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January 2013

Nanotechnology has the potential to impact many aspects food and agricultural systems. Food security disease treatment delivery methods new tools for molecular and cellular biology new material for pathogen detection and protection of the environment are examples of the important links of nano technology to the science and engineering of agriculture’s and food systems. In the present study, the red and white color paper flower ethanolic extracts doped with MgS (Magnesium Sulphate) nanoparticles were used to determine their antibacterial activity.

The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality. Nowadays, Micro fibers have set new trends in the textile industry and manmade fibers were upgraded to be superior to natural fibers both in appearance and also in the other physical and comfort properties. The blending of the micro denier polyester fibre along with cotton fibre is a popular one for research and it gives valuable performance with the main component fibre properties and additional micro polyester fibre properties.

The study purpose of the study was to investigate factors influencing remuneration policy of the HR managers in the Kenyan banking sector. The specific objectives of the study were; to investigate how talent management, financial results,technological development,market surveys and company advisers influencedremuneration policy ofthe HR managers in the Kenyan banking sector. The target population of the study was the HR Managers in the 47 registered banking institutions in Kenya. The study adopted a census and questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents.

Since the turn of the new millennium, there has been a steady increase in the use of plastic products resulting in a proportionate rise in plastic waste in the municipal solid waste streams in Ghanaian cities, including the Kumasi metropolitan area. The adoption of a more hygienic mode of packaging food, beverages, “iced water” and other products brought plastic packaging to replace the existing cultural packaging methods.

At the heart of the success of any school improvement process is teachers' willingness to change and improve their knowledge, attitudes and practices.The role of school leadership is crutial in combining professional and accountability measures for effective collaboration of teachers in this regard. To guide the study, four research questions were raised. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from tree hundred teachers as respondents.

Allelopathic effects of two dominate weeds like wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L.) on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Var. Chamran) were investigated at Department of Botany, University of Pune (M.S.), India in 2011. The results revealed that aqueous extracts of wild mustard and wild oat had caused drastic reduction in seed germination percentage, shoot and root length as well as dry weight of wheat seedlings. Maximum reduction was recorded at highest concentration of weed extracts.

Male and female gametes are normal and functional, but can only produce offspring when correct parents are mated; etc. self-incompatibility, cross-incompatibility. Male sterility is the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes. Phenotypic (structural male sterility, sporogenous male sterility, functional male sterility) and genotypic (genetic, cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility). Genetic male sterility system in which sterility expression is conditional by environmental factors.

This study was done for the aim of determining the fish species inhibiting in the Halti Beel, a famous wetland of northwest Bangladesh. A total of sixty-three fish species including 55 indigenous and 8 exotic species belonging to 8 orders, 20 families and 41 genera were recorded during the investigation period and listed with their nomenclature and systematic position. Cypriniformes and Cyprinidae were the dominant order and family in terms of species composition. Puntius sophore was the most abundant fish species accounting 8.03% of total catch.

Urethral diverticulum is a condition that must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain. It is among the late complications developing after particularly vaginal and urologic operations. A detailed anamnesis and a careful vaginal examination are essential. Diagnosis can be made with transvaginal ultrasonography (TV-USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in presence of a vaginal mass. The patient who was admitted with chronic pelvic pain and dysparunia was diagnosed as urethral diverticulum after examinations and imaging techniques.

FMF is characterized by recurrent fever, peritonitis, arthritis, pleuritis and secondary amyloidosis. Iliopsoas bursitis due to its unspecific symptomatology is an often-underdiagnosed entity in the chronic pelvic pain. Also one of the reason of the acute pelvic pain in reproductive age is ovarian cyst rupture. A 22 year old woman with FMF disease admitted to obstetric and gynecology department with chronic right hip and pelvic pain. Transvaginal sonographic examination showed free fluid in the pouch of Douglas that was presumed ovarian cyst rupture.

