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Intra-Observer Variation In Physical Examination Of Varicocele

Author: 
Saeed Shakeri, Leila Malekmakan, Amin Afrasiabi, Maryam Yazdani, Aria Shakeri and Arash Shakeri
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction: The most common cause of male infertility is varicocele that is treatable. Clinical examination of scrotum is the main technique diagnosing for it, which is subject to great inter and intra-observer variation. We tried to evaluate intra-observer variation of physical examination in diagnosing of varicocele. Methods: This study was performed among 113 men who had varicoceles and were reexamined and graded by an urologist. Data were analyzed by SPSS and p-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean age of patients was 33.4 years. In initial physical examination; in 91(80.53%) of patients, varicocele was in left side and in 22(19.46%) of patients had bilateral varicocele. In second examination, changes in grade of varicocele were seen in 19 of 113 patients (16.81%). In 10 patients (52.63%), the grade was decreased and in 9 patients (47.36 %) the grade increased. Conclusion: Uniformity of physical examination methods in varicocele diagnosing is needed to reduce intra- observer variation.

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