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June 2023

  1. Dr. Adesua, Veronica O and Awonegan, Folayira. I

    The purpose of the study is to examine education financing in higher institutions in Nigeria and the impact of the post COVID-19 era. This paper provides an overview of Education financing in our higher institutions after three years of post COVID-19 pandemic. It further identifies the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to affect the availability of funding for education. It summarizes evidence on the negative impact the pandemic had on education financing .Two research questions were raised and analyzed for the purpose of the study. The descriptive research design was used for the study; data utilized was based on secondary sources. The results indicated that, from2010 to2022,the Federal Government of Nigeria has been allocating only8% of the nation’s budget each year (average)to education. The study concluded that the total allocation made to Education sector from 2010-2022 is generally low and below the UNESCO bench mark despite theCOVID-19 pandemic challenges, majority of colleges and universities that survived COVID-19, most will likely see declines in revenue and increases in costs just because of the inflation in the country. The paper however Identified and recommended some policy measures to mitigate this impact.

  2. Musline Munodawafa, Wenceslaus Mudyanadzo and Bornface Chenjerai Chisaka

    The purpose of the research article is to examine the effectiveness of the women’s quota proportional representation and participation of men and women in the Parliament of Zimbabwe. Women’s quota is a policy stance used to reserve parliamentary seats for women in order to observe equitable gender balance in parliament. It is not peculiar to Zimbabwe alone but is practised in many political settings throughout the world. The study was carried out using a qualitative research methodology approach for the intention of having in-depth interviews of both female and male parliamentarians as well as key informants. This was complimented by the researcher’s observation of one live parliament session. The study was guided by the Intersectionality Theory augmenting the findings which established that women parliamentarians appointed through the quota experience some exclusion including from the Community Development Fund. They equally are exposed to mockery during debates and other gender insensitive behaviours. Therefore, the study concludes that Zimbabwe’s parliamentary quota system has indeed increased the presence of women in politics but recommends that the selection criteria of beneficiaries be standardised. It is further suggested that the quota beneficiaries should serve a stipulated term to make way for others’ empowerment.

  3. K.R.M. Swamy

    Lentil belongs to the Family Fabacaeae, Genus Lens, Species Lens culinaris and Subspecies culinaris. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. ssp. culinaris) is one of the oldest cultivated plants that originated in the Near East arc and Asia Minor. This cool season legume crop is an excellent food source to provide energy, proteins and iron in the human diet. Cultivated lentil is a self-pollinated diploid plant with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes and a genome size of 4 Gbp. The lentil is an edible legume. It is an annual plant known for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40 cm tall, and the seeds grow in pods, usually with two seeds in each. As a food crop, the largest producer is Canada, producing 45% of the world's total lentils. Many different names in different parts of the world are used for the crop lentil. The first use of the word lens to designate a specific genus was in the 17th century by the botanist Tournefort. The word "lens" for the lentil is of classical Roman or Latin origin, possibly from a prominent Roman family named Lentulus, just as the family name "Cicero" was derived from the chickpea, Cicer arietinum, or "Fabia" (as in Quintus Fabius Maximus) from the fava bean (Vicia faba). Types can be classified according to their size, whether they are split or whole, or shelled or unshelled. Seed coats can range from light green to deep purple, as well as being tan, grey, brown, black or mottled. Shelled lentils show the colour of the cotyledon which can be yellow, orange, red, or green. Lentils are often categorized by their color, which can range from yellow and red to green, brown, or black. This species has been cultivated for 10,000 years in several regions worldwide, especially in West Asia, Australia, North and South America, Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and in the Indian sub-continent. It is a valuable human food, mostly consumed as dry seeds (whole decorticated, seed decorticated and split). In Indian sub-continent mostly consumed as ‘Dal’ by removal of outer skin and separation of cotyledons, snacks and soup preparation etc. It is easy to cook and easily digestible with high biological value, hence also referred to patient. Dry leaves, stems, empty and broken pods are used as valuable cattle feed. Lentils are a good source of protein, dietary fibre, vitamin B, iron, and phosphorus. Thus far, lentil breeders have been successful in improving some easily manageable monogenic traits using conventional breeding techniques of selection and recombination. However, these conventional techniques are insufficient to address economic traits like seed yield due to polygenic inheritance and genotype-environment interaction. Cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus ssp. culinaris) is the third most important cool-season grain legume in the world after chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.). In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpea are discussed.

  4. Dr. Kirankumar Bannigol

    The present study tries to study and analyze the financial statement of the selected firms from bankruptcy perspective. This study is also expected to help the society in knowing how the available and scarce resources are efficiently utilized or otherwise by the industry players. The study has chosen to analyse the five year financial statements (2016-17 to 2020-21) of 10 companies’ viz., Tata Steel Limited (TSL), JSW Steel Limited (JSWSL), Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL), Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), Ratnamani Metals & Tubes, Prakash Industries Ltd, Hindalco Industries Ltd, Godawari Power and Ispat Ltd, APL Apollo Tubes Ltd, Hisar Metal Industries Ltd. The results from all the perspective were analysed found that even popular companies like Tata Steel Ltd, JSW Steel Ltd, Jindal Steel and Power Ltd, SAIL, Prakash Industries Ltd and Hindalco Industries Ltd shows that they fall under the distress zone, there is a high probability that the business will face financial distress in near future and the business may need desperate measures to survive in the market if not taken measures to come out from the situation.

  5. Dr. Chitra Bhatia, Dr. Ekta Gupta, Dr. Eshank Gupta, Vishakha Ashopa and Dr. Prabhu Prakash

    Introduction: In the past few years mobile phones have become indispensable part of communication not only among common people but also among doctors and other Health care workers (HCW) in hospitals. Mobile phones are rarely disinfected and as a result devices have potential for contamination with various bacterial agents and leads to hospital associated infection and becomes gateway of infection in hospitals. Aims and Objective: To study Bacteriological profile of surface of mobile phones used in hospitals and knowledge, attitude & practice (KAP) study was done to know educational status of health care workers about use of mobile phones. Methodology: This was hospital based cross-sectional study on 200 subjects using mobile phones in tertiary level hospital. Set predesigned questionnaires were filled by HCW. Swab samples were taken from surface of mobile phones and microbial flora were detected by standard methods. Result: Out of 200 samples, amongst pathogenic microorganism Citrobacter -50 (25%), Staphylococcus aureus - 23 (11.5%), Pseudomonas spp. -5 (2.5%), Klebsiella spp. - 2 (1%), Escherichia coli - 1 (0.5%), Acinetobacter spp. -1 (0.5%) were isolated in culture and in 12.5% cases Polymicrobial infection was seen. Conclusion: There is recommendation of restricted use of mobile phones in high risk areas of hospitals. HCW should keep their mobile phones in sterilised bags for emergency use and regular cleaning of mobile phones with disinfectants is recommended.

  6. Mary Jesintha, T., Feby G. and Reena Evency, A.

    Aim: To explore the experience of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers. Design: A qualitative phenomenological research design using reflexive thematic analysis Methods: Using an interview guide that included 60 open-ended questions, ten exclusive nursing women participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Results: Participants described their experience of exclusive breastfeeding which led to the identification of three themes and different patterns. The themes and its patterns covered the experience of exclusive breastfeeding during third trimester of pregnancy, experience of exclusive breastfeeding during puerperium, and, experience of exclusive breastfeeding after puerperium until six months. Conclusion: This phenomenological study examines the experience of exclusively breastfeeding mothers, uncovering the intricate and personal aspects of this journey. Through in-depth interviews and analysis, the study shed light on the significant implications of exclusive breastfeeding from physical, emotional, and societal perspectives. Comprehensive support systems offer accurate information and encouragement, particularly during the crucial initiation and maintenance stages of exclusive breastfeeding, which span the first six months. The results emphasized the importance of comprehensive support systems, solutions to barriers, and fostering a nurturing environment for mothers. It was evident that women's success with exclusive breastfeeding was significantly influenced by the type and timing of support provided. Ultimately, healthcare professionals and policymakers need to create targeted interventions and policies that support effective breastfeeding practices, thereby enhancing the health and well-being of both mothers and infants.

