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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

July 2013

Intellectual property, very broadly, means the legal rights which result from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary and artistic fields. It is simply the property created by the application of human mind. It is non-physical (incorporeal) and it derives its value from ideas. This Research study aims to highlight the diverse areas of intellectual property protection and to explore the consumer awareness level regarding divergent factors related to IPR.

Several studies show a high prevalence of somatoform disorders in general population. Patients with somatoform disorders have severe functional impairments and poor QOL resulting in higher health care utilization and significant suffering from illness related symptoms. A cross sectional study was undertaken on a purposive consecutive sample of 100 subjects with diagnosis of somatoform disorder to assess the Quality of Life and health care utilization. Tools used were WHO Quality of Life Bref tool and a structured data sheet.

The study was to examine the solubilization behaviour of halofantrine in electrolytes and co-solvent systems in order to select additive(s) for development of the drug into matrix and structured delivery devices.

Basal ganglia are group of subcortical nuclei which are components of modular circuits involving cerebral cortex, thalamus and brain stem related with cortical functions. Basal ganglia includes four to five distinct loop which is responsible for parallel processing of information and grouped into two distinct direct and indirect pathways. Thus, this dual system provides a motor centre exhibiting both excitatory and inhibitory effect. These circuits are involved in movement disorders categorized as Hyperkinetic and Hypokinetic movement disorder.

Much has been studied about the involvement of domestic or companion animals which are around us, for their role in transmission of diseases. But, little is known about the involvement of wild animals in broadcasting of some zoonotic diseases which affect human to maximum level. It has increased the need to study many of such diseases as their spread is often difficult to prevent.

Untreatable bacterial infections become treatable due to the discovery of antibiotics in the previous century but their inappropriate and irrational uses ultimately led to emergence of resistant microbial population. Genes responsible for conferring resistance are transferred horizontally via conjugation; transduction or transformation. Tetracyclines and beta lactams represent 50% each of the total antibiotics used in feeds and global antibiotic consumption respectively.

Background: Human caliciviruses (HuCV) are emerging enteric pathogens that are a common cause of diarrhea in humans worldwide. The prevalence of HuCV responsible for acute gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old was determined using Reverse transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Rt-PCR) on purified viral nucleic acid from fecal samples. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect Calicivirus in stool samples by Rt-PCR in 5 different centers in Iran.

During routine cadaver dissection of dorsal aspect of hand of 54 and 60 years of male, multiple tendons of Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB) were found on right and left side respectively. On the other side EPB maintained the normal anatomy. Variations in muscles of thumb have always attracted hand surgeons as they can be used for tendon transfer. Surgery and physiotherapy point of view multiple tendons of EPB are important. The clinical significance and embryological basis of multiple tendons of EPB is discussed.

Multiple diagnostic tests standardized in the laboratory are central to diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), cause of Johne’s disease (JD) in domestic livestock, Information on bio-burden of MAP infection at animal, species, region, state and National levels is limited in India. In absence of National prevalence estimates (bio-burden), the disease has not received due attention and priority for the control. Present study estimated bio-burden of MAP in domestic livestock from different agro-climatic regions of country.

Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes may influence response to oxidative stress and modify prostate cancer (PCA) susceptibility. These enzymes generallydetoxify endogenous and exogenous agents, but also participate in the activation and inactivation of oxidative metabolites that may contribute to PCA development. Several studies show some differences in association of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of prostate cancer in various populations.

Banking sector of India is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring relative efficiency among the banks is essential. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from performance highlights of twenty six different banks in India published by Indian banks association. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types – constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale with Input and Output oriented. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is considered here.

In this paper, a new method is proposed to find the optimum solution of fuzzy networking problem. The fuzzy networking problem has been transformed into crisp network problem and it is solved by using forward and backward calculation. In this problem, denotes the duration from activity i to activity j. The distance is taken as trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, which are ranked by using ranking method. The proposed method is easy to understand and to apply for finding the fuzzy critical path of fuzzy networking problem.

Pollution of water bodies is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists and requires continuous assessment. This necessitated the evaluation of the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of water from the primary sources of supply in different locations of Ota using standard methods.

