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Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of artemisia herba alba hugueii essential oil from south of morocco

Author: 
Majdouli Karima, Soro N’Dédianhoua K., Elazzouzi Hanane, Benmaachou Joihara, Drioiche Aziz and Zaïr Touriya
Subject Area: 
Physical Sciences and Engineering
Abstract: 

Bacteria are often involved in cases of food poisoning and the abusive use of chemical antibacterial agents in medication leads to selection of resistant bacterial strains. Indeed essential oils appear to be a good alternative to antibiotics’use. Empirically known for centuries, their anti-infective efficiency has been now scientifically demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This work aims to study chemical composition and antibacterial power of Artemisia herba alba hugueii’s essential oils (EO). EO are obtained by hydrodistillation of A. herba alba hugueii buds harvested in June 2012 from TATA region (southern Morocco). EO content is about 4.2 ml per 100 g of dry matter. Chemical composition of A. herba alba hugueii’s EO was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC / MS). Forty-five compounds were identified with cis-thujone (35.06%), camphor (32.79%) and trans-thujone (6.83%) as majority ones. Oxygenated monoterpenes (85%) constitute the most abundant group among the whole identified compounds (91.72%). Phytochemical screening of A. herba alba hugueii’s leaves was performed by staining and precipitation reactions. These tests revealed the high content of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins), sterols and triterpenes. These secondary metabolites have a wide range of biological activities and they probably are at the basis of A. herba alba’s medicinal properties. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was tested in vitro on five clinical bacterial isolates. Evaluation of antibacterial power was performed by disk-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by macrodilution method on liquid medium. The study of antibacterial effect showed that A. herba alba hugueii’s EO has an inhibitory effect against nine of the fifteen tested strains. This bioactivity is mainly due to the richness of this essence in cis-thujone and camphor known to be effective against microbial agents.

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