17α-Methyltesterone (MT) on survival rate, growth rate and the sex ratio of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius,1978) Postlarvae (PL). Five different doses of MT 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 mg/kg feed were incorporated in the commercial diet of P. monodon PL for 50 days from PL3 till PL53 and a control without MT. The highest survival rate 68.0% ± 4.6 of shrimp PL was archived in control treatment compared to the MT treatment doses.

Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely using in the field of medicine. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. Fresh leaves of Cassia italica was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The present study revealed that the phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the leaf extract of C.

The Trichoderma sp. and Aspergillus nidulans were isolated from soil sample of local landfill in Shivamogga district for check the efficiency of polyethylene degradation. Degradation was monitored by observing weight loss and changes in physical structure by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Organisms were grown on polyethylene without any treatment and polyethylene, which was UV irradiated and incubated with nitric acid at 80oC for 06 days before cultivation. Organisms were able to degrade treated polyethylene more efficiently than untreated polyethylene.

Industrialization poses a great threat to human kind by the way of generating deleterious products followed through rapid urbanization and population growth activities. Different methods of waste management emit a large number of substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Land filling was the one of the method used for the discarding of industrial waste in Chennai, and the majority of the landfill sites are open dumping areas, which causes severe environmental and social threats. As a result, the hazardous waste generation has tremendously increased.

The egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma have been used successfully as inundative biological control agents against a range of agricultural pests mainly lepidopterans and are the most widely used natural enemies in biological control worldwide. Parasitoids depend on a series of adaptations to the ecology and physiology of their hosts and host plants for survival and are thus likely highly susceptible to changes in environmental conditions. Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors influencing physiology and behavior of insects including parasitoids.

Justica wynaadensis (Nees) T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is a small branched shrub and finds potential to be used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Micropropagation was attempted with nodal explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with growth regulators. Maximum shoots were produced in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA, with an average of 24.92±0.30 shoots/explant. Rooting was induced in the shoot initiation media itself and did not require a separate rooting media.

Present study deals with Ethno botanical investigations among rural population in Marathwada. Marathwada region comprising seven districts, Aurangabad, Beed, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad and Parbhani form a part of Vast Deccan Plateau of India, located 7005 – 780 E longitude and 1705 - 2005 N longitude An ethno botanical investigations has been carried out to record the indigenous knowledge of the ethnic communities of Marathwada. Marathwada have good association with plant resources.

Marine cyanobacteria were isolated from water samples of the three mangrove site in Kurusadai island, south east coast of India. Totally 12 species of cyanobacteria were recorded in which one species was heterocystous and 11 were non- heterocystous, belonging to 5 families. The species such as Oscillatoria tenuis, Oscillatoria cortiana, Oscillatoria salina and Lyngbya majuscula were identified. Among the sites, mangrove isolates of oscillatoriaceae alone contributed maximum number of cyanobacterial species (5) and minimum (1) by Nostocaceae and Synechococcaceae.

Capital Markets across the world are flourishing and lot of investment is being done to improve the market infrastructure. Clearing and Settlement is the post trading process which is now undergoing a lot of changes to reduce the transaction cost both in domestic and cross border settlements. The regulatory institutions for securities in each country/region are coming up with different standards to harmonize and standardize the clearing and settlement space. Harmonization results in reduction in cost and interoperability.

The study was intended to find out the social intelligence of college students in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Nagapattinam, Thanjore, vellore and Thiruvannamalai Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Random Sampling Technique was used to compose a sample of 1050 college students Mean, Standard Deviation and t value were calculated for the analysis of data. The result revealed that the locality, type of family and type of colleges had no significant difference but, gender and type of institution exhibited significant difference in respect of their social intelligence of college students.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of teachers in the formulation and implementation of school-based innovations in Secondary Schools. This paper examines the various roles of teachers in the formulation of school based education innovations. The paper also investigates the various innovation implementation strategies employed by schools. The variouschallenges that school management go through in trying to formulate and implement innovations in their schools have also been highlighted. The study was conducted in Nandi North District.

Most of the leading manufacturing sectors are facing the problem of devoting more time for inspection and controlling the dimensional specifications of a product manufactured by them. This is due to the unavailability of controlling methods because most of the industries do not provide the control plan to the operator. In order to overcome this drawback, the operator at the work centre must be provided with both Work Instructions as well as Control Plan. This paper presents a method which combines both Work Instructions and Control Plan.

The annual frequency of tropical cyclonic disturbances (≤ 63 knots) and the annual frequency of cyclonic and severe cyclonic storms (34 to 63 knots) over the north Indian Ocean (comprising Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) is analyzed using the Fractal Construction Technique. Recognizing and quantifying chaos in time series represents an important step towards understanding not only the natural behavior of the system but also for the improvement of short term forecasts.

Chitosan is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is the structural element in the exoskeleton of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimp & cell walls of fungi. The degree of deacetylation (%DD) can be determined by NMR spectroscopy, and the %DD in commercial chitosans ranges from 60 to 100%. A common method for the synthesis of chitosan is the deacetylation of chitin using sodium hydroxide in excess as a reagent and water as a solvent. This reaction pathway, when allowed to go to completion yields up to 98% product.

In the current study the Glucoamylase production was carried out by Aspergillus niger on the solid state fermentation of Agricultural residues. The Agricultural residues, subjected as the substrate for glucoamylase production are Ricebran, Cotton seed flour, Coconut oil cake, Wheat bran, Groundnut oil cake, each in a separate conical flask. Aspergillus niger was incubated in those different agro residues for 5 days at 37ºC for finding the suitable substrate favouring the better enzyme expression with optimum characteristics features.

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