This paper evaluates the shear strength of masonry wall panels reinforced with FRP composite systems under out-of-plane loading conditions. An analytical model and experimental study were developed to predict the out-of-plane shear strength of the FRP reinforced masonry walls. The experimental study was performed on eighteen 1000×600×200 mm walls reinforced with FRP on one side while the model is based on the theories of elasticity and fracture mechanics. The presented study accounts for the shear contribution of the masonry units and the fiber overlays.

This research work is a statistical analysis of the HIV/AIDS carrier between the periods 2001 – 2011 in Osun state, Nigeria. The data used was extracted from the Osun State Action Committee on AIDS (SACA) records. Time series analysis was employed to analyze, measure, compute variation and fluctuation in the number of HIV/AIDS carriers in Osun state. Trends were obtained from least square method and the Autoregressive model. The criteria of selection of models used were Akaike information Criteria (AIC) and Schwartz Information Criteria (SIC) of which AIC AR(5) was chosen.

In this paper, we present many new fourth -order optimal families of Ostrowski's method for computing zeros of system of nonlinear equations numerically. In this paper, we extending the idea of the proposed families of Ostrowski's method to system of nonlinear equations .It is proved that the above said families have fourth order of convergence. Several numerical examples are also given to illustrate the efficiency and the performance of the presented families.

An isolated marine bacterium Pseudomonas stanieri was studied for its biodecolorization potential using Malachite Green (MG) as a model dye pollutant. Various carbon sources (Sucrose and Starch) and nitrogen source (peptone) were optimized for bacterial growth and decolorization of dye. Maximum rate of MG decolorization (50 ppm) was observed within 60 h by the isolated bacterium in the culture medium by plate assay method. The decolorization was confirmed by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The initial dye solution showed high peak at the wavelength of 619 nm.

Nickel nanoparticles around 12nm were prepared by chemical reduction of Nickel Chloride dissolved in Ethylene glycol, in which hydrazine act as a reducing agent and NaOH as stabilizer. The powder XRD study confirms that the average size of the particle is 12nm.The Ni particles show the characteristic of super paramagnet with saturation magnetization (Ms) and the remanent magnetization (Mr) at 5K is 2.55 emu/g and 1.11 emu/g, respectively.

A series of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants, Cn E14 (n = 12,14 and 18), surfactants were prepared by reacting polyethylene glycol ( molecular weight 600) and different fatty acids: Lauric acid, Myristic acid and Oleic acid. The chemical structures of these prepared surfactants were confirmed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Analysis. The surface tension of the synthesized surfactants was measured at ambient temperature and the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) values were obtained.

Background: The hospital nurse workforce is experiencing greater workloads resulting in shorter hospital stays, rising average patient acuity, fewer support resources, and a national nurse shortage. Higher nurse workloads are associated with burnout and job dissatisfaction. Patients have the right to expect quality of care. Patient satisfaction with nursing care is considered an important factor in explaining patients' perceptions of service quality.

Cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death worldwide, especially in the economically developed countries. Over 12.7 million cancer cases with the death tolls reaching up to 7.6 million were in 2008 throughout globe. The situation is no any different in a country like India where death toll per year reaches upto 5.8 lakhs out of the 8.5 lakhs diagnosed clinical cases.

The purpose of education reforms is to bring about newness in terms of competencies and skills. Many reforms have been introduced in the country's education system with the aim of improving and increasing student achievement. School-based Management was introduced as one of the many strategies employed to improve student performance. This paper addresses how SBM contributes to student achievements. To do so we asked the following questions: Why the sudden obsession about SBM? What is its role in school improvement process?

Employee Engagement is a buzzword and a challenge for the human resource department of almost all the organizations. An engaged employee is a person who is fully involved in, and enthusiastic about his or her work, thus willing to invest his/her talent for the fullfillment of organisations goal. It is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values. In short, it is a positive attitude and a strong emotional bond held by the employees towards the organization and its values which futher develops into organisation citizenship behaviour.

Work injury benefits provide financial support to employees who suffer occupational injuries in the course of employment. Work injury compensation is based on the principle of vicarious liability (liability without fault) which provides that victims of occupational injuries are compensated regardless of who is responsible for the accident or injury.This study specifically sought to establish the influence of the mode of payment on displeasure with compensation for job-related injuries.

Aquaculture is one of the fast growing and intensively spread in coastal regions especially in the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. A large extent of coastal regions and fertile lands which are having rich resource potentials of flora and fauna are converted into fish ponds. This sector provides huge employment directly and indirectly especially in the coastal regions. The un-presidential and indiscriminate growth of aquaculture brings structural changes in the land use patterns especially in the coastal regions.

