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Swine flu – an epidemiological perspective

Author: 
Gupta, D. K., Nidhi Gupta, Shukla, P. C., Amita Tiwari, Jitendra Shivhare and Arun Mourya
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Swine influenza is a contagious disease that is caused by the influenza virus. The influenza virion, RNA enveloped virus consist of glycoprotein named HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase). Swine flu produces almost the same symptoms in pigs, as human flu produces in people. Infection with the H1N1 influenza virus can result in severe illness and life-threatening complications in human beings. The most common cause of death is respiratory failure. Although swine influenza is rarely fatal to pigs but fatalities are more common in children and elderly people. The CDC recommends real time RT-PCR as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. In the year 2009, WHO raised the worldwide pandemic alert level to phase- 6 for swine flu, which is the highest alert level. A little treatment beyond rest and supportive care is required in case of pigs However, in human beings if the patient is tested positive for swine flu, treatment needs to be initiated immediately. The anti‐viral medicines oseltamivir (Tamiflu/Fluvir) and zanamivir (Relenza) are recommended. Swine flu is very contagious in nature hence the vaccination and strict import controls are the only specific preventive measure. Good sanitary and hygienic practices, freedom from stress particularly due to crowding and dust help to reduce losses.

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