The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is an alarming concern in clinical practice. This would lead to the development of new antibacterial agents from natural and inorganic substances. In the current scenario, one of the most promising and novel therapeutic agents are the nanoparticles. Hence the present study has been made an attempt to find out the potential metal nanoparticles for the management of human bacterial diseases. Metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) were synthesized by simple, cost effective, chemical reduction method.

Geophagic clays are consumed by human beings and other members of the animal kingdom for a number of reasons such as mineral nutrient supplementation, relief of early morning sickness in pregnancy and craving. The objective of this study was to assess major elements in geophagic clays in order to know clays that were enriched or depleted in major elements of nutritional value. The major elements were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS).

India is solitary of the richest floristic region of the world and has been a resource of plants and their yield since antique and man uses them in different ways according to his requirements, predominantly as food or as medicine. The preliminary Pharmacognostic study on leaves of medicinal plants plays an incredibly significant role in detection of the purity and quality of crude drugs. Medicinal plants which were originated on earth have notorious medicinal consequence and their usage is growing day by day in our daily life.

The Toxicity of Congo red to earthworm, Megascolex konkanensis was studied. The toxicity was concentration dependent and the percent survival decreased with increasing concentration in water and soil. The concentration of congored which was sub lethal under normoxic condition became lethal under hypoxic condition. In soil, with increase in water content, a decreasing trend in LC50 value was observed. The severity of behavioral and morphological changes increased with increasing concentration of congored in water and soil.

The study investigates the removal of direct red 80 dye from its aqueous solution by using Tapioca peel activated carbon . The effects of condition such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The adsorption capacity was demonstrated as a function of time for direct red 80 from aqueous solution by the prepared activated carbon. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent was increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Higher adsorption percentages were observed at lower concentrations of direct red 80 dye.

In the present study compost samples of two mushrooms namely Buttton (Agaricus bisporus) and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) were collected from Directorate of Mushroom Research (DMR) ,Chambaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. After screening cellulase producing fungi a total of 45 fungal isolates were isolated from compost samples, out of which 36 fungal isolates were purified and 23 isolates showed the cellulase activity. The isolates were identified as Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Penicillium species.

Fine needle aspiration cytology has become the preliminary diagnostic tool in the evaluation of clinically palpable breast lumps. This study was taken up to evaluate the role of FNAC in diagnosing malignant breast lesions. In this two year study 70 cases of malignant breast lesions diagnosed on cytology were followed up for histopathological correlation. Sensitivity was 94.3% and specificity was 100%. Sub typing of epithelial malignancies need a careful examination and an experienced cytopathologist.

Root and tuber crops form the major subsistence staples in larger parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, in Nigeria, root and tuber production relies mainly on smallholders that have multiple practices to choose from while considering crops to be included in their cropping systems. This study examined factors influencing the inclusion of root and tuber crops in the cropping systems among farmers in Oyo state. Data were collected from 360 farmers randomly selected using a structured interview schedule. Frequency counts, percentages and Chi-square were used for the data analysis.

Environmental pollutants pose a huge menace to all living organisms either directly or indirectly. Pesticide contaminations in the aquatic ecosystem affect the fishes at large leading to severe physiological and morphological stress response. Fishes in turn to counter the stress factors, ought to synthesize a group of novel proteins called stress proteins which play an important role in the stress-resistance of cells against the toxic chemicals.

The Municipal Sewage water are discharged into low level areas, in streams and lands which finally accumulate in the form of large ponds and affects the environment. The sewage sample was collected from Singanallur station of sanganur canal of Coimbatore.1/10th of 72 hour LC50 value was taken as sublethal concentration for sewage water. After the experimental exposure (72hours, 10days, 20days) fishes were sacrificed and organs like gill, liver, kidney used for histopathological studies.

Objective: To determine the cytotoxicity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts using the brine shrimp test (BST) method for antitumour study. Methods: Test tubes containing different concentrations of leaf extracts were introduced with ten brine shrimp larvae (10 nauplii) and were maintained at room temperature for 24 hours. The numbers of surviving and dead shrimps were counted. Percentage mortality was determined. LC50 was calculated using graph and Finney Method.