The present research paper is an attempt to analyse the spatial patterns of rural beggars’ income, variations in the level of their socio-economic status, and the relationship between their per capita income (dependent variable) with selected variables of socio-economic development in Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh. The study is based on primary source of data, collected through the field survey in the Aligarh district carried out during 2009. Altogether, 496 households were selected for the present study from the 70 villages of the district.

This study assessed the influence of strategic factors on students’ choice of Kabarak University. The study considered the following specific objectives; to determine the enrolment trends at Kabarak University, to determine the extent to which financial factors influence the students’ choice of Kabarak University, to determine the extent to which marketing factors influence the students’ choice of Kabarak University.

Euthanasia has long drawn history in the western philosophical tradition. The practice of euthanasia had been regarded as ethically and morally defamable, though eminent philosophers like Socrates and Plato spoke in favour of it. Self-willed death in Indian culture is almost equivalent to euthanasia in western culture. In spirituo-religious practice, self-willed death held a position of high esteem. In Buddhism a monk must be indifferent towards life and death. A monk or follower was explicitly told that he would not commit self-immolation in order to reach nirvana sooner.

In the present shoe shine enterprises scenario, service quality is a vital competitive advantage to maintain customer support and build great base for the enterprise. However, customer loyalty is little known and these categories of enterprise continue to be marginalized. This study examined the influence of service quality on customer loyalty in the shoe shine enterprises in Eldoret town Kenya. The specific objective of this study was to assess the effect of tangible of a service on customer loyalty. The study was based on the SERVQUAL model. The research design was a survey.

This paper investigates how individual dimensions of Arik airline service quality determines airline image and passengers’ loyalty to the airline. To investigate the effects of individual dimensions of airline service quality, data was collected from a total of 600 respondents by the administration of a well structured questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL scale to determine their level of satisfaction on the attributes of airline service quality. Factor analysis was carried out on the data collect and three major service quality dimensions were factored out as variables to be used.

Background: Mechanical low back pain accounts for 80-90 % of the low back pains. Interventions in the management of low back pain shows conflicting results. PNF training is one of the interventions that is less investigated in the management of LBP. Objectives: The main objective is to compare the effectiveness of combination of trunk Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training and conventional strengthening exercises with conventional strengthening exercises alone in the management of mechanical low back pain.

Brucellosis is one of the world’s major zoonoses that still is of veterinarian, public health and economic concern in many parts of the world. Brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis is of much public health and economic importance in many developing countries including India and is considered to be the major cause of abortion in small ruminants. The present study was carried out with the objective of cultural isolation of B.

Brucellosis is a notable disease, most widespread bacterial zoonoses that still of veterinarian, public health and economic concern in many developing countries including India. Early detection and segregation of infected animals are important in order to control the disease. The present study was done with the objective of isolation and identification of B. melitensis from naturally infected sheep in Sharanpur District, UP (India) using bacteriological and the classical serological techniques; RBPT, STAT, Modified-STAT and i-ELISA.

At present about 20 per cent of the world’s irrigated land is salt-affected and 60 per cent of salt-affected soils are sodic. These soils are ameliorated using soluble calcium (Ca2+), which replaces sodium (Na+) at the cation exchange sites of the soil. The displaced Na+ is then leached from the root zone through flushing (excess irrigation) a process that requires adequate flows of water through the soil.

The present study was designed to investigate and compare the sensitivity of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the detection of bovine rotavirus during neonatal calf diarrhea. A total of 112 faecal samples of diarrhoeic calves below three months were collected from organized dairy farms of Namakkal (Tamil Nadu) and Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh), India. Out of these, 27 faecal samples (24.10%) were found positive for rotavirus by ELISA and TEM.

A patent foramen ovale is a connection between the right and left atria that persists after birth. The foramen ovale is found in fetal anatomy normally and closed after birth but can remain open for life resulting in patent foramen ovale. Patent foramen ovale is an embryological remnant of the fetal circulation. Oxygenated placental blood enters the right atrium via the inferior vena cava and crosses the valve of the foramen ovale to enter the systemic arterial system. The inferior vena cava flow preferentially flows toward the inter atrial septum and foramen ovale.

