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Post-polio syndrome and the phantom of acute previous poliomyelitis: a systemic entity

Author: 
Jacqueline Stephanie Fernandes do Nascimento, Nicolle dos Santos Moraes Nunes, Thais de R. Bessa-Guerra, Marco Antonio Alves Azizi, Adalgiza Mafra Moreno, Antônio Marcos da Silva Catharino, Paulo Henrique de Moura, Thiago Rodrigues Gonçalves, Renata R. T.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction: Poliomyelitis, often referred to as infantile paralysis or polio, was first described in 1840 by Jakob Von Heine, a German orthopedic physician. It is an acute and infectious disease caused by an enterovirus of worldwide distribution. With the implementation of immunization, the incidence of cases has reduced exponentially worldwide. However, a portion of individuals who have already developed polio, are now manifesting the late effects of polio, called post-polio syndrome (PPS). Case Report: PRF, male, system analyst. Diagnosis of acute previous polio at the 18th month of age in a hospital in Fortaleza in 1965. At the age of 18 he started to present a new clinic of muscle fatigue, weakness and inability to perform his daily activities. Discussion: The Post-polio syndrome (PPS) was first reported in 1875, by Raymond, when reporting the case of a 19-year-old man, previously infected with acute previous polio and at that time had presented a new clinic of muscle weakness and atrophy. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome is defined as a presentation of the delayed effects of polio with the appearance of new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after clinical and functional stability in the natural history of patients with a previous history of acute previous polio. It can be characterized by: new muscle weakness, atrophy and pain, fatigue, sleep disorders, joint pain, cold intolerance, recent weight gain, respiratory distress and dysphagia. Criteria that support the diagnosis are used, such as: (1) Having been affected with acute previous polio; (2) at least 15 years of clinical stability; (3) new clinic of muscle weakness and fatigue; (4) complete or partial recovery of the functions lost in the poliomyelitis period, with a subsequent decline; (5) no other clinical conditions that explain the case. However, effective monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is necessary to assess the degree of functional and motor deterioration, respiratory capacity, as well as the psychological assessment of the patient. Conclusion: Although acute previous poliomyelitis has been eradicated in Brazil, as well as in several countries in the world, it is estimated that today there are still about 12 million individuals with poliomyelitis after-effects.

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