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Correlation Of Psychological Co Morbidities And Functional Capacity In Community Dwelling Elderly

Author: 
Hetal M. Mistry and Karishma D. Gavli
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Old age is increasing; more population in future would be in old age. India being the one having more young population may in future have more old population. With aging, there occurs deterioration of physical health, cerebral pathology, changes in cardiopulmonary and autonomous nervous system. It also affects the cognitive ability of an individual, which causes changes to occur all over the body. Thus, affecting their activity of daily living , hampering their daily functions, self-care activities, getting dependent on others, lowering their self-esteem, staying more indoors away from society, recumbent to one position, and lots of overthinking and forgetting Important work. All this leads to development of psychological co-morbidity as in depression and/or anxiety and also affecting their functional capacity. As above 60 is rising rapidly and elderly population is facing majority of health problems due to aging with changes in the body, mind and thought process. So there arises a urge to find whether presence of one affects the other. Is there a relation between presence of psychological co morbidity and functional capacity in elderly? Objectives: Primary Objectives: 1. To find out presence of depression and anxiety in elderly by using Geriatric depression scale (GDS) and Generalized anxiety disorder 7 scale (GAD-7). 2. To find out functional capacity by using Six Minute Walk Distance Test. 3. To find out correlation of depression and anxiety on functional capacity Secondary Objectives: Comparison of functional capacity on depression, anxiety, mixed group and no psychological co-morbidity. Methodology: Study design was observational, correlational study, 60 participants were assessed in the study. The participants included had MMSE score above 24 and meeting the inclusion criteria. After the consent and MMSE score, the participants were given the scales Geriatric Depression Scale and Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 scale and later their 6 minute walk distance test was taken. Data was test for normality using the Shapiro-wilk test. As the data did not pass normality, the correlation was done using spearmen’s correlation test and coefficient of variance was used to compare the functional capacity between the groups. Results: The participants were distributed in group as follows Depressed 8(13%), anxious 6(10%), mixed 9(15%) and no psychological comorbidity 37(61.1 %). The functional capacity among groups were found to be highest in anxious (mean 84.9) and least to be in the mixed group (mean 69.7). The predominance in psychological co morbidity among genders was found to be in females 12(52%). The functional capacity among genders was found to be more in males (83.1%). There is a very weak correlation (r = -0.18) between GDS and Functional capacity and is statistically not significant (p=0.16). There is a very weak correlation (r= -0.14) between GAD and functional capacity and is not statistically significant (p=0.27). Discussion and Conclusion: In the study of 60 participants there were 30 males and 30 females of which 13% had depression, 10 % had anxiety, 13% had mixed and 61.1% had no psychological comorbidity. So there was a very weak negative correlation of functional capacity with depression and anxiety which was not statistically significant. Among gender female had more predominance to psychological comorbidity than male. And males had more functional capacity than females. As the participants belonged to good financial status, had retired from work and were involved in activity and were interested in taking care of one’s health. They had access to regular medication and health check-ups, and involved in social gatherings or meets and did not stay much indoors. They were joyful and satisfied with their lives. And so they did not present any psychological comorbidity and preserved their functional capacity. Though they had comorbidity like hypertension and diabetes mellitus, they took care for it and are not obsessed and dealing the situation, so showing no symptoms of depression. They might have got depression and/or anxiety in some earlier stage or might develop later, but at present they are not showing any symptoms.

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