Since the origin of earth temperature has played a significant role in the beginning of life on this planet. Continuous increase in the temperature of the earth is referred to as global warming that may have long term effect. Increased use of fossil fuels; use of natural gas and coal; population explosion; industrial wastes and agricultural fertilizers along with anthropogenic activities contribute to global warming. Increased level of Carbon dioxide (CO2) also has a negative impact on the marine ecosystem.

Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands caused by several pathogens as well as circulating metabolites, injuries etc. and its prevention remains a challenge to the veterinarians. It is the second most economically significant disease standing next to foot and mouth disease (FMD). In mastitis, the standard treatment is antibiotic therapy (parental as well as intra- mammary infusions) apart from fomentation of udder accompanied by drainage of milk but the success rate is only reasonable.

Objective:- Foramen ovale is located in the greater wing of sphenoid bone. It has great clinical significance in percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy for neuralgia. This study presents variations in dimensions and shape of foramen ovale. Methods:- 30 dry human skulls were studied in the department of anatomy, Yenepoya medical college, mangalore. Length and width of foramen ovale was measured. Results:- out of 60 sides, mean length and width of foramen ovale was 7.85±1.32 and 3.95±1.27 on right side and 7.3±1.27 and 4.1±1.28 on left side.

Commiphora holtziana gum resins when solvent extracted followed by a combination of chromatographic separation techniques on hexane extract of the Wajir sample, led to the isolation and characterization of a new compound, 11–hydroxy-γ-muurolene 1. In addition, two known compounds, (1E)-2-methoxy-8,12-epoxygermacra-1(10),7,11-triene-6-one 2 and (1E)-3-methoxy-8,12-epoxygermacra-1,7(8),10(15),11-tetraen-6-one 3 were also characterized. A total of 14 compounds were identified by the comparison of the mass spectra with data available in the GC – MS library.

The main objective of this paper is to use the powerful Geographic information system and remote sensing to generate a geometric network for street in Khartoum center, for the purpose of management of the street network with in transportation system of the city. The data used in this paper was satellite image from Google earth and digital map from Ministry of Infrastructure, Department of Roads and Bridges.

Salinity is one of the major constraints in agriculture which affects the plant growth and productivity. The high concentration of salt in soil causes ion imbalance leading to osmotic stress in plants which further leads to oxidative damage in the plant cell via ROS production. ROS caused damage to the lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Plants have developed certain mechanisms to resist the oxidative damage caused due to salinity.

The use of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) has been gained increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation. Hence the present attempt has been aimed to investigate the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by adsorption on carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles (CMC-Feo) from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. Nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O) using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of CMC as a stabilizer.

Moringa oleifera root extract was screened to encounter the characteristic biochemical and histopathological alterations followed by subchronic exposure to beryllium. Female albino rats were administered beryllium nitrate at doses of 1mg/kg i.p. once a day for 35 consecutive days followed by treatment of different doses of Moringa oleifera (50,100,150 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 7 consecutive days.

The present study includes the enumeration of floristic (Dicotyledons) survey carried out in Chinnakasampatty Range of Eastern Ghats in Dindigul district, was undertaken for a period of 12 months from June 2012 to May 2013. Totally 139 species belonging to 118 genera distributed among 45 families of dicots were collected.Among 139 species recorded, 67 species of 60 genera belonging to 25 families were polypetalae, 45 species of 38 genera belonging to 13 families were gamopetalae and the rest of 27 species of 20 genera belonging to 7 families are under the subclass of monochlomydeae.

Petroleum hydrocarbons are widespread in the environment and they have adverse effect on human beings. They are difficult to remove from environment by natural processes. In order to mitigate this problem, the efficiency of microorganisms has been evaluated for the degradation of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soil samples were collected from three different places viz., Kolli hills, PAHs contaminated soil and garden soil. Bacterial and fungal strains were isolated from the collected soil samples and the physical parameters of soil were analysed.

Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous fungal infection. It is caused by the traumatic inoculation of the skin with pigmented saprophytic moulds. There has been frequent reporting of cases of chromoblastomycosis in recent times. This could be attributed to advances in mycology laboratory diagnostic methods. This has resulted in identification of a large number of species belonging to various genera.

The present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus sp.) on growth performance, enzyme activity and water quality parameters of common carp. The Probiotic was isolated from the intestine of common carp. The feeding trail was conducted for 60 days, to determine the effect of dietary probiotic on the growth and health status of fish. The fish with a similar body weight (24±1 gm) were distributed randomly into five treatment groups, which fed a feed containing Lactobacillus sp.

