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An analytical study in north eastern India to unravel the tale of anaemia in pregnancy

Author: 
Dr. Kallol Bhattacharjee, Dr. Manish Jain, Dr. Chandra Prakash Thakur, Dr. Dwijen Das and Dr. Soumya Shankar Paul
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction: Anemia is a major public health issue affecting both developed and developing countries. As per WHO report (2011), globally 29.4% of women of reproductive age group and 38.2% of pregnant women are anemic. Same report revealed that 54% of pregnant women in India are anemic. There are various causes of anemia, most common being iron deficiency anemia, followed by nutritional deficiency anemia (folate, riboflavin. Vitamin B12) and many other causes. An anemic pregnant woman is at increased risk of not only of maternal and perinatal mortality but they are also at increased risk of serious impact on fetal health. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and types of anemia in pregnancy and to co relate the feto-maternal outcome with various types of anemia. Materials and Methods: A randomized prospective study was performed among first 5oo pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient department/ emergency labour room during the calendar year 2017 beginning with 1st January 2017. A total of 316 patients were included in study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and were subjected to detailed history, clinical workup and various investigations. Results and Observation: Prevalence of anemia was 63.2% among pregnant women. Maximum number of cases was in age group18-25 years of age (33%). Most of them belonged to rural community (63%) and from lower socioeconomic class (57.5%). Most cases had education up to primary level (54.3%) and were housewife by occupation (59.5%). Maximum number of cases was in 2nd trimester (43%) and mostly multigravida (57.5%). Most common presentations were fatigue (83%) and pallor (100%). Most patients were mildly anemic (51.8%) followed by moderate anemia (27.2%) and most common morphological type was microcytic anemia (56.5%). most common etiology noted was iron deficiency anemia (80.3%) followed by combined iron and folate/ vitamin B12 deficiency (11%). In present study preterm delivery, IUD baby and low birth weight baby was seen in 15%, 3% and 7.8% of anemic patients attending labour room. A total of 4.8% mortality was noted among patients attending labour/ emergency room.

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