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A study on micro anatomical changes in the various gall bladder diseases

Author: 
Lt Col (Dr) Vds Jamwal, Major(Dr) Mohan Angadi and Col(Dr) Sushil Kumar
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

The gall bladder is a flask shaped, blind ending diverticulum which lies attached to the inferior surface of the right lobe of liver by connective tissue. It is attached to the common bile duct by the cystic duct. The gall bladder is about 7 to 10 cm long with a capacity of about 50 ml. It usually lies in a shallow fossa in the liver parenchyma covered by peritoneum which continues from inferior surface of liver. The primary function of gall bladder is to store and concentrate bile. This concentration is done by absorption of water and inorganic salts through the epithelium into the vessels of the lamina propria of its mucosa (1). Gall bladders are one of the more frequently encountered specimens in the surgical pathology laboratory. They are usually removed for stones and/or inflammatory conditions, but rarely may they harbor a neoplasm. Gall stones are a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Cholecystectomy is the means by which the pathologist can diagnose the most common pathology of the gall bladder, which is chronic cholecystitis typically accompanied by cholelithiasis. By studying the histopathological changes the pathologist can diagnose chronic cholecystitis, which is typically accompanied by cholelithiasis. About 10% of the adults have gallstones(2,3).There is a female to male ratio of about 2 to 1 in the younger age groups, and with advancing age there is increasing prevalence in females. After the age of 60 yrs about 10 to 15 % of men and 20 to 40 % of women have gall stones (2). The risk of gall stones is also associated with a history of childbearing, estrogen replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use and marked obesity.

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