This paper assessed the agricultural production needs of women farmers in Osun state, Nigeria. It is argued that women are responsible for generating food security for their families in developing countries and the contribution of women to agricultural production over the years has been acknowledged. Thus, there is the need to make available to them appropriate production information to enhance their productivity and contribution to agriculture and rural development.

The current project analyzes the requirement of iron for the growth, chlorophyll a content and productivity of three fresh water phytoplankton viz. Chlorococcum humicola, Chlorella ellipsoidea and Scenedesmus bijuga. The test organisms were treated with different concentrations of iron like 0.0075ppm, 0.015ppm, 0.03ppm, 0.06ppm and 0.12ppm supplied in the form of FeCl3. The culture devoid of iron was kept as control. Results obtained revealed the indispensable role of iron for the growth of these organisms as they showed decreased values for all the parameters in iron deficient medium.

An experiment was laid out under mist chamber at Horticultural Research Center, Chauras Campus, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India, during the month of February, 2011. Three different lengths of terminal stem cuttings (20, 35 and 50 cm) of Bougainvillea glabra cv. Torch Glory were planted in the root trainers after treatments of IBA solutions of 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm concentrations by quick dip method. Rooting media was prepared by mixing equal amount of sandy soil and FYM.

Rhizosphere fungi of 12 basmati rice varieties collected from 11 different localities of North India were isolated, Total 207 fungal strains were obtained that were identified and their pure cultures are maintained. These strains were screened for 2AP synthesis; the principle basmati aroma compound on the synthetic medium proposed by Rungsardthong. 12 fungal species namely Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Nigrospora sphaerica, Nigrospora oryzae, Trichoderma sps.

Globalization in India (LPG) was to make the Indian economy one of the fastest growing economies in the world. An array of reforms was initiated with regard to industrial, trade and social sector to make the economy more competitive. The economic changes initiated have had a dramatic effect on the overall growth of the economy. It also heralded the integration of the Indian economy into the global economy. The Indian economy was in major crisis in 1991 when foreign currency reserves went down to $1 billion and inflation was as high as 17%.

Since the 1970’s, the emergence of a separate and distinct black feminist literary tradition has been instrumental in exploding western literary and critical concepts and practices and has heralded the beginning of a new era in the adoption of unconventional narrative techniques by African-American novelists like Toni Morrison, Alice Walker and Gloria Naylor to name only a few.

This paper deals with the diversity of the dicotyledonous medicinal plants of the district of Burdwan in West Bengal. One hundred forty one dicotyledonous plants from sixty three different families of the class Magnoliopsida (sensu Takhtajan, 2009) have been investigated. Their families, vernacular names, flowering times, useful parts and common medicinal uses have been discussed here

The present study aims to diagnose the predominant types of Clostridium perfringens from the cases of diarrhoea in cattle from Tamil Nadu. A total of 16 rectal swabs were aseptically collected from same number of cattle and were processed for the isolation and identification of C. perfringens. The molecular typing of the bacteria was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction assay, which revealed the identification of 14(87.5%) C. perfringens isolates from diarrhoeic cattle.

An attempt was made to find out the effect of different temperatures ranging from 150 C to 450 C on production of polygalacturonase (PG), polymethylgalacturonase (PMG) and cellulase (Cx) enzymes by Alternaria Solani in vitro. The production of polygalacturonase (PG), polymethylgalacturonase (PMG) and cellulase (Cx) enzymes has been recorded between wide range of temperature, i.e. between 150 C to 350 C. At 150 C temperature, the production of these three cell wall degrading enzymes were found to be very low to which increases gradually with the increase in the temperature upto 280 C.

A study of aquatic bacteria along with some physical parameters like temperature and pH was carried out during the month of November and December 2010, in Yusmarg area of Kashmir valley at four sites differing from each other markedly in terms of biotic and abiotic factors, to assess the density and diversity of bacterial flora. During the study the bacterial flora showed variation in relation to the physical parameters. The colony count was maximum at Site IV Reservoir outlet (300) followed by Site III Reservoir Intlet (135), Site I Dudhganga (95) and site II Tank Area (75).

