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Aflatoxicosis in rabbits with particular reference to its control by n. acetyl cysteine and probiotic

Author: 
Hassan A. Atef, Mogda K. Mansour, Essam M. Ibrahim, Naglaa M. Al-Kalamawy, Darwish A. S., Ali M. A. and Flourage M. Rady
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Fungal and aflatoxins contamination in rabbit's environment and evaluation the efficacy of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and probiotic in amelioration the toxic effects of aflatoxins were investigated. One hundred samples, including (25 each of feed, water, litter and wires of rabbit's cages) were collected from private rabbit's farms at El-Giza Governorate. The mycological examination resulted in recovering Aspergillus sp. at the top of fungi isolated from all examined samples(68%), followed by Mucor sp.(35%), Penicillium sp. (31%), Fusarium sp. (23%), Rhizopus sp. (21%),Cladosporium sp. (6%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (4%). Members of genus Aspergillus was predominantly recovered from the present samples. A. flavus was isolated from (59%) of samples, followed by A.niger (21%) and A.ochraceus recovered from (19%) of samples. The isolated A.flavus from litter samples were detected as the most prevalence aflatoxigenic strains (100%)which produced aflatoxin BI and B2 with a mean levels of (27.0±3.22). Although, the higher mean levels of AFs was obtained by A. flavus that recovered from feed samples (50 ± 3.5) with a lower relatively rate of incidence (87.5%). This makes the selection of proper decontamination methods that will effectively decompose aflatoxins. Thirty-five healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups, each including 7 rabbits. The rabbits of group 1 were kept as the negative control group. While, rabbits in the groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were orally given AFB1 at a dose of 50ug dissolved in 0.5 ml of olive oil/ animal daily, for 4 weeks. On first day following the administration of AF, NAC was orally administered a dose of250 mg/kg ofb.w. for group 3 (low dose)and a dose of 500mg/kg b.w. for group 4 (high dose). While, the group 5 given probiotic in drinking water (0.5 gram dissolved in 25 liters of water).Aflatoxin induced (ROS), accompanied with significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of lysated RBCs and a significant decrease in CAT, SOD and GPx activities. While, there was an increase in serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine levels. The activity of pancreatic enzymes showed significant increase in serum amylase and lipase activities after the rabbit's exposure to aflatoxin BI .However, aflatoxin BI group had a decrease in concentrations of serum total protein, albumin, alpha globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin together with A/G ratio. The administration of N-acetylcysteine or probiotic caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and an increase in GSH, CAT, SOD and GPx compared to aflatoxicated group. In addition, the levels of ALT, AST, plasma amylase and lipase levels were significantly reduced due to the protective effects given by N-acetylcysteine and probiotic. The histopathological necrotic damage due to the drastic effects of AFBI on some vital organ as liver and kidney included hepatotoxic effects and inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. These changes improved by administration of probiotic and N-acetyl cystein to aflatoxicated animal resulted in reduction of the aflatoxintoxic changes through the immune strengthening effect and protection of lipid and protein from oxidative damage.

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