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Common tempromandibular joint disorders symptoms and their association with gender, bruxism and level of anxiety in university population

Author: 
Shahad Alkhuwaiter and Saeed Banabilh
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Objectives: To investigate the common symptoms and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in university students using Fonseca’s questionnaire, to assess the association between self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism and TMD and to determine the relationship of TMD to age, gender, and different levels of anxiety. Methods: Common TMD symptoms were diagnosed using Fonseca’s 10 questions. Bruxism was diagnosed using self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism. The level of anxiety was measured using Trait Anxiety section of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). Results: Out of 1100 questionnaires distributed, 745 completed questionnaires were received (response rate: 67.7%). Mean age was 21.62 ± 1.77. TMD was observed in 270 (44%) students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: have frequent headaches (53%), get tired/muscular pain while chewing (36%), and TMJ clicking while chewing or when they open their mouth (34%). The association between age and gender with TMD was not significant (p>0.1 and p>0.3 respectively). However, the association between bruxism habits and TMD levels revealed a statistically significant difference (p<0.000). Moreover, students with high level of anxiety had a 2.8 higher probability of developing TMD (95% CI: 0.3-26.7; P> 0.4). Conclusion: This study revealed a higher prevalence of TMD among college students, and described a strong relationship between this disorder and the levels of anxiety. Female students, older students, those with bruxism habits, and who considered anxious are more likely to develop TMD.

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