The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is a major limiting biotic factor affecting plant growth and yield in the tropical and sub-tropical worlds. Synthetic pesticides constitute the principal means to control the menace of the pest. Natural pesticides derived from plant parts offer alternative control strategy due to the identification of nematicidal properties in many flowering plants. A preliminary in vitro experiment evaluated the potential of five plant extracts (pawpaw root, leaf, seed and false yam tuber and leaf) to inhibit the hatching of eggs of M. incognita.

To evaluate the influences of nitrogen levels and weed density on growth indices of wheat a two years field experiment was conducted at Research Field of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz-Iran in 2007-8 and 2008-9 cropping season. The results showed that increasing nitrogen application from 90 to 210 kg N ha-1 increased the negative interference effects of wild mustard and wild oat on Total Dry Matter (TDM), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Growth Rate (CGR).

Nickel In the present investigation the effect of plant extracts on biochemical changes in Bacillus thuringiensis infected fifth instar silkworm larvae were studied. The changes in the absorption, digestion and transportation of nutrients in the mid gut of silkworm.

The present study was carried out from September 2011 to August 2012 to detect the prevalence of coccidian infection in lambs of age 1-6 months in different seasons in North Kashmir. A total of 180 samples (84 male and 96 female) were examined for the infection. During the study, it was found that a total of (53.33%) samples were infected with coccidian oocysts. The maximum prevalence was found during summer season (72.9%), followed by autumn (54.5%), (45.6%) in spring and (38%) in winter.

The effect of cadmium on the biochemical and haematological parameters of Labeo rohita were observed, after exposure to sublethal concentrations of cadmium (51.82 µg/l) for a period of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. The number of white blood cells (WBC) and glucose levels were increased. The numbers of red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin content, haematocrit, concentration was significantly higher (p>0.05) in the experimental group, compared with the control group. The above results of examination of the blood parameters indicate a marked physiological effect of cadmium in fish.

The present study is aimed to analyse the physic-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and chloride and sulphate were analysed during November 2012 to March, 2013. The temperature was high in March, 2013. pH was high in January,2013. The dissolved oxygen was high in November, 2012 and salinith was more in March, 2013. TDS was more in March and BOD and COD was high in January, 2013. Chloride and sulpahate was high in February, 2013.

Plant defense mechanisms against necrotrophic pathogens such as Alternaria alternata are considered to be complex and different from those that are effective against biotrophs. Tomato is an economically important vegetable crop affected severely by A. alternata that causes leaf spot, stem canker and fruit rot diseases. In the present work physiological parameters were found to be decreased in tomato plants after infection by the pathogen.

The study was conducted in the Dal lake, which is situated on the northeast of Srinagar at latitude 340,07/ N and longitude 740, 52/ E on the right bank of river Jhelum. Four water- sampling sites (Viz: Hazratbal, Nishat, Nehru park and Nigeen) were selected for study. The water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, chlorine, hardness, total alkalinity, ammonium nitrogen, sulphate and phosphorus on fortnightly basis for six months.

To counter the data growth, scientists have created curated databases in specific areas. While this is supposed to help scientists to cope with the data explosion, the flood of such bioinformatics resources has created a huge problem. To help scientists in making scientific-database-selection there is an urgent need to compile all resources in one place and provide additional guidance. Such a need is particularly high in the areas of microbiology and some aspects of biochemistry such as carbohydrates and lipids.

Normal and disease-specific genes can be identified by making use of the existing microarray and RNA (NGS) sequencing data. The study attempts to identify potential biomarkers for the mammalian testis. Available NGS analysis database and software were first compiled and compared. NGS data corresponding to normal human and mouse testes have been collected after careful selection. The read data were aligned using Top Hat tool and ‘Cufflinks’ & ‘Cuffcompare’ tools were then used to obtain the transcript-specific FPKM values.

From last three decades, industrial revolution in India on boom. And due to this lot of water quality problem arises. Industries are directly drain the effluents in to the water bodies which degrading the water quality and also life. In Delhi region, Yamuna river is the major sink for the industrial drains. In this context, this paper displays a comparative study of untreated water and treated water of Yamuna River for the water quality assessment.

The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth and feed conversion ratio was studied in the Schizothorax plagiostomus. The fishes weighing 45-52g were reared in happas and fed on experimental diet. In this completely randomized designed experiment, five formulated diets of different dietary protein levels (25%, 30%, 35%, 40% & 45%) were tested. The fishes were fed by hand and fed at 5% of biomass. The results showed that dietary protein had significant effect on body weight, weight gain percent and specific growth rate.