  7. K.R.M. Swamy

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) belongs to the Family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae , genus Pisum and species Pisum sativum L. Several varieties of P. sativum have been bred. Widely cultivated examples include: 1) Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon is commonly known as the Snow pea and 2) Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon ser. cv. is known as the sugar snap pea. There are three different types of peas, each suited to different ways of eating them - snap peas, snow peas, and shelling peas. Pisum is an ancient Latin name for the well-known pea. Sativum means “planted,” or, more literally, “that which is sown”. Common Names of pea are dry pea, Chinese pea, Chinese pea pod, Chinese snow pea, edible pod pea, podded pea, snow pea, sugar snap pea. As one of the most ancient crops in the world, pea played an important role in the introduction of agriculture in post-glacial Europe, often representing the main pulse in the diets of local communities across the continent. It is consumed as fresh vegetable or dry seed throughout the world. It is also one of the most popular vegetables grown for home use by home gardeners. Peas are cultivated both in agriculture (field peas) and horticulture (garden peas) and are used for both for fodder and food, either grown to full maturity or eaten as a fresh vegetable. Peas can be bought fresh, canned, or frozen, and dried peas are commonly used in soups. Some varieties, including sugar peas and snow peas, produce pods that are edible and are eaten raw or cooked like green beans; they are popular in East Asian cuisines. Domesticated about 11,000 years ago or so, peas are an important human and animal food crop cultivated throughout the world. Pisum sativum L; 2n=2x=14) also commonly known as English pea or green pea and is a commonly grown leguminous vegetable in the world. Pea is pollinated due to cleistogamous flower structure and has less than percent out crossing. The seeds are dispersed when the pod reaches maturity and bursts open. It scatters the peas over as wide a distance as it is possible for the plant. Field peas or "dry peas" are marketed as a dry, shelled product for either human or livestock food, unlike the garden pea, which is marketed as a fresh or canned vegetable. The major producing countries of field peas are Russia and China, followed by Canada, Europe, Australia and the United States. Major production states are UP, Bihar Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa and Karnataka. It is worthwhile to mention that large scale production of vegetable peas for international market is still based largely on old varieties. Arkel introduced in India in 1970s still holds ground and is a household name in vegetable pea growers and consumers. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of pea are discussed.

  8. Dr. Priyanka, Dr. Puja Bansal and Dr. Deepak Bhargava

    Dry socket is a postoperative complication followed by tooth extraction. It is also known as alveolar osteitis. Crawford coined the term "dry socket" in 1896. Following exodontia, dry socket is a painful and typical post-operative consequence. Little progress has been achieved over the years in coming to definitive findings about how dry socket should be handled. A variety of treatment options are recommended for the management of dry sockets, including irrigation with chlorhexidine or saline solution, application of non-absorbable obtundent dressings (zinc oxide eugenol dressings) or absorbable dressings (alvogyl dressings), and instruction for at-home use of chlorhexidine mouthwash. In the field, novel substances including PRF and GECB as well as combinations of PRF and chlorhexidine gel are being tested to see if they might speed up the healing of the socket.

  9. Dr. Mallesh Kariyappa, Dr. Krishna Kumari, V. and Dr. Krishna Kumari, V.

    Anemia is a major global public health problem, especially in children and reproductive age women, affecting both developed and developing country. Vitamin B12 or Cobalamin (Cbl) is a water soluble vitamin. Cobalamin is synthesized by microorganisms present in the environment and in the intestines of animals. Pancytopenia is the reduction below the normal values of all the three peripheral linages of the blood namely erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets. It is known that vitamin B12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anaemia as cobalamin is essential for the production of erythrocytes. Adolescents form the transition span of life between childhood and adulthood. Along with the growth spurt and the other changes associated with adolescence, the basic demand for nutrient supply also increases tremendously. Iron deficiency anaemia being the most common cause of anaemia, we wanted to study the correlation of pancytopenia and vitamin B12 deficiency in anaemic adolescents. 40 anaemic adolescents were enrolled in the study. The study shows there is a significant correlation between pancytopenia and Vitamin B12 deficiency.

  10. Alpana Kamble and Dr. Ila Gupta

    The relationship between daylighting and urban planning has been extensively researched, highlighting the positive impact of natural illumination on energy consumption, health, productivity, and well-being. Effective daylighting strategies can lead to reduced energy costs, improved indoor air quality, increased visual comfort, and enhanced work and learning performance. As a key aspect of sustainable design, the importance of integrating daylighting into the early stages of urban planning and design has been recognized, with studies considering factors such as building height, street width, and green spaces. The research supports the notion that prioritizing daylighting in urban planning is crucial for creating healthy, efficient, and sustainable cities.

  11. Dr Anamika

    Stem cells are known for their ability of self-renewal and their potential of differentiation into mature cell types. These are present in almost all the multi-cellular organisms and are primitive cells. These cells have tremendous capacity for regeneration and can be utilized to repair as well as replace the demaged cells and can be used to transform the treatment options for cases like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease as well as for cancer and paralysis.If left untreated the periodontal disease can eventually lead to disease progression, leading to loss of tooth mainly in patients who are highly susceptible. Recently introduced Stem cells and tissue engineering have tremendous ability for treating the periodontal disease. After suitable stimulation, stem cells can differentiate into numerous cell types, possessing the regenerative potential. In cases of periodontal regeneration, MSCs provide the most promising results and have been tested in vitro as well as in vivo. Hence, this review discusses different stem cells, their uses as well as concise information on the stem cell based therapy used for the periodontal regeneration.

  12. Dr. Eyakndue Ekpenyong Ntekim, Dr. Michael Dominic Hanson and Dr. Amanim Ndisa Akpabio

    This study examines the emergent general framework for the settlement of trade disputes in Nigeria. The examination of the nature of trade disputes and its attendant need for resolution of same to avoid societal degeneration and chaos, this study focused first on the role of collective agreements upon which trade dispute resolution stands or falls. The study found also that intervention by statutory arbitral bodies as stipulated by the Trade Disputes Act is largely dependent on the wide discretionary ambit of intervention granted to the Minister for Labour. The study further found that the National Industrial Court as the constitutionally ordained exclusive arbiter in respect of labour matters, falls short of international labour standards by its limitation of the right to appeal on civil matters as opposed to the unlimited right to appeal granted in criminal matters. The study goes further to recommend positive judicial activism on the enforceability of collective agreements, a legislative fettering of ministerial discretion via an amendment of the Trade Disputes Act and a constitutional amendment reflecting an unlimited right of appeal in civil matters from the decisions taken by the National Industrial Court.

  13. Denitta Elsa Kuriakose and Dr. Justine Joseph

    The body tape cities The aim of the study is to analyse the adjust mental differences occurred in the marital life among middle aged couples during COVID-19. The size of the sample was 338 middle aged adults, including females (N=283) and males (N=82) . Convenient sampling method was used to select participants. Questionnaire method was used to collect data. Marital Adjustment questionnaire (Kumar and Rohatgi, 1976) was used to assess marital adjustment and self developed personal data sheet was used to collect personal information. Data was entered and analysed through SPSS version 25. Study found that age, gender, and duration of marital life years do not influence the marital adjustment of middle aged couples.

  14. Alioune Faye, Coumba dieng, Alassane Sarr, Waly Ndiaye, Malick Diouf and Abiboulaye Mbodj

    This study estimated the growth, mortality and exploitation parameters of Chelon dumerili. The aim of this study was to estimate the growth parameters and determine the mortality and exploitation coefficients. The C. dumerili specimens used for this study were caught in the Sangomar Marine Protected Area during experimental fishing carried out monthly from June 2016 to May 2017. The weight and length of the individuals were measured respectively using an electronic scale and an ichthyometer. The results obtained show that the allometric coefficient (b = 3) was equal to 3, indicating an isometric growth for C. dumerili. The asymptotic length (L∞) and the growth rate (K), were respectively equal to 37 cm and 0.33 yr-1. This study also showed that for C. dumerili, fishing mortality (3.49 year-1) is much higher than natural mortality (M = 1.22 year-1). The exploitation rate (E = 0.51) obtained in this study is higher than the optimum reference rate (E = 0.5); this indicates the beginning of overexploitation of the C. dumerili stock in the waters of the Saloum Delta.

  15. Dr. Pooja Mishra, Dr.Sahil Kohli, Dr. Amrita Singha and Dr. Wasil Rasool

    Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a type of brain inflammation where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the brain or spinal cord. It is a rare, complex disease with incidence of 1 in 100000 population that can cause rapid changes in both physical and mental health. It has multiple etiologies.AE was recognized as a disease relatively recently. Because of this, some doctors may not be familiar with this condition, and it may be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric or neurological disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to minimizing both short- and long-term complications of this disease. We hereby present to you an interesting case of a 30 year old female with symptoms similar to a wide spectrum of Neurological diseases. Nevertheless to our surprise it came out to be a one in one lakh cases.

