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The role of qualitative urine analysis in the preventiion of future urolithiasis in patients presenting with abdominal pain of urological origin

Author: 
Rohit Sane, Nilay Chakrabarti, Shalaka Indap, Ratnakar Shetty, Satish Mali and Vinayak Sabnis
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background and Objectives: Kidney stone disease varies in frequency and stone type between different climates and racial groups. Our aim was to identify the presence of stone forming substances, in the urine samples of patients with symptoms suggestive of urolithiasis but without radiological evidence of calculi at present, a condition often referred to as crystalluria. Data was analyzed to determine the extent of correlation between the presence of factors believed to be associated with urinary stone formation and the presence of stone precursors in urine of the study group, which would then help in prevention of actual stone formation in the future in these patients. Methods: This 2 month prospective case series study was conducted in a tertiary level teaching hospital with a study population of 35 participants. The data was collected using a questionnaire and entered using MS-Excel. Significance of the individual risk factor and clinical presentation were established by using Chi square test in order to find out the P value and appropriate conclusions were based on the above analysis. Result: In our study the incidence of crystalluria was found to be 17.1% with Calcium Oxalate being the only type of crystal seen in urine. Daily water intake (P<0.05), Diabetes (P<0.05), history of repeated Urinary Tract Infection (U.T.I.) (P<0.05) were found to be significant factors resulting in crystalluria. Conclusions: Risk factors for crystalluria were identified, i.e. decreased daily water intake, diabetes and history of repeated U.T.I., which played a significant role in its occurrence in the study population (P<0.05). Symptoms such as pain, burning micturition, vomiting and hematuria, were noted but were found not to have a significant association (P>0.05). A dietary chart was handed over to all the participants in order to prevent the recurrence of crystalluria and thus prevent the formation of urinary stones in the future. This study with a small subject group and of short duration was intended as a pilot study on this subject with larger and longer duration studies to follow which would make the assertions more conclusive.

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