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is one of the parameter to assess the diabetic condition. In this study, the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes were assessed and correlated with HbA1c in the red blood cells (RBCs) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Thirty diabetic patients (taking insulin and different antidiabetic drugs) from Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, between the age 40 and 70 were chosen and they were not suffering from any other illness and fifteen non-diabetic control subjects of the same age groups were also chosen for comparison.

This study aims to evaluate the effect of sesamol on blood pressure, and renal function markers on uninephrectomized deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in surgically single-kidney-removed (left), adult male albino Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, by injecting DOCA (25 mg/kg BW) subcutaneously, twice a week for six weeks, with saline instead of tap water for drinking. Every week, the blood pressure was measured and documented up to six weeks for all the animals.

Morin, a bioflavonoid with antioxidant property, is a constituent of many herbs and fruits that are used as herbal medicines. It exhibits many biological activities and possibly even has protective effects against chronic renal diseases. The present study aims to study the protective effect of morin against ethanol-induced biochemical changes in kidney. Male albino rats were divided into four groups as follow; (1): control group, (2): control rats treated with morin (3) ethanol fed rats (4) ethanol fed rats treated with morin.

The present study is aimed to investigate identification of microbes in water samples in different sites. The places are; Kovalam, Kanathur, Injambakkam, Besant Nagar, Pattinapakkam – Foreshore estate, Santhome, Marina beach, Vailankanni. A total of 78 strains were isolated from nine different samples collected from the intertidal zone of the east coast road (ECR), India.

Introduction: Encephalitis refers to inflammation of Parenchymal brain tissue. Acute encephalitis begins abruptly (hours to days) whereas chronic encephalitis is insidious in onset, occurring over weeks to months.1 Objective: To document etiological, clinical and laboratory features in cases of Encephalitis in general and Japanese encephalitis in particular. Methods: Fifty Indian children below 15 years of age, with encephalitic features were investigated. They were treated in Bapuji Child Health Institute and Chigateri Government Hospital, Davangere.

Osteoporosis is a common problem that causes bones to become abnormally thin, weakened, and easily broken (fractured). Women are at a higher risk for osteoporosis after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen, a female hormone that helps to maintain bone mass. Fortunately, preventive treatments are available that can help to maintain or increase bone density. Prolonged therapy with and/or high doses of certain medications can increase bone loss. The use of these medications should be monitored by a healthcare provider and decreased or discontinued when possible.

This study was undertaken to explore the job satisfaction of lecturers. Present research compared job satisfaction of 30 contractual and 35 permanent lecturers on pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, coworkers, nature of work, communication, contingent & rewards and operating conditions. These aspects of working environment contribute as factors of job satisfaction. Results indicated that there is significant difference between the contractual and permanent lecturer’s job satisfaction on the pay, fringe benefits and contingent & reward aspects.

Transformation of land is relatively a rapid process determined by the local users through the policies to be proved more beneficial in economic terms which sometimes do not consider such transformation on holistic basis. In riverine plain areas, there is a close inter relationships between agriculture, settlements, natural channels and wetlands. In recent times the degradation and loss of wetlands is more rapid than the past.

Most of the theories in security market are based on the notion of rational investment decision behaviour from investors. But it has been observed that it is not the case always. A new area of research has come up which recognizes the psychological element in financial decision making and thus challenging the traditional models. This new area of study is known as behavioural finance and in the changing socio-economic and technological context; it is high time to study this new area of knowledge.

Testis specific protein kinases are important because of their potential role in spermiogenesis, sperm maturation and sperm function. To continue our studies on the testis specific serine/threonine kinase (TSSK) family, we isolated a PCR fragment encoding a member of testis specific serine/threonine kinase3 (TSSK3) from Mus musculus testis RNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with oligonucleotides. The sequence length of the target gene was identified as 804 bp encoding a protein of 268 amino acids.