  16. Khadija HNINI and Ismail OUAADI

    The analysis of educational practices is one of the mechanisms for improving training and improving performance in the teaching profession, as it is a process of deserving, understanding and interpreting the special approach adopted by a person in a context during his teaching, in order to think and insight into it with a view to modifying and developing it. This will lead to improving his performance and developing his professional competencies. In view of the importance of practice analysis in providing the trainee professor with the mechanisms of insightful analysis of his own practice, it has been added to the training kit of teachers in the regional centers for the professions of education and training starting from the training year 2018 in Morocco, This is in line with the directions of the strategic vision for reform 2015-2030, which affirmed in the ninth lever that the renewal of the professions of education and training is an essential entry point for improving the educational system, raising the profitability of Moroccan schools and ensuring their attractiveness and feasibility. The process of training the professor begins in the analysis of practice, starting from the first year of his qualification in the regional centers for the professions of education and training, through a workshop on the analysis of practice and field activities in educational institutions, and then continues in the second year of qualification during the in-person training courses and during his assumption of the responsibility in school, and this requires multiple interveners in the analysis of practice: the component professor, the accompanying professor, the educational inspector, and the practicing professor who performs self-analysis of his unique practice in teaching. The inclusion of the practice analysis workshop in the training kit of the teaching staff and the multiplicity of stakeholders requires the unification of visions on the act of analysis, and in this context the goal of our research crystallized, which is to prepare a database of illustrated lessons in the subjects of scientific activity and mathematics in the primary sector, in order to invest it in organizing workshops to analyze practice on the one hand, and to unify the tools for analyzing the professional practice of teachers in educational institutions on the other hand, in order to propose an effective tool for analyzing the professional practice of teachers of scientific subjects in primary school, including all components and dimensions of practice teaching and investable by all stakeholders in this process.

  17. Dr. Pankaj Narnolia, Dr. Vivek Arora, Dr. Pooja Yadav and Dr. Bhupendra K. Damor

    Introduction:The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) method is a humane, low cost, standardized, protocol-predicated care system for preterm and ∕ or Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants and is predicated on skin-to-skin contact between the preterm baby and the mother and exclusive breastfeeding.1Compared with conventional neonatal care, KMC was found to reduce mortality at discharge, Severe infection/sepsis, nosocomialinfections, lower respiratory tract disease, Hypothermia and length of hospital stay, Improved weight, length and head circumference, increased breastfeeding rates, Better mother-infant bonding and maternal satisfaction with the method of care, as compared with conventional methods. Material and Methods: This was a hospital based randomized controlled trail study. We studied inborn and out born babies admitted in NICU of Bal Chikitsalaya, R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur with sample size of 100 in control group (who received conventional care in a radiant warmer) and 100 in KMC group after approval of Institutional Ethics committee. Result: Babies who were provided KMC achieved significantly better growth at the end of the study when their increase in the weight, length and head circumference was compared at the end of the study. The time to start breast feeding was significantly higher in KMC group. Most babies in KMC group were exclusively breast fed at 40weeks. A significantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia and apnea (<1500g).KMC significantly reduced the incidence of apnea in VLBW babies. Babies who were given KMC discharged earlier with significantly reduced duration of hospital stay by ≈5days. Conclusion: The low birth weight infants offered KMC demonstrated higher growth rates and were discharged earlier. KMC prevented or reduced almost all morbidities of low birth weight infant. It also promotes exclusive breastfeeding practice and increases mother's confidence in handling small babies and builds good mother-baby bonding. KMC should be promoted and mothers should be encouraged to start it as soon as their LBW babies are stable.

  18. Dr. Priyankachhari and Dr. Nishant Banait

    Amelia is a rare disorder refer to complete absence of skeletal part of arm or leg that occur when limb formation process is either interrupted or prevented during development of embryo. Amelia with diaphragmatic defects in a newborn is rare entity. We report a rare case of newborn with congenital malformation of Amelia associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, its manifestation and fetal outcome.

  19. Nikhil Singh

    Introduction: Inguinal hernia is one of the commonest surgical pathology. India is known to have hard labourers leading to high-risk factor of acquiring hernia by a parietal defect. The challenge is respecting the principal objectives of a hernia repair without expensive prosthetic material. One principal technique has been developed and used with satisfied results: The Desarda technique. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE-To fulfill all the principles of hernia repair Objective: suppress hernia, reduce post operative pain and recurrence using Desarda repair in a sub urban town of north India. Methods: A Case series study in 40 open inguinal hernia repair patients done between March 2021 to March 2022 and followed till August 2022 in JLNMCH, Bhagalpur Inclusion criteria- Male patients having Inguinal hernia in the age group of 25-50 years Exclusion criteria-Inguinal hernia with complications, recurrent inguinal hernia, previous contralateral hernia repair, previous abdominal surgery, female, children, obese patients, elderly male, patients with bladder outlet obstruction/chronic constipation/chronic cough/other co-morbidities PROCEDURE-The repair is done using a flap of the external oblique aponeurosis sutured to the inguinal ligament below and to the aponeurotic part of the internal oblique muscle above. Results: Most of the patients were well and discharged on post operative day1. Complications encountered in post operative period and patient follow-up include urine retention and post operative pain and minimal incidence of hematoma, seroma, wound infection and recurrence. Conclusion: Inguinal hernia is public health disease. The socioeconomic context is important here. The tension-free repairs without mesh using Desarda technique avoids the risk of mesh-related complications, low rate of recurrence, postoperative pain, less suture material used, reduced hospital stay and cost inexpensive thus an effective way of open hernia repair.

  20. Meenakshi Sundaravalli, V. and Thilaga, M.

    Solanum torvum Swartz is one of the important medicinal plants belonging to the family Solanaceae which is used by traditional systems of medicine. Different parts of the plant are reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. The present study was aimed to screen the phytochemical constituents and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of fruit extracts of Solanum torvum. The results of the study revealed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannin,quinones, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardio glycosides, phenols, steroids, coumarin and betacyanins in the fruit extracts of Solanum torvum. FTIR analysis was performed for the identification of various functional groups present in the fruit extracts. The functional group present in S.torvum are alcohol, aldehyde, carbon dioxide, isothiocyanate, alkene, tertiary alcohol and halo compound. DPPH free radical scavenging assay was studied for the evaluation of antioxidant potential. The fruit extracts of Solanum torvum showed 100% of scavenging activity. The presence of phenols and flavonoids in the fruit extracts are responsible for the antioxidant property. Thus the study indicates that S. torvum fruit is an excellent source of natural antioxidant and could be an effective nutritional food supplement, which interns will have therapeutic applications.

  21. Dr. Gurdeep Kaur, Dr. Vinod Kumar Meghwal, Dr. Vipin Mathur , Dr. Mayank Ameta, Dr. Manoj Mahera, Dr. Rahul Gangoda, Dr. RajeshMeena and Dr. Ranjana veerwal

    Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disorders in the world. The global burden of NAFLD is estimated to be as high as one billion. NAFLD is the presence of fat accumulation in hepatocytes when other secondary causes like heavy alcohol consumption is not present. The standard diagnostic test of fatty liver disease is liver biopsy. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure. A potentially non-invasive method used as an alternative to liver biopsy for diagnosis of fibrosis and hepatic steatosis is the measurement of liver stiffness using transient elastography. Material and methods: It was a prospective study of 72 patients visiting Gastro and Medicine OPD of RNT medical college Udaipur. Suspected patients of fatty liver disease screened with ultrasonography. Those with fatty liver disease taken into study and screened for fibrosis using non-invasive methods Fibro scan, CBC, LFT, TSH level, B12 level, HbA1c level and compared with ultrasonography grading of fatty liver. Results: In this study, out of 72 patients 47 patients had grade 1, 17 had grade 2 and 8 had grade 3 fatty liver. Maximum number of patients were in age group 41-60. Male patients predominates than females. In this study more BMI patients had high fibrosis grading by ultrasonography or fibro scan both. With progression of fibrosis there was elevation of SGOT, SGPT levels. In this study we observed that with advancing fibrosis there is high RBS and HbA1c level. Also observed that with high fibrosis value there is reduction in platelets count. Conclusion: Male has higher prevalence of NAFLD in the age group 41-60. Significant relation observed with RBS, HbA1c, SGOT, SGPT, HDL, LDL, TG, PT/INR, and prevalence of fatty liver by USG and Fibro scan. Also observed that Fibro scan helps in diagnosing advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis prior to ultrasonography.

