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An enquiry into the evolution and impact of human interference on the churni river of nadia district, West bengal

Author: 
Mitrajit Chatterjee
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Churni is a river in the Nadia district of West Bengal, India. It has been opined that the Churni is most probably an artificial canal, not a true river. Local history says, during the 17th century the river Churni was dug by the orders of Maharajah Krishna Chandra, the King of Nadia as a moat against the Bargees of Maharashtra. Only 80 years ago, in the 1930’s, it was the major trade route inside undivided Bengal. Now, the river has lost its navigability. The river is subjected to different anthropogenic activities throughout its course. The upper stretches receive discharges of sugar mill effluents from the Darshana sugar mill factory (situated in Bangladesh) and the lower stretch in India is subjected to water obstruction by bamboo-made barrages at several places. Retting of jute in the river water has caused a rise in the river bed and enhanced the problem of silting and aggravated the problem of flood. Weed infestation is an emergent problem of the river. Encroachment along the river bank has narrowed the river. Unscientific agricultural practices along the river bank is also adding to the problem. The catchment area of this river includes a medium populated Ranaghat municipality. The opposite bank of this river comprises village residential areas and unorganized small-scale industries, which release their untreated effluents and sewage into the river. Several fish species appeared to have been eliminated from the polluted Churni river since 1983. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the origin, evolution and present conditions of the river and also to highlight the modifications caused by natural hydrological changes as well as by human interference which can provide a right direction for combating the problems of the river.

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