A fungal isolate Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus nigricans and Cunninghamella sp. previously isolated from the Mula river, Pune were efficiently utilized for the remediation. The domestic wastewater samples used in this study were collected from sewage wastewater treatment plant Bopodi from Pune city. To study the role of fungi in wastewater treatment, the following method was employed, i) Wastewater treated with Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus nigricans and Cunninghamella sp.

The increased biomass level of bambara groundnut husk (BGH) in the environment through dumping as a refuge due to high consumption rate of bambara groundnut products has been an environmental concerned. The effect of mechanical properties of the recycled polyethylene (RPE) and recycled polyethylene with 20 percent virgin polyethylene (MPE) was investigated.

The present study aimed to explain the effect of biotic and abiotic elicitor derived from yeast extract and Salicylic acid on cell suspensions evolved from superior callus lines of G. sylvestre (Retz) R. Br. ex. Schult. Cell suspension cultures maintained in MS liquid medium were treated with 265 cells/ml and 530 cells/ml homogenate of the elicitor on the 14th day. Growth of G. sylvestre callus in terms of biomass revealed 5 fold enhancements when treated with 530 cells/ml. elicitor on fourteenth day in callus line-1.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary is one of the most non-specific, and ubiquitous fungal plant pathogens affecting agricultural crops. This is known to cause some important diseases like white mold, Sclerotinia wilt or stalk rot, or Sclerotinia head rot on a wide variety of broadleaf crops. This pathogen infects about 408 species of plants. The brief study with S. sclerotiorum and its control with Propiconazole, (ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor) revealed that the fungicide is a potential antifungal and that it affects the biology of the pathogen in a variety of ways.

In reptiles exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), maternally derived yolk steroids may play a role in the sex determination. The present study explores the correlation, if any, existing between hatchling sex ratio and maternally derived yolk steroid hormone concentrations [17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T)] in the lizard, Calotes versicolor, which exhibits a unique FMFM (Female-Male-Female-Male) pattern of temperature-dependent sex determination. Ten clutches of C.

For centuries, Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) has been commercially propagated by air-layering. But still, the results are not optimum due to the production of thick and brittle roots by the air-layers, which are sometimes difficult to establish in the nursery and field as well. It is established fact that Litchi quite readily forms natural symbiotic associations with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi (AMF).

The precision of an estimate of the population mean or total, besides sample size depends on the variability among the units of the population. To increase the precision of the estimate, we could divide the population into number of groups (called strata) such that variability within the group is minimum and maximum between the groups. In this paper, we examine the role of stratification in sample surveys and illustrate through a numerical illustration as to how stratification reduces the sampling variance which is the main objectives of a good sampling technique.

Computers have become ubiquitous in our everyday activity in recent years and have been object of study for eventual adverse health effect. In this paper, variations of the induced magnetic fields with distance from liquid crystal display (LCD) computer monitors have been investigated. A total of 10 different LCD monitors of different models were used for this study. The magnetic fields were measured using a TriField Gauss meter at 5cm steps from the screen up to 40cm. The results showed that the induced magnetic fields decreased as distance from the screen increased.

Classification of agricultural products is a necessity for agricultural marketing to increase the speed and minimize the misclassification. One of the main problems in the automation of modern farming and production regards the selection of good fruits from the whole crop. The selection process in the fruits is very difficult in the market through manually. Some attempts at automatic classification using traditional computing resources and algorithms have been made.

This paper proposes a new approach for the classification of the power system disturbances using Wavelet-Multi resolution Decomposition and multi-level Support Vector Machine (SVM).The proposed approach is carried out at different serial stages. First, the original signal is decomposed in to the different level using the wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA). This decomposed signal is used to find the energy distribution of the wave. Next, the energy feature is used as input vector for training the SVM classifier.

Ecological system depends on every link in the food chain. Last decades the majority of surface water is preserved into canals or collectors of waste water from urban environments. Phosphates and nitrates from artificial fertilizers, different detergents in large amounts reach the surface water and may change the ecological system, which cause the appearance of new types of algae and other aquatic plants. This phenomenon is an indicator of water pollution with phosphates. Object of study of our paper was to define the quantity of phosphates in the water of Lake Ohrid.

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