  22. I Dewa Gede Agung Putra Diatmika, Ni Ketut Supasti Dharmawan and Putu Aras Samsithawrati

    This study aims to elaborate on cyber notary arrangements related to notary services in making electronic authentic deeds and the urgency of storing them through cloud computing. This study uses normative legal research methods with primary, secondary, and tertiary sources of legal materials, and uses the snowball technique in tracing legal materials with argumentative descriptive analysis. The results of the study show that making electronic authentic deeds and storing them in cloud computing is not included in the scope of a cyber notary in the context of other notary authorities as stipulated in Article 15 paragraph (3) of the Notary Official Law. Thus, a notarial deed made electronically is not perfect evidence. Electronic-based notary services play an important and necessary role in supporting business transactions that are more effective and efficient and have legal certainty in the digital technology era, as well as storing minutes of deeds through cloud computing is relevant to be regulated in relation to physical storage loads that require space and operational costs avoiding physical damage to the minutes of deed documents due to termites or humidity in the storage room. Transformation of the concept of a cyber notary in a broader context includes the making of deeds electronically, both Remote Online Notary and Hybrid Notary, as well as storage of minutes of deeds with cloud computing based on the security of important electronic document data based on rules that have legal certainty.

  23. Jolly Daniel, Abhilash Venunathan, Ajmal Roshan, Amina Dilsha, Anna Rose C Mathew, Fidha Fathima, Ruba Sherin, Sabid and 3Shahana

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in both developed and underdeveloped countries, comprising 23%of all female cancers around the globe, with an estimated 1.15 million cases diagnosed in 2002. The present study aimed to explore the attitude of South Indian women reading breast cancer and its prevention strategies. The data collected from 320 samples with a help of attitude questionnaire. A stratified random sampling technique adopted in the present study. The result of the study shows 23.75% of women had a neutral attitude towards breast cancer and it prevention. The study also indicated that there is a significant relationship between attitude with age (p=0.03), attitude with educational status (p=0.043). Early diagnosis and treatment act as a preventive measure for breast cancer. Nurse-led clinics are a novel concept in cancer care, so these clinics can serve as a driving force in improving the attitude of the public regarding breast cancer and its prevention.

  24. Aulakh, B.S.

    The body tape cities are a new reality in countries like India taking shape due to the unwanted, irrational, excessive and haphazard city development. Even one step ahead, they can be called mummified cities. There are unregistered and unlawful residential colonies sprouting like mushrooms which are then recognized and licensed due to highhandedness, corruption and connivance of public authorities. These colonies have no proper parks, playgrounds, lakes, green lands and lush lanes. The trees on the sides of roads, streets etc are either felled or concrete platforms erected all around them. There is hardly a bare land left. But still scarce greenery does exist in the form of narrow strips of unused land on both sides of roads, streets etc with little grass or herbs. Even if small, such greenery and land strips are necessary for maintaining a tangible ecosystem. It provides with sufficient oxygen rich clean air however small; to breathe plus it also provides enough free space for absorption of rain water to keep the underground water level slush, viscous and barometrically compatible. Instead of increasing such greenery, nowadays highly unwanted so called developmental work like pucca pavements is being undertaken in the name of city beautification on a war footing which has resulted in the encroachment of this already scarce greenery and bare land. God knows only who decides this needless and harmful beautification drive? This seems to be the result of an unholy nexus amongst politicians, corporates, bureaucrats and technocrats and the motive behind such an activity may be the purposeful methodology aimed at embezzlement of public funds. This has had a disastrous ecological impact on the general biology and environment of the cities. This has led to the destruction of many life forms such as natural weeds, herbs, algae, fungi and many more in the botanical kingdom and countless animal species like earthworms, crabs, beetles, moths, maggots, crawlers, creepers, borers and microorganisms etc on the animal side plus it has also led to the depletion of water levels in city areas to limits beyond critical values. All this needs to be reversed and repaired immediately. Pucca pavements are a very big threat to the quantum of life of human, animal and plant descent. Instead we should have mandatory grass strips with other greenery superimposed. A critical ecological audit and an affirmative action is the need of the hour to stop this self destructive race to nowhere.

  25. Wendpanga Rodrigue KABORE and Emilie Laeticia SANON

    Work is a defining element of human existence. It is the way to keep us alive and meet basic needs. But it is also an activity through which people affirm their identity, in relation to themselves and in relation to those around them. Work is crucial for individual choice, the well-being of families and the stability of societies. In Burkina, we have almost 3 226 627 persons are living with disabilities as almost 6.48% of the total population, according to the data of the Ministery of women of national solidarity of the family and humanitarian action. According to the results of a study by the Ministry of Youth, Vocational Training and Employment (MYVTE) in collaboration with the International Labor Office (ILO), people with disabilities have less access to education (27%) compared to people without disabilities (31%). Also PWD are more affected by unemployment (5.6%) compared to people without disabilities (3.3%); and people with disabilities are more present in precarious salaried jobs (21%) compared to people without disabilities (13%). This means that PWD faced an employability problem. These low rates explain the fact that even working people with disabilities are often under-employed and relegated to low-skilled, low-paid jobs with little or no social and legal security. Indeed, what are the different factors which are causing these low rates? In order to look for the reasons for these low rates, we will by this research look for the profiles characteristics of the persons principally the youth with disabilities in Ouagadougou, koudougou and Bobo Dioulasso. With a main goal which is to analyze the situation of the youth with a disability (YWD) according to the criteria of level of study and employability in order to enhance their lifestyle instead of letting their self-confidence affected because it may discourage or even making them feeling different and could make them give up their activity. Normally the youth, without difference even with their disability has the right and the need to work to earn a living, support their families, benefit from community recognition, and improve their self-confidence and realize their life.

  26. Dr. Pradnya V. Bansode, Dr. Seema D. Pathak Dr. Wavdhane, M. B. and Dr. Nisha Dalal

    Objective: Nasal continuous Anterior teeth are an integral part of facial aesthetics as they are involved in complex social and cultural interactions and have a high social impact. Discoloration of non-vital teeth is intrinsic in nature and can be of various aetiologies. A conservative treatment modality for managing such cases is through non-vital bleaching technique. Many methods to bleach non-vital teeth have been suggested. The most recommended procedure is the walking bleach technique. This technique is known to be simple, safer, and more agreeable to both the patients as well as dentists. The case reports in the present article aim to demonstrate the successful aesthetic rehabilitation of discoloured non-vital maxillary anterior teeth using walking bleach technique.

  27. Wendpanga Rodrigue KABORE

    Digital media today are facilitating factors for interpersonal exchange, for sharing data between groups, members of institutions, residents of the same country and the world in general. This equipment, which is undergoing rapid technological progress, is similar to the equipment used to measure the performance of software or programs, whose compilation of several languages gives us a platform working with different objectives. Among these platforms there are digital social networks that refer to software processors and transmit the data of several people according to the sender and the receiver at the same time. These NSN are becoming an addiction for many users, with more than 4.5 billion users worldwide, the majority of whom are young. These tools that interconnect, assist in learning, free and paid training, are also marketing tools for some entrepreneurs. However, they are also a source of remoteness, isolation, occupation of time and dependence in a word for its users. Used all over the world, Burkinabe learners do not stay on the sidelines of this technological push that runs the streets. From the youngest to the oldest, from the least educated to the most educated, Whats App, Facebook, Tiktok and so on become the words of the vogue, used as the name of club and restaurants and whose sole purpose is to gather, attract, in short to be fashionable. These Burkinabe learners will say no more about the benefits of these NHRs in their school environment, in university life or in the quest for knowledge and employment.

  28. Ade Arsianti

    Background: Cancer is a condition in which aberrant cells develop out of control. Breast cancer and colon cancer are two malignancies with significant occurrence rates. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and surgery are a few of the therapeutic alternatives. Despite these obstacles, attempts have been made to investigate novel therapy methods, such as utilizing compounds found in plants. The pencil cactus (Euphorbia tirucalli) is a well-known medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, antiviral, analgesic, and anticancer properties. According to earlier research, Euphorbia tirucalli has anticancer properties. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Euphorbia tirucalli against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. Methods: Euphorbia tirucalli was extracted using the maceration process using ethanol, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate as the solvents. Using the MTT test methods the cytotoxic activity of each extract against colorectal HT-29 and breast MCF-7 cancer cells was assessed. Results: Ethanol extract of Euphorbia tirucalli exhibited a moderate cytotoxic effects with an IC50 value of 33.88 g/mL toward breast MCF-7 cancer cells, and 34.86 g/mL toward colorectal HT-29 cancer cells, respectively. N-hexane extract of Euphorbia tirucallihad a low cytotoxic effect with IC50 values of 631.5 g/mL and 919.13 g/mL against breast MCF-7 and colorectal HT-29 cancer cells, respectively. Conclusion: It is important to continue developing Euphorbia tirucalli as a potential anti-breast and anti-colorectal cancer drugs as it exhibits cytotoxic effect against colorectal HT-29 and breast MCF-7 cancer cells.

