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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

May 2013

The objective of the study was to investigate the combination of carvacrol (CVL) and rosiglitazone (RSG) on non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in the plasma and tissues of high fat diet (HFD) induced diabetes in C57BL/6J mice weighing 20-30 g. The normal and diabetic mice were treated with CVL (20 mg/kg BW) dissolved in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and RSG (4 mg/kg BW) dissolved in water for 35 days.

Random Amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to brinjal genotypes in order to assess the degree of polymorphism among genotypes. Three RAPD Primers ( OPB-07,OPL-04 and OPC-07) were used to estimate genetic diversity in five brinjal cultivars. A total of 30 bands were scored corresponding to an average of 10 bands per primer with 10 bands showing polymorphism (33.33%).One out of three primers (OPB-07) gave 50% polymorphism.

An experiment on 24 lactating crossbred cows assessed the possibility of utilization of poultry litter (PL) in replacement of conventional protein supplement (soybean meal) in lactating cow diets. Cows of similar age and lactation were randomly divided in four equal groups and fed for 90 days with ad-libitum sorghum fodder and the concentrate mixture was offered to meet energy and protein requirements as per NRC (1988) recommendation.

The community based cross sectional study explored age and sex variations in under nutrition using mid‐upper arm circumference (MUAC) cut‐off values among 2196 (1037 boys and 1159 girls), 3‐5 years old children in a food insecure rural Bera sub district of Pabna district in Bangladesh. MUAC was measured using standard technique. The response rate was approximately 96%. Mean MUAC among boys was higher than girls at all ages except 5 years. Significant sex differences were not observed over ages.

The major aspect of Data Mining is in education for various purposes. Prediction is the most widely used technique in Data Mining. In recent research, Data Mining in education is at its peak. Higher education institutes are preparing professional with expertise in discipline, high moral values and with extensive knowledge. To achieve this, they required candidates who are meant for the concern subject or institutes. So, Student Performance Prediction (SPS) become very much important for the higher education institutes.

A substantial and low cost DNA isolation protocol is the prerequisite of many molecular biology experiments for the genetic improvement of highly economical medicinal plants. The present study was undertaken to explore the best DNA isolation protocol for Stevia rebaudiana Bert., an artificial sweetener. Four methods were evaluated for extraction of DNA namely Kit GeNeiTM Genomic DNA extraction (Bangalore GeNei), Kit GeNeiTM Plant DNA isolation (Bangalore GeNei), Phenol-Chloroform Method and CTAB method.

Objective: The study was designed to evaluate antipyretic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of Caesalpinia crista linn. in various experimental animal models. Material and methods: After collection of seeds, ethanolic and aqueous extract were prepared and the phytochemical screening was performed. Then ethanolic and aqueous both extracts of Caesalpinia crista linn. were evaluated for antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats, TAB-vaccine induced pyrexia in rabbits and Boiled milk induced pyrexia in rabbits models.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disease of the brain. It’s is the most common form of dementia which demolishes the vital brain cells causing trouble with memory, thinking and behaviour, brutal enough