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Influence of smoking in clinical presentation of periodontal disease in patients with other cardiovascular risk factors

Author: 
Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of smoking in the clinical presentation of periodontal disease (PD) in patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Patients and controls were obtained in database of a dental surgeon in the periodontics area who has been attending cases in the last 35 years. This study was conducted using data collected from 1975-2009, involving 106 patients with PD. The occurrence of other cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed. Results: Among the periodontal conditions, significant differences were found between smokers and non-smokers with regard to tartar (p=0.0431), junctional epithelium (p = 0.0216), conjunctive tissue (p=0.0015), gingival coloration (p< 0.0001), tooth mobility (p < 0.0001) and bone loss (p = 0.0216). The main cardiovascular risk factors in smokers with PD were systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) (28.30%), alcoholism (20.76%), and stress (18.87%), whereas in non-smoker the most frequent included SAH (24.53%), stress (18.87%) and dyslipidemia (16.98%). Conclusion: The clinical examination of smokers and non-smokers with PD demonstrates that clinical characteristics, such as the presence of tartar, epithelium and conjunctive tissue alterations, gingival coloration, tooth mobility and bone loss, are more frequent among smokers. The principal cardiovascular risk factors encountered in smokers with PD are SAH, alcoholism, and stress.

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