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Evaluation of antibiotic potential of medicinal plant extracts against oral bacteria

Author: 
Haleem Khan, A.A., Prof. Naseem and Prof. B. Vidya Vardhini
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

A survey conducted by IMRB International for Colgate Palmolive India found that only 2.5% Indians visit a dentist at least once a year compared with 48% which is the global average. 67% of Indians have never gone for a dental check-up. Out of those that do finally seek treatment for their dental problems, 1 in 3 have to get tooth extractions as generally it is too late. Tooth decay (dental caries) is a disease of multifactorial etiology. The essential factors include: the appropriate number and species of bacteria, the type, quantity and frequency of consumption of fermentable carbohydrates, and susceptible tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the oral bacteria counts and their sensitivity to plant extracts. Swab samples were collected from male persons without smoking and pan or nut products chewing habit. From the bacterial isolates obtained Streptococci spp. were identified by using HiStrepTM identification kit and tested for antibiotic sensitivity (Ampicillin, Tetracycline, BenzylPencillin, Amoxycillin, and Erythromycin). Resistant species were tested against aqueous plant extracts of Punica grantum, Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia catappa, Azadirachta indica, Mentha arvensis, Acacia nilotica. Plant extract concentrations were tested against Streptococci spp. The total bacteria counts enumerated from the swab samples were 50.8×108. 10 isolates of Streptococci spp. were found multidrug-resistant. MIC, MBC and statistical analysis (mean, SD) were analyzed. From our study we could prove that the multi drug resistant isolates oral bacteria were sensitive to the test plant extracts. Based on our findings the plant extracts possess good taste and aroma is better than antibiotics.

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