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Study of the destruction of the medicinal vegetable momordica charantia (karela) by the serious pest bactrocera cucurbitae coquillett (diptera, tephritidae).a case study at ramgarh, (Jharkhand, India)

Author: 
Rajesh Kumar Upadhyay
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Momordica charantia (Karela) is the natural gift to human being in the form of a green vegetable, helpful to control the various serious disease as diabetes, cholesterol, heart-attack etc. The common name of Momordica charantia (karela) is also known as Bitter gourd or bitter melon, the special vegetable, bitter in taste, popular, high consumption and special dish preparation for kitchen and restaurants. It is a healthy vegetable containing various essential nutrients, more fibres, vitamin A, vitamin C, minerals and releasing very low quantity of sugar, nil cholesterol and one of the most popular natural medicine of the population living in all parts of the world. It is a useful vegetable lowering the blood sugar level, improving the immunity, strengthening the bone and releasing very low calories makes it a very special food for mankind. It is one of the best de-oxidant and anti-toxicant to improve immunity to prevent corona. The pest Bactrocera cucurbitae coquillett is a serious pest of musk-melon and pumpkins, also damages the cucurbitaceous vegetables viz. cucumber, torai etc. The present study was the destruction of the medicinal vegetable Momordica charantia (karela) by the serious pest Bactrocera cucurbitae coquillett, A case study at Ramgarh (Jharkhand,India). The experimental pest damages the cultivated host plant and fruits of the host plant. Sometime the destruction rises up to 60% to 70% and the vegetable becomes un-consumable. The damage was caused by the maggots, which feed on the internal contents of the fruit and making a tunnel in the fruit. The fruit in turn is liable to bacterial infection and become un-consumable. Adult fly also puncture the fruit for oviposition and seal the tunnel by gummy secretion. The farmers of Ramgarh cultivate vegetables throughout the year, they cultivated different types of vegetables as on the demand of market. The green vegetable Momordica charantia (karela) is a cash crop, its natural established medicinal value attracts the people and always make the demand, the farmers like it to cultivate, sale and supply it to different parts of the state. The pest Bactrocera cucurbitae coquillett, is a serious pest damage the fruits of Momordica charantia, in such a way that it looks fresh from outside. The pest destruct the vegetables in their shape, size, number and the taste of the fruits. The pest not only destructs the vegetable but also resulting in weak financial condition of the farmers. The life cycle was studied during the year 2018 -2020 at Ramgarh .During the study it was found that the life-cycle of the pest was very complex, generally it was completed 12 to 18 overlapping generations of the year. In winter season the pest get in hibernating phase of life, the eggs and the maggots stay in the fruit, the maggots and the pupa hidden under the fallen leaves, cracks and crevices or in the soil. The pest damage the cultivated vegetable plants and loss not only the quality, quantity, and taste of the vegetables but also the profit of the farmers. Ramgarh is a beautiful district town, the rural area is specified for cultivation and gross vegetable production, the climatic condition is moderate and suitable for vegetable production. The farmers are advised to control the pest by spraying the chemical pesticides as carbaryl 0.2%, Malathion 0.05%, or dimethoate 0.03%. Biological control was also advised to farmers, some hypo-parasites may introduced which parasitized the maggot and pupa stage and control the pest population.

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