Neural networks are a new method of programming computers. They are exceptionally good at performing pattern recognition and other tasks that are very difficult to program using conventional techniques. Programs that employ neural nets are also capable of learning on their own and adapting to changing conditions. Neural nets may be the future of computing .A good way to understand them is with a puzzle that neural nets can be used to solve. Suppose that you are given 500 characters of code that you know to be C, C++, Java, or Python.

The DNA replication is very interesting phenomenon, which was deeply investigated in the past century soon after the discovery of DNA and its helical structure. Initially, the phenomenon was explored in the virus (SV40, Polyoma virus, Papilloma virus, Adenovirus, etc.), bacteria i.e. E. coli and later on, in more complicated organism i.e. higher bacteria, fungus, plant, animals to some extant etc. The DNA replication process and mechanism was best studied in the yeasts, budding yeast-S. cerevisiae and Fission yeast-S. pombe as a great deal of information is known in these two organisms.

Physico-chemical properties and bacteriological examination of spring water was done from from Markanday region of Hamirpur District in Himachal Pradesh. Physico-chemical properties such as Total Dissolved solids (TDS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride and pH were determined and compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard. Bacteriological examination was done by isolation of microorganism from water and identification by serotyping.

This paper deals the public key cryptography and Quantum cryptography and its uses in the applications such as Key Agreement, Data Encryption and Digital Signature. This paper discusses some public key algorithms, mathematical explanations on the working of these algorithms and also gives a brief introduction to modular arithmetic, which is the core arithmetic of almost all public key algorithms. Quantum cryptography could well be the first application of quantum mechanics at the single-quantum level.

The present study deals with the macroscopic analysis of medicinal plants specifically betel leaf by using the techniques of Image Processing and Neural Networks. Any disturbance between the elements of human body leads to disease and the therapy lies in restoring the balance through the use of medicines of natural origin such as herbs and minerals. India is endowed with a rich variety of medicinal plants.

The main objective is to review the growth that have taken the franchise in recent years in Mexico and answer the question; why this model is so successful franchise? Based on the theory of transaction costs and agency theory, the method used for this research is analytical. It can be concluded that the action of buying a franchise should be investigated carefully. Although legal protection is available, the best strategy for this model is that it covers many weaknesses in markets such as opportunism

This study is an analytical descriptive research study to assess the attainment of peak performance of the Co-operative College of Kenya. The study aimed to achieve the degree of effectiveness of the interventions in ensuring that the organization works towards the employee profiles in the areas of commitment, confidence, competence, working conditions and communication and to determine the behavioral changes among the leadership and the employees after conducting the interventions to improve the overall performance of the Co-operative College of Kenya.

Stabilization of HIF-1α, its translocation into the nucleus and dimerization with its HIF-1β subunit to form HIF-1 complex is an index of hypoxia. Until recently, most studies involving HIF1 were carried out in animal cell line models. In this study, we show the translocation of HIF-1 in freshly isolated human lymphocytes treated with hypoxia mimicking conditions. In order to check for expression of HIF-1 and its nuclear translocation, we used conditions of hypoxia and hypoxia mimicking conditions.

Service quality has got increased considerable attention within the education sector. Efforts to understand and assess the service quality in higher education have been undertaken in the recent years. The conceptualization of service quality, its relationship to the satisfaction, value constructs and methods of evaluation have become a central theme of education sector.

The current review work deals about the details of microbes as a probiotic and its beneficial effects for different applications. Probiotics are microorganisms that have health promoting influence in the body. They must be able to withstand the acid in the stomach and bile salts to perform the natural functions in the body. Probiotics have wide range of benefits including boosting the immune system, combating infections, allergies and regulating the digestive system as well as relieving lactose intolerance.

A study was conducted to assess the magnitude of heterosis for grain yield and its components over mid parent (MP), Better parent (BP) and standard heterosis (SH) in rice hybrids (Oryza sativa L.) through line x tester analysis. The present study comprised of three lines and ten testers. The resultant thirty hybrids along with their thirteen parents were evaluated during 2009 to 2010 in a randomized block design with three replications at Plant Breeding Farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Annamalai University, Chidambaram.

