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Effect of Abo blood groups and Haemoglobin variants on the prevalence of mild Falciparum malaria

Author: 
Igbeneghu, C., Olisekodiaka, J.M., Alabi, T., Adebayo, T.O., Adedokun, A.S., Odaibo, A.B.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

There are conflicting reports on the effect of ABO blood groups and/or haemoglobin variants on the prevalence of falciparum malaria. The present study examined the effect of ABO blood groups and/or haemoglobin variants on the prevalence of uncomplicated (mild) falciparum malaria in a hyperendemic area. A total of 486 malaria positive patients and 486 controls of age ≥16 years were screened for this study. Malaria parasite test, ABO blood group antigens test and haemoglobin genotype were carried out using standard laboratory techniques. There was no significant relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria (χ2 = 1.14, df = 3, p = 0.767). However, malaria varied significantly with hemoglobin variants (χ2 = 27.09, df = 5, p < 0.001). When combined, a significant association was only observed in the distributions of blood types A, B and O between AA and AS variants (χ2 = 7.931, df = 2, p = 0.019) in the malaria group. Proportion of malarial infection increases as follows: O+AS(0.345) < B+AS(0.424) < A+AS(0.468) < A+AA(0.489) < B+AA(0.55) < O+AA(0.568). While group O individuals who have HbAS genotype are the most resistant to malaria, group O who have HbAA are the most susceptible. This study shows that in this malaria hyperendemic area, mild falciparum malaria is influenced by haemoglobin genotype but not by ABO blood type.

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