  29. Ravindra Janga, Balakrishna Nallamothu and Mr. P. Karimulla

    Objective: Nowadays, people are busy with their work from the start of the day throughout. Every day when people return from work, especially who are doing their work on the computer for the whole day: they just get tired of operating the devices like computers or mobile phones. So, all they need is their stuff or information at a glance. While people are getting ready, or when people are there in the bathroom or near the sink, they cannot use their mobile phones.As people use a mirror while they are getting ready, but what if this mirror gives them every possible information they want. So, we are building up a” Smart Mirror” which gives daily weather updates, news, schedules, alarms, reminders and many more features. So, while a person is getting ready, at the same time, he/she can get all the required information and it will be helpful to the people who often forget the schedules and things. Also, near the sink, in the washroom/bathroomif there is a mirror like this, a person may not require to take their phones there. Using this mirror, one can get updates as well as live video streaming, education videos, multimedia activities can also be made available.

  30. Mary Subha Rani. D and Dr. A. Reena Evency

    Aim: To explore the Lived-in experience of coping strategies among spouses of mentally ill patients. Design: A qualitaitive phenomenological research design using reflexive thematic analysis. Methods: Phenomenological qualitative approach was adopted for this study. Ten spouses based on the predetermined criteria were selected using purposive sampling technique and the data were collected using interview guide with leading questions, which consists of 30 open ended questions. Results: Participants described their lived - in experience of coping strategies among spouses of mentally ill patients. Three distinct themes and different patterns emerged from the analysis. The themes and its patterns covered Behavior coping experiences, Family coping skills, Occupation coping experiences, Emotion coping experiences, Financial coping experiences, Partner related coping. Conclusion: The research findings identified the lived-in experience of coping strategies among spouses of mentally ill patients. Some spouses of mentally ill use positive coping strategies to manage their stressful situation, such as acceptance, religious coping and the utilization of appropriate social support which include family, friends and community. Few spouses use negative coping strategies such as the use of avoidance and impulsive decision. By exploration of the lived-in experience of coping strategies among spouses of mentally ill patients, the researcher found that this qualitative study can be a foundation stone to conduct further interventional studies for the people who are affected with spouses of mentally ill patients.

  31. Dr. Richa Agrawal, Dr. Pinky Bhagat, Dr. Kapil Choyal, Dr. Bhawini Vijaywargiya, Dr. Ritu Dhoundiyal and Dr. R. S. Parihar

    Background: Neonatal sepsis is a clinical syndrome of bacteremia with systemic signs and symptoms of infection in the first 4 weeks of life1. Most common micro-organisms causing neonatal bacteremia are Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Group B streptococci3 etc. Bacteremia in Obstetric patients is also a major health concern leading to ICU admission &leades to maternal mortality worldwide 9. Objective: This study was done to analyse gram negative bacteremia and their drug susceptibility pattern among neonates and obstetric patients so that timely appropriate antibiotics therapy be initiated. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Maternal and Child tertiary care hospital from 1 October 2022 to 31 December 2022. Total of 471 suspected case of septicemia were included. Out of 471 patients, 369 (78.34%) patients were pediatrics and 102(21.65%) OBG patients. Blood was collected from suspected cases of bacteremia in Automated blood culture bottles & incubated by automated blood culture system (BD Bactec machine) for 7 days. Positive flagged bottles were processed & species were identified as per standard laboratory protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by Kirby bauer disk diffusion method as per CLSI guideline 2022. Result: 43 (9.12%) bottles were culture positive for gram negative bacteria. Most common GNB isolated were Acinetobacter species (37.20%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.25%), Escherichia coli (18.60%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (16.27%) and showed resistance to Ampicillin (100%) Amoxicillin-clavulanate (93.02%), Ceftriaxone (76.74%), Ceftazidime (76.74%). They were sensitive to Meropenem (100%), Imipenem (88.38%), Amikacin (95.35%), Gentamicin (74.52%). Conclusion: Acinetobacter were the most common isolated pathogen. Routine surveillance of Antimicrobial profile and Antibiotic sensitivity is required to prevent emergence of drug resistance among bacteria.

  32. Dr. Shyamala, R., Mr. Kamalakar Sarva and Dr. Meely Panda

    Biomedical waste (BMW) is the waste which is generated during Diagnosis, treatment, immunization and biomedical research, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2018), approximately 85% biomedical waste is non-hazardous and 15% is hazardous waste to humans, animals and environment (1). Every year, it is estimated that at least 5•2 million people, including 4 million children, die each year because of diseases related to unmanaged medical waste (2). India is one of the largest population countries; the biomedical waste management is one of the toughest challenge and COVID19 pandemic increases the problem even more. The number of persons infected with the COVID 19 is continuously raising throughout the world, to diagnosis and management of the infection, usage of the personal protective equipments like PPE kits, masks, gloves, shoe covers, face shields are increased in the hospitals and discarding of waste generated in home quarantines was also increased. This mini- review, we highlighted the challenges to disposal of biomedical waste during COVID 19 pandemic in India.

  33. *Flores-Encarnación, M., Hernández-Hernández F.C., Aguilar-Gutiérrez G.R. and Cabrera-Maldonado C.

    Essential oils are volatile aromatic compounds present in the leaves, stems, and fruit shells. They are abundant in nature and have monoterpene compounds with antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. In recent years, interest in essential oils has increased, since their antiproliferative properties have been studied. This work shows some aspects related to the antiproliferative effect of essential oils in cancer cell lines.

  34. Mathieu Mahougnon KAKPO, Evrard Karol EKOUEDJEN, Safiou BOURAÏMA, Gaston GANHOUN, Farid ADAMON and Latif Adéniyi FAGBEMI

    Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic materials and could be utilized to produce syngas (H2 and CO) via reforming technology such as tri reforming. Biogas tri reforming is a simultaneous combination of endothermic dry reforming and steam reforming with exothermic oxidation of methane, carried out in a single reactor to produce a syngas which is an important gas mixture feedstock to produce chemicals and energy carriers. Then, the process allows overcoming several weaknesses of each individual principal reforming process. This paper presents a literature review on recent achievements in biogas tri reforming process for syngas production in terms of processes description, parameters influencing, kinetics of reactions and Mathematical models and in the term of catalysts appropriate for the tri reforming. For this purpose, a swot analysis is carried out to identify the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities of each model in order to deduce gaps to be filled by the development of new approaches to modelling the tri reforming process.

  35. Fu Zhihan, Zhang Jun and Yu Chunwei

    A novel Al3+selective probe was rationally constructed based on naphthalene derivative. Compared to other tested metal ions, the probe displayed the selective recognition for Al3+which could be detected by a significant turnon fluorescent response at 442 nm with a detection limit of 1.33 μM Al3+. Besides, a 1:1 metal-ligand complex was confirmed by Job’s plot experiment.

  36. Moumita Nath and Dr. Pradip Debnath

    COVID-19 is a burning issue to the health workers, researchers, and government officials. It creates the biggest crisis to human health and adversely affects the economic growth worldwide. Education sector is badly affected due to COVID-19 pandemic. Worldwide, all schools, colleges, and other higher educational institutions have been closed in an effort to reduce the transmission of the virus. As a result, billions of learners were left out of school and compelled them to stay at home. Under these situations, the online teaching learning is the only way to continue study. But it is very difficult to adjust suddenly to a fully digital online learning mode when all the students are acquainted with classroom teaching and campus environment. In this paper, we performed a survey on the uses of educational technologies in teaching learning during COVID-19 pandemic situation in the state Tripura, India.

  37. Tian Hang and Jun Zhang

    Fluorescence probe method is widely used for the detection of environmental target substances due to the advantages of high selectivity and stability. This paper used pyrene as the fluorescent group, introduced excellent coordination groups, and constructed a new type of highly selective fluorescent probe. Probe P was highly selective for Cu2+over other metal ions. With the increase of Cu2+ concentration, the fluorescence intensityat463nm increased with a linear correlation from 1.0 to 9.0 μ M, and a minimum detection limit of 0.33μM.

  38. Taskeen Nishat, Mouli Chakroborty and Dr. Priya Srivastava

    The growth of vegetation of any area depends on many factors. One of the most imporatnt factor is soil which is of various types. In this research paper, the physico-chemical attributes which have been chosen are colour, texture, pH, total moisture content, organic carbon, chloride content and calcium carbonate,etc. These samples have been taken from 5 different areas of Ranchi district. Collection of soil samples is the first step which has been done in a proper manner. The samples have been collected upto the depth of 0-25 cm free from any litter and pebbles. The colour of the samples were light brown to dark brown. The texture of the soil sample varied from sandy loam to silty loam. The pH of the collected samples varied between 6. 9 to 7. 4. The moisture content of these soils ranged from 19% to 47%. The chloride content varies from 110. 05mg/l to 532. 5mg/l. The organic matter in the samples were moderate to higher with values ranging from 0. 20% to 2. 81%. The calcium carbonate content of these areas varied from 6% to 13. 5%.