Andrographolide, a terpenoid isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) exhibited growth regulating activity against the stored grain pest Tribolium confusum (Duval) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The fifth instar, sixth instar larvae and pupae were treated with 1µg/µl of Andrographolide. The larval and pupal development to adults was greatly reduced resulting in the formation of permanent larvae, larval-pupal intermediates, abnormal pupae, pupal-adult intermediates and abnormal adults due to the interference of Andrographolide with moulting process and adult eclosion.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether selected physical fitness components (coordinative ability, speed, strength, cardiovascular endurance and flexibility) can be utilized as prediction factors of long jump performance. Measurements were observed from 50 selected long jumpers sampled from Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Delhi. Test included shuttle run, 50m dash, standing broad jump, 12 minutes walk/ run (cooper test) and sit and reach. Analysis was done using t-test and product moment correlation at 0.05 level of significance.

Physics is at the heart of the technology driving our economy (National Research council, 2001) and is present in almost every facet of modern life. Physics may also be considered the most fundamental of all the sciences because others like chemistry, Biology, Geology, etc., deal with systems that obey law of Physics. This is one of the reasons why Physics has become an essential part of being scientifically literate. Indeed Problem solving in Physics plays a key role in the conceptualization of the students at higher secondary level.

This paper takes a keen look in network security and network security goals, why computers are insecure and type Of attack, how to improve network security . Securing your network and practical's what is Quota.

Burdwan Municipality is one of the emerging urban centre in West Bengal and also running in the phase of land dynamics. This phenomenon, leads to large scale unplanned growth with uneven pattern of land use in the study area. The town has drastically increased its area and population size from 1970, this results development of Municipal area in the fringe regions as well as rural counterparts. This paper aims to analyze whether this development is an expansion or unplanned overgrowth.

Field experiments were conducted to study the interaction of phosphorus, sulfur and zinc on growth and yield of rice in neutral and alkali soils. The treatments consisted of two levels of P2O5 (25, 50 kg/ha), two levels of S (20, 40 kg/ha) and four levels of Zn( 0,5,10, 15 kg/ha) besides an absolute control, thus totaling seventeen treatments. The results revealed significant interactions among P,S and Zn on growth and yield of rice. The growth and yield of rice was less when P, Zn and S were applied at lower rates, but improved with increasing levels of nutrients.

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used, to characterize tropical ayous (triplochyton scleroxylon) and fraké (terminalia superba) sanded wood surface prior to gluing. As expected, O1s and C1s were the predominant species in the spectra of the two woods. C1s peak have been decomposed into several components. Earlier study reveled tree classes of carbon for frake.

The development of surgical correction of class III cases in recent years has made it more interesting for the orthodontist to handle mandibular prognathism. Treatment of patients in this classification is really just coming to the fore, and represents a closer cooperation between two fields of specialization, oral surgery and orthodontics. Setback of the mandible to correct mandibular prognathism is a well known procedure. The 2 most frequently used techniques are the intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) and the sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO).

Milk was analyzed for several parameters like pH, acidity, fat, protein, solids-not-fat, total solids and moisture content. The values obtained were found to be satisfactory in comparison to composition of normal cow milk. Cream was separated from milk using hand-operating cream separator. Analysis of cream showed satisfactory results in comparison to cream obtained by cream separation process. The cream was divided into three parts of which first was directly made ghee without culturing, second was cultured with dahi culture and third with yoghurt culture.

Microbial diversity (fungi and bacteria), biomass carbon and nitrogen, respiration and physico – chemical properties of soil were studied for two years i.e., 2009 and 2010. The study sites selected were two different broad leaved forests of Meghalaya, (i) at Upper Shillong (1861msl) and (ii) at Mawkyrdep (889 msl).

Some metals inputs within the solid waste dump were studied through the Pollution Load Index (PLI). High levels in cadmium (4.00±0.62 mg.kg-1), lead (138.43±51.5 mg.kg-1) and zinc (266.63±42.83 mg.kg-1) and low levels in copper (40.77±11.98 mg.kg-1) were measured within the soils at five sites against a control. The total concentrations in metals were measured in soil samples collected from the surface to 1.5 m depth. The measurements showed in total metal concentration decrease from surface to depth in lead, zinc and copper. Cadmium was measured to be constant with the depth of study.

