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Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evaluation of Etiological Factors and Skill Development in Affected Children

Author: 
Dr. Nandini Vaz Fernandes
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are rather complex conditions, which may exhibit milder social abnormalities and communication impairment and less rigid interest restrictions in affected children. In some cases of ASDs there is a genetic cause either at the chromosomal or gene level. However many non genetic factors may also play an important role. The present study was focused on evaluating the possible non genetic causes especially to understand the potential risk posed by prenatal and post natal environmental factors. We also attempted to assess the academic and social skill development of ASD children in special school and compared it with the skill development of ASD affected children in regular school. A total number of 184 individuals were studied. According to the present study the potential risk factors for autism are advanced maternal age, stress during pregnancy, supplements taken, gestation period, parity, age gap between children and birth weight. The risk of ASD in pregnancy was reduced when the expecting mothers consumed folic acid-calcium supplement regularly. We conclude that stress during pregnancy can be a major risk factor for ASD. Skill assessment in ASD children revealed that there was considerable progressive improvement of social, play skills and academic skills in children, attending special care section of regular school, rather than ASD children attending special school when their IQ was ≥ 40. We observed that the special care section helped to address their unique needs and cultivate their talents as compared to those studying in a special school. Based on our observations we suggest that necessary measures can be taken to reduce the risk of ASD pregnancy and further extend support to ASD children to enhance their skills at regular school rather than at special school especially in children with IQ ≥ 40.

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