  39. Macha Meghana Lakshmi, Chitithoti Rishitha, Tripasuri Venkata Radhika, Samanvi Ratna Badri Satya and Vadigepalli Sandhya

    Introduction: Dentin Hypersensitivity (DH) is a frequently encountered pathology in the dental office and its management poses a challenge to clinicians. Two treatment modalities: Home-use (Mouthwashes & Dentifrice) and In-Office (Restorative, Endodontic & Periodontal therapies). Diode Laser is under the limelight since a decade for the treatment of DH. Aim of the study: To compare the efficacy of Diode Laser with commercially available Desensitizing Mouthwash and Dentifrice in the management of DH. Materials & methods: A total of 30 patients diagnosed with DH are included in the study; who are categorized into 3 groups i.e; Group 1 (n=10) treated with Diode Laser with a wavelength of 810/980nm for about 30 seconds to 1 minute; Group 2 (n=10) prescribed Di-Potassium Oxalate Monohydrate Mouthwash (VANTEJ AQUA) and Group 3 (n=10) prescribed Calcium Sodium Phospho-silicate Dentifrice (VANTEJ). Evaluation of DH was done based on patient’s subjective response using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Numerical Scale (NS) at baseline, 1 week & 1 month. Results & Conclusion: The DIODE LASER has greater percentage change in reducing DH within a 1month follow-up period compared to desensitizing mouthwash and dentifrice.

  40. Hua Siwei, Lin Xinyu, Zhang Jun and Yu Chunwei

    A Fe3+-selective fluorescent probe derived from pyrene derivatives was synthesized and characterized. The fluorescence intensity of the probe at 397 nm was enhanced with the addition of Fe3+. In the range of 1-9μM, there was an obvious linear correlation between the fluorescent intensity and the concentration of Fe3+. The UV-vis spectra also indicated that the binding of between the probe and Fe3+.

  41. Justine Ayuk Etah

    Migration by sub-Saharan Africans to Europe and North America has gained significant media attention and interest from migration scholars in the past two decades. African migrants represent about one-third of global migrants. Migration statistics from mid-year 2020 suggest that Africans make up at least 25.4 million of the 281 million people residing outside their countries of birth. The feminization of international migration has equally been increasing over the past twenty years, resulting in a growing interest in gender-responsive approaches to migration studies among feminist migration scholars. The need for more scholarship on the gendered experiences of male and female migrants, likewise the effects of migration on transformation in gender roles and gender relations are constantly being echoed by feminist migration scholars. This paper is an attempt in this direction. It interrogates how the out-migration of men and women from South West Cameroon affect gender role, gender relation, and hierarchies in migrant households, based on the narratives of non-migrant household members left behind. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ninety-seven participants (68 from male-led and 29 from female-led migrant households). The assessment of the relationship between gender and migration indicates that gender intersects with patriarchy in shaping household migration decisions, privileging more males and single females, than married females as potential migrants. Findings further suggest that while traditional gender roles of non-migrant women are most likely to be redefined due to male migration, this is not associated with transformations in power relations over household decision-making in favour of women. Conversely, female-led migrants, who are daughters, tend to have more influence in household decision-making as they assume the new status of breadwinners.

  42. Karan Chawla

    Network components between devices and the cloud carry out application-specific functionality in a fog computing architectural style. Healthcare is currently undergoing some of its most fundamental transformations. Wireless sensor technology is one of the forces behind these changes. In addition to providing access to a greater variety of biometric characteristics, sensors are growing smaller so they may be worn without interfering with daily activities. Fog computing's topology, or the geographically dispersed nodes that carry out computation and provide storage and network services, is its defining feature. Access points, routers, and network gateways can incorporate fog computing resources in addition to the standard network features. Instead of transferring IoT data to the cloud, the fog processes and stores it locally at IoT devices. The fog offers services that are more responsive and of higher quality than the cloud. Fog computing may thus be the greatest option for enabling the IoT to offer effective and secure services to a large number of IoT users. By emphasizing the advantages and implementation difficulties, this article demonstrates the state-of-the-art of fog computing and its integration with the IoT. Right now, healthcare is undergoing some of the most significant transformations ever. Wireless sensor technologies are one of the main reasons for these changes. Many of the objects we use on a daily basis may soon be able to connect to the Internet and communicate with one another without the need for human intervention, thanks to the Internet of Things. This review paper examines fog computing and its applications in Healthcare, Cloud Computing and Internet of Things.

  43. Karan Chawla

    A computational resource, such as a computer, server, or other piece of hardware, or a software-based resource, such as an operating system, can be created in a virtual form through virtualization. A method known as "digital twins," which compares digital objects with physical ones, was developed by researchers from the aerospace administration and was first proposed many years ago. The physics-controlled system may be edited, simulated, and examined using the digital models, which are based on digital twins. Due to the quickly shifting client demands, car manufacturers are currently dealing with a number of difficulties in meeting the delivery date. This happens as a result of several kinds of car bodywork being manufactured on the same line to satisfy the demands of various models' short life cycles. Accordingly, many facilities are needed for each step since different kinds of vehicle body manufacturers must be carried out. Due to the substantial quantity of machinery required, the manufacturing facility has a convoluted production chain. As a result, there are malfunctions at various facilities, which leads to faulty goods. The aforementioned issues make it impossible to follow the manufacturing schedule. In vehicle manufacturing facilities, it can be difficult to meet delivery deadlines since unplanned anomalous occurrences, such as product faults and equipment failures, regularly happen. Private information that has unanticipated, undesirable impacts on the subject's (driver's) privacy may be included in the data acquired. The scenario's goal is to demonstrate how the Digital Twin can be used as a tool to enhance privacy that links dynamic privacy data to the services of various stakeholders, produces fresh insights into privacy parameters, and spots privacy anomalies that can then be automatically reported back to the subjects. This review paper addresses the use of digital twin technology for the betterment of Automotive technology such as production lines, privacy use and Electric Vehicles.

  44. MADJI Magloire, Issa GARBA and Maxime BANOIN

    Dry related to climate change and insecurity in the Sahel and West Africa may affect the information needs and practices of pastoralists. Knowledge of these practices and information needs is necessary to design and deliver information services that support their resilience. A structured questionnaire including dichotomous, multiple choice and open-ended questions was used to interview 1008 herders, including 530 agropastoralists and 498 pastoralists in Benin and Niger, and eight focus groups were organized on this issue. The results showed that the majority of herders seek information through several sources, with a preference for herders' organizations (64.65% of transboundary transhumants) and elders (52.52% of nationals). More than half of the herders surveyed use simple cell phones and reported significantly (P < 0.01) needing information on a local scale (54.13% of national transhumants), a reduced time step (weekly to decadal), an affordable cost (1 to 30 F CFA) and accessible by phone on natural resources, animal health, mobility conditions and security conditions. This information can be used to design relevant information services, for which we recommend taking into account the environment and the socio-cultural context of the herders.

  45. Issaka BOUBACAR ALI, Issa GARBA, ZAKARI SEYBOU Abdourahamane, Illa SALIFOU and Maxime BANOIN

    The forage mass of herbaceous and woody plants is the main source of food for livestock in pastoral rangelands in the Sahelian and Sub-Danian zones. This study aims to assess the biomass of woody and herbaceous species using the normalized difference vegetation index NDVI derived from multispectral Red-Green-Blue and near-infrared drone images and photogrammetric parameters. A Dji Phantom multispectral UAV was used to collect images from four pilot sites in Niger and Benin. Ground measurements of herbaceous biomass using the integrated yield square method and estimation of woody leaf phytomass using dendrometric parameters calculated with allometric equations were used to assess the performance of the drone-based model. The results showed that the herbaceous biomass estimated with the drone had an R² coefficient of determination of 0.59-0.86 and relative root mean square estimation errors (RMSEr) of 19.86% to 26.84% with ground measurements, at a significance level of p < 0.0001. As for woody biomass, an R² of 0.58-0.69 and an RMSEr of 14.16% to 39.55% at a p-value < 0.0001 were obtained.

  46. Dr. Parvathi, G.

    Primary Heath Centre is the basic health unit which constitutes the corner stone of the rural health care. It’s aim is to provide as close to the people as possible, an integrated curative and preventive health care to the rural population with emphasis on preventive and promotive aspects of health care. Primary Heath Centres all over India and in Anantapuram District played a crucial role in managing the pandemic. Lessons learnt from the COVID‑19 pandemic will help countries strengthen their health system’s response to health emergencies and ensure continuity of care for people through primary health centers.

  47. Dasmabai Banothu, Vijay Bhaskar Gajula, Deepika Gongati and Jyothi Jatavath

    A 3 months old male indigenous pup was presented with the history of vomitings, diarrohea and worms in faeces to Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. On clinical examination revealed normal parameters of temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate. conjunctival and buccal mucosal membranes are pale, skin tentation time was 3 seconds, deworming and vaccination not done. On microscopic examination of faecal sample revealed taenia ova. The collected worm was processed in laboratory of veterinary Parasitology and diagnosed as dog tapeworm Taenia hydatigena based on uternine branches of gravid segments. On haematological examination revealed decreased Red blood cells and Hematocrit. The pup was successfully managed with Dewormer tablet Eazy pet® @7.5mg/kg body weight (praziquantel, pyrental pamoate and febental, Intas Pharmaceuticals) and supportive therapy was provided with Pure crystalline essential aminoacids, iron sucrose, ondansetron and aRBCe pet syrup. pup showed improvement on third day of treatment and complete recovery noticed on 14th day of treatment. After 14th day faecal sample was examined and revealed no parasitic ova. Hence Deworming played significantly an important role in control of tapeworm infection and animal health.

  48. Dr. Darshanam Vijay Kumar

    In the present research work gastro retentive floating matrix formulation of flucloxacillin by using various hydrophilic polymers. Initially analytical method development was done for the drug molecule. Absorption maxima was determined based on that calibration curve was developed by using different concentrations. Gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate concentration was optimized. Then the formulation was developed by using different concentrations of polymers of various natural polymers. The formulation blend was subjected to various preformulation studies, flow properties and all the formulations were found to be good indicating that the powder blend has good flow properties. Among all the formulations the formulation prepared with Guar gum retarded the drug release up to 12 hours in the concentration of 45 mg (F9).The optimized formulation was subjected to invivo studies. From the results of In vivo studies conducted between final optimized formulation and marketed formulation of, it can be concluded that bioavailability of final optimized formulation was higher than the marketed formulation as well as pure drug.

  49. Md. Mizanur Rahman

    Division a/b is the number that how many times b is subtracted from a until reduced value is 0. Modulus division a%b or, a mod b is the number that is obtained by subtracting from a the maximum multiple of b that is less than or equal to a. Similarly, we can define two binary operations between two numbers: power division and power modulus division (proposed names) with operators / ̂ and % ̂ (proposed symbols) respectively. Power division a/ ̂b is the number that how many times a is divided by b until reduced value is 1. Power modulus division a% ̂bis the number that is obtained by subtracting from a themaximum power of b that is less than or equal to a. This article proposes these two operations with names and symbols and their applications which makes the formula of Josephus problem into simpler form.

  50. Dr. Pradnya V. Bansode, Dr. Seema D. Pathak, Dr. M. B. Wavdhane and Dr. Aarti Pathak

    One of dentistry’s primary objectives is the long term maintenance of teeth. Hemisection of a molar is either removal or separation of a root along with its accompanying part of crown .Hemisection. is a suitable treatment option when caries, resorption, perforation, or periodontal damage is extensive in one root while the other root is relatively healthy. Hemisection of the affected tooth helps to retain tooth structure, surrounding alveolar bone, and may also facilitate the placement of fixed prosthesis. This case report describes hemisection as a successful treatment method to save a grossly carious mandibular second molar with severe furcation involvement. Hemisection and prosthetic rehabilitation yielded a satisfactory result.Hence with careful treatment planning and precise surgical management, undesirable consequences of tooth loss were prevented.

  51. Mrs. Radha, T. and Mrs. Nandhini, R

    Annona muricata is a tropical plant which has been utilized as a folk medicine to treat many diseases including cancer and many other bioactivities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the leaf extracts and to analyze its medicinal importance in cancer therapy. Additionally, the study determined the mineral elements such as Fe and Mg which are the structural component of tissues and essential for the functioning of all the cells. Vitamin C is a well-known antioxidant that helps to strengthen immune system by reducing the amount of free radicals in the body. A. muricata leaf extracts were evaluated for the scavenging assay (DPPH;1-1-diphenyl-2- picryhydrazyl), (FRAP-Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and the study shows that the leaf extracts have good scavenging activity. The antibacterial activity of leaf extract was examined by disc diffusion method in Gram negative and Gram-positive bacterium. Invitro test against breast cancer cell growth was conducted using the MCF-7 cell line by means of the MTT-assay. Ethanol leaf extract have highest anticancer activity with an IC50 value of 141.56µg/ml. The results obtained from the analysis showed that the leaves of A. muricata has the property to inhibit the cell growth and it has medicinal properties and could be good source of drugs for treating cancer.

  52. Dr. Rangoli Srivastava, Dr. Pradeep Tangade, Dr. Surbhi Priyadarshi, Dr. Priya Agarahari, Dr. Tannu Kumari and Dr. Sonal Subhangi

    This article provides an overview of e-cigarettes, including their history and evolution, benefits and risks for smoking cessation, impact on public health and regulation, controversy surrounding flavored e-cigarettes and their appeal to youth, potential long-term health effects, effectiveness as a harm reduction tool, role in reducing smoking-related health disparities, connection to traditional tobacco products, marketing tactics used by companies which manufacture them and its particular effect on consumer behavior, and their potential role in the future of smoking and nicotine use. While e-cigarettes have been promoted as a less harmful option for already present products based on tobacco, their impact on health in the longer run are still uncertain, and there is ongoing debate around their potential impact on public health, particularly among youth. Future investigations are required so that all the harms and benefits of e-cigarette use are known and so that authorities can develop effective regulatory policies to reduce the negative health impacts of tobacco use.

  53. Manjula, K.V. and Renukadevi, D.N.

    Darling disease is also called as Histoplasmosis. It is one type of fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) and it is acquired through contaminated soil with droppings of chicken or birds. The common symptoms are high fever, cough, and asthenia and weight loss. Lessions on skin and oral cavity. Most of the time we can observe as asymptomatic. People who are suffering from HIV, cancer, and organ transplant recipients are at risk of developing this disease due to less immune system. Proper preventive measures and appropriate diagnosis and treatment on correct time can reduce the further complication of these fungal infections. Person-to-person spread of histoplasmosis does not occur.

  54. Sadiq Kaid Al-Mohani, Rawia Ali Alodeny, Sally Ali Alodeny, Asma'a basher Al- Sharaei, Sondos Faisal Al-Bokhiti, Kifah Ahmed Al-Basha, Hagar Mohammed Fara'a, Asmahan Abdullah Algableen and Amat Al-Rahman Ali Al-Jabri

    Background: Preeclampsia and it's complications is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in Yemen. Globally, Yemen ranks as one of the top countries with the highest maternal mortality. To the best of our knowledge no similar study has been done at Jiblah University Hospital, Yemen. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the Prevalence and associated factors of preeclampsia among pregnant women Attending Jiblah University Hospital, Yemen. Methods: A hospital-based cross sectional study design was utilized. A total 100 pregnant women attended Antenatal Care Clinic at Jiblah University Hospital, Yemen and selected randomly. Two tools were used: Tool (1): A structured closed-ended questionnaire included Socio-demographic data, behavioral factors, medical history. Tool (2): Physical examination of the pregnant women. Collected data were analyzed by using SPSS Version 26. Bivariate data analysis using the Chi-square test. P-value is considered statistically significant when P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of preeclampsia was 15%. among participants in the study. There was a significant association between number of previous pregnancies, hypertension, diabetes for pregnant women, obesity, previous preeclampsia, and prior knowledge of preeclampsia. Conclusions: Multiple risk factors are predicting preeclampsia, such; as number of previous pregnancies hypertension, diabetes for pregnant women, obesity, previous preeclampsia, and prior knowledge of preeclampsia which can be used as a preventing tool of preeclampsia.

  55. Mrs. Shaheen Bano

    Present Study throws lights on Teacher Aptitude towards teaching in B. Ed as well as Degree College of District Kishtwar of Jammu and Kashmir UT. Aptitude can be defined as someone’s natural ability to do something. Teaching aptitude, hence, refers to an individual’s innate ability in teaching. In addition to this, it can also be defined as the ability of a person to teach, once they are given the necessary training. The teaching aptitude means an interest in the teaching work orientation, implementing teaching principles and methods. Under the gamut of teaching aptitude, teaching skill occupies a major place. Teaching aptitude is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things. Interventions commonly take the form of questioning, listening, giving information, explaining some phenomenon, demonstrating a skill or process, testing understanding and capacity, and facilitating learning activities (such as note-taking, discussion, assignment writing, simulations, and practice).

  56. Dr. Rochelle Dias, Dr. Himanshu Kanungo, Dr. Mukesh Gupta, Dr. Kratika Mishra and Dr. Akanksha Soni

    One of the most challenging tasks in the world of orthodontics is the treatment of impacted teeth. The maxillary permanent canine plays the role of preserving the occlusal symmetry and harmony of the soft-tissue. There is a considerable opportunity of impaction because the permanent maxillary canines have a long and complex course of eruption and shift their orientation after striking the lateral incisor root.Over time, a number of prognostic factors have been identified, which have aided in treatment planning. The goal of this review was to provide a bird’s eye view on the prognosis of impacted canines and create awareness resulting in interceptive treatment and early recognition.

  57. Marc Grenier

    The general argument here is that Ehrman’s a priori stance towards Scripture leads him to employthe tools of contemporary biblical study prejudicially with the expressed purpose of converting selected content into an illusory creation of the human imagination or, in other words, to render it mythological, thereby justifying conclusions already held prior to rather than after analysis of biblical texts. In effect, the claim is that Ehrman’s implicit goal prior to biblical study is to make of the Gospel no Gospel at all, ideologically in tune with his own personal life deconversion from Christianity and conversion to self-professed atheistic status. To support this argument, the essay adopts a broad multifaceted critical social-scientific approach which looks closely at Ehrman’s personal life and attempts to make his sweeping pejorative theological claims about the Gospel intelligible in the light of these factors. The essay begins by providing a general overview of Ehrman’s life and career in order to place analysis within some kind of personal historical context. Then it critically reviews and comparatively evaluates some of the central elements and motifs of textual criticism in general and Ehrman’s preferred type of textual critical approach for studying New Testament manuscripts in particular. A small subset of Ehrman’s writings from some of his most popular books isthen critically assessed and examined for any possible links between personal biographical factors and general patterns in perspective and theological claims as well as links to broader American cultural trends. Lastly, several glaring ironies in Ehrman’s major work are briefly discussed.

  58. Marc Grenier

    This essay applies a biblical hermeneutic of faith to explore some of the key premises, presuppositions, and philosophical assumptions contained in the concept of interreligious dialogue. The etymological and historical roots of the ‘dialogue’ concept are discussed and some of the essential features of the core types of dialogue are presented. The concept of ‘church’ as a metaphorical heuristic device is then applied to the notion of ‘interreligious dialogue’ to describe the activities of the community of groups and individuals related to its support and advancement. The essay finds that its adherents and participants tend strongly to assume their activities not to be informed or infused by other institutional interests in contemporary culture and society such as political or economic. A brief historical review of Vatican I and II demonstrates that the church of interreligious dialogue (CIRD) actually began long ago, after which the Catholic theological wheels were set in motion to embrace secular culture unreservedly as a laudable goal without much consideration for the potential religious and socio-cultural downsides. The essay concludes that interreligious dialogue operates more to advance rather than to retard the process of removing Christian values from culture in modern society, contrary to biblical mandates. As far as unintentional effects, then, it turns out that secularizing faith means sacrificing faith in strict biblical terms.

  59. Dr. Diwakar Biswas and Dr. Amit Mehra

    Oral diseases can be very troublesome and can have bad impact on quality of life. Every people certainly face one or other oral problem in their life time. Bad breathing is one of the common mouth problems which reflect poor oral hygiene and some time systemic diseases, but rather than this, it can be a serious cause of embracement many times, resulting in lowering the self confidence and depression. Kavala is a simple procedure, mentioned as a part of Dinacharya, which upon practicing routinely, highly beneficial in oral conditions. Triphala has been explained in Ayurveda literatures with great importance in number of diseases. In mouth diseases Triphala is indicated very frequently, available widely, cost effective, with no or minimal side effects and suitable for all age groups. So this study was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of well emphasized and a cost effective therapy in managing and preventing Putivaktra and other oral conditions.

  60. Kishan Datta Bhatta

    Tourism is usually considered as a tool to provide social and economic benefits to local communities in the tourist destinations. Ecotourism as a subset of sustainable tourism is extensively advocated as an alternative strategy for community development in the mountain settlements. In this regard, this research adopted exploratory and descriptive approach to investigate the perceived economic impacts of ecotourism in the local communities of Everest region in Nepal. It considers settlements around Everest Trail as a case to critically examine the dynamics of tourism development and its impacts on local residents both residing along the major trail(MT) and off the trail(OT). Multiple methods of data collection such as questionnaire survey with households, key informants interview, participant observation, informal discussion with local entrepreneurs and residents, and archival research have been conducted. Research findings demonstrated that ecotourism has provided widespread socio- economic benefits to local people, but in a varying degree. It has not only provided local economic opportunities but also created challenges to promote equitable community development. More specifically, tourism has become an advantage for a specific group of people living along the major trails (MT) such as tourism entrepreneurs and trekking and mountaineering employees, while the other group of people such as farmers, labors, and low-wage employees who usually reside in OT or in the peripheral region receive limited benefits, but largely affected by the tourism-induced inflation. It explicitly suggests that tourism benefits are largely accrued to residents in MT and not distributed equitably between the residents of MT and OT. In addition, there seem economic leakages, poor integration of local products into tourism system and high inflation. It suggests adopting a comprehensive tourism planning approach that considers inclusive participation of local people, both from MT and OT, in the decision-making process and sharing of tourism benefits as well as for reducing economic leakages and strengthening its linkages.

  61. Snehasis Bhunia, Bonny Bhunia, Oindrila Bhuniya and Sohan Raj Tater

    There are many ways to relieve stress, such as 1) Taking regular exercise by going for a walk, 2) Considering supplements like taking herbal and natural supplements ( lemon balm, turmeric, ashwagandha, omega-3-fatthy acids) 3) Connecting with nature (spending outside i.e. away from home) 4) Aromatherapy (taking nice smell or calming scents from rose), 5) Journaling (writing positive finding in your life), 6) Listen to soothing music, 7) Singing, 8) Laughter, 9) Connect with friends, 10) Just say “No” , 11) Avoid procrastination, 12) Petting a dog or cat, 13) Mindfulness & Meditation, 14) Practice abdominal breathing, 15) Yoga practices, 16) Serving others or helping others, 17) Joining with morning or evening prayer 18)Eating satvic diet 19) Avoiding on telling lie and 20) Reducing caffeine intake. Above twenty steps are included in Yoga therapy. Yoga therapy is a type of therapy that concentrates on yoga exercises, practices, and philosophies, to improve mental and physical health. While the practice of yoga is commonly associated with stress-relief, yoga therapy can be helpful in the treatment of several other mental health conditions as well. Let us look on beneficial aspect of yoga therapy. Parasympathetic of autonomic is stimulated, resulting hardening characteristics of the arteries are reduced, heart rate comes down, blood pressure is reduced, respiratory rate is reduced and adequate perfusion of body tissues are noted. Beneficial effects of yoga therapy are many but there are very few who can understand. There are very few who can follow yoga therapy regularly. Reason is very clear; people do not have time to spend for this only (lack of time) Second most common reason people stop their practice is because they are just not seeing the results. Third one is absence of motivation. Motivation is rarely the cause of accomplishment and is so often the cause of inaction. When you are motivated, everything is easy. Developing a consistent practice takes discipline; it takes faith, takes self-control and deep concentration. Above all it takes DETERMINATION. Sometimes availability of finances can be another important reason behind keeping away from following yoga therapy. Staying with a consistent practice is not an easy task, but it is one of the best things we could possibly do for our overall health and wellbeing. The purity of thought is possible only with a faith in God bordering on definite experience.

  62. Mbouassa Ondieje, J.V, Elion Itou, R.D.G., Mambeke H. M., Boukongo R. P., Etou Ossibi AW, Morabandza C. J. and Abena, A.A.

    Dacryodes buttneri (Burseraceae) and Pseudospndias microcarpa (Anacardiaceae) are two plants used in traditional Congolese medicine in the form of a recipe in the treatment of several diseases. This study aimed to estimate the acute and subacute toxicity of the recipe. The acute toxicity of the aqueous extract (2000 and 5000 mg/kg) of the recipe was evaluated according to the OECD guideline in single administration. It appears that the aqueous extract of the recipe does not modify the general behavior of the animals and does not cause any mortality. This result suggests that the toxic doses would be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Subacute toxicity was evaluated in rats for 28 days using the high dose of 800 mg/kg. It appears from this study that the aqueous extract (800 mg/ kg) of the recipe in regular administration for 28 days does not modify the general behavior of the animals, does not cause any mortality and does not modify significantly (p>0.05) the relative weight of organs, biochemical and hematological parameters compared to control animals. On the other hand, histological examinations revealed venous toxicity in the liver, intestine and kidneys. This recipe should be used with caution in patients with a known history of liver, kidney and bowel disorders.





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