Stock market indices are recognised as barometers of economic performance. While stock markets themselves can vary from one another, the corresponding indices can also differ on a variety of factors. In a globalised world it has become customary to address the issue of integration of markets around the world. In this paper the authors have tried to tackle this issue from the viewpoint of stock markets in India. The present work considered seven major international stock indices viz.

Jawadhu Hills are a range of hills. One of the largest in the Eastern Ghats in Thiruvannamalai District, in the northern part of the state of Tamil Nadu. About 80 Km wide and 32 Km long and they are bisected into Eastern and Western sections by the Cheyyar and Agaram rivers tributaries of the palar. Several medicinal plants are rich in Jawadhu hills. The herital medicines to cure a disease used by various tribes are tribal medicines. These medicines are safe, eco-friendly and bio-friendly plants based products for various diseases of tribals.

A bird survey was conducted by employing Direct Observation and Block Count method in Bangaram and Thinnakara Islands during 2009. Among the 55 species of birds identified in the survey, Bangaram represents 46 species and Thinnakara represents 19 species. Charadriidae with 21 species is the most speciose family at Bangaram whereas Laridae with 11 species is the most speciose family at Thinnakara. The Common Tern, Sandwich Tern and Gull-billed Tern are the new addition to Bangaram Reef. In Thinakkara we spotted mainly Terns.

The present investigation was attempted to focus on studies of allelopathic effect of some dominant, invasive weed species like Alternanthera tenella Colla., Croton bonplandianum Baill and Xanthium indicum Koen. from Baramati Tahsil, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra, India, on seed germination and seedling growth in mung bean. The allelopathic effects of leaf extracts of weeds not only affect the seed germination, but it also influences seedling growth in terms of root and shoot length, vigour index.

This study was an analysis of the pricing strategies used by supermarkets in Eldoret town. Supermarkets in Eldoret town were began by white settlers. The oldest of the supermarkets that was set up in 1968 was Aziz and Akbar. By the year 2004 the number of supermarkets in Eldoret town had increased to 25. A survey of these supermarkets shows that each one of them has different pricing for the same product that has been supplied by the same supplier. There is need to investigate why these supermarkets are charging different prices for the same product yet they are serving the same market.

Heavy metals pollution to water and soils due to anthropogenic activities are threats to living organisms which needs to be tackled with a new emerging technology, referred as phytoremidiation, offers a cost-effective and environmental friendly way for clean up of contaminated areas with exploitation of green plants, which either accumulates or converts it to non toxic forms, but that incurred serious physiological and metabolic constraints in plants.

The shape memory effect, super-elasticity and biocompatibility allow the Ni-Ti-Cu thin films to be used in different fields. In this paper systematic study have been done on the Ni-Ti-Cu thin films with various copper content. The Ni-Ti-Cu films were successfully prepared by individual sputtering targets of pure Ti, Ni and Cu and the crystalline structure, residual stress and phase transformation properties of the Ni-Ti-Cu films were investigated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), and curvature measurement methods.

In this study, the effect of framed chain sawing system with optimized chain on timber size uniformity and surface roughness was analyzed and compared with the freehand chainsaw system and band saw as control. The surface roughness of sawn timber from three commonly sawn timber species (Eucalyptus saligna, Grevillea robusta and Prosopis juliflora) was determined by stylus tracer approach.

Taita community in Kenya inhabits the Taita-Taveta County of which two thirds of which is occupied by Tsavo National Park. There is increased human-wildlife conflict which has led to losses of properties as well as lives of both human and wildlife. Despite wildlife management efforts by the Government, these conflicts are on the increase thereby their threatening their livelihoods. Their indigenous knowledge on human-wildlife conflict minimization is fast disappearing as it remains in the custody of a few community elders and if not documented may soon disappear.

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