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A comparative study of blood smear, quantitative buffy coat and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria

Author: 
Rashmi, R., Ambica, R. and Nagarathnamma, T.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Malaria is a major health problem in India, as well as in Karnataka, accounting for sizeable morbidity, mortality and economic loss. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for diagnosis from decades. Recently, many new microscopic and non microscopic rapid diagnostic tests are being widely used. The present study was done to compare the sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value and Negative Predictive Value of Quantitative Buffy Coat examination and antigen detection test using HRP 2 and pLDH by taking Giemsa stained peripheral smear as standard reference. 150 clinically suspected cases were studied by Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear examination, QBC examination and antigen detection test. Out of 150, 56 (37.3%) cases were positive and 94(62.6%) were negative. Males were predominantly affected. P. vivax was the major parasite species causing malaria. 56 (37.3%), 53 (35.3%) and 49 (32.6%) cases were positive by PBS, QBC and antigen detection test respectively. Sensitivity of QBC was high (94.6%) followed by antigen detection (87.5%). QBC missed 3 cases and antigen detection test missed 7 cases which were positive in microscopy. PBS examination still remains the “Gold standard” for diagnosis of malaria. However, QBC and antigen detection test can be used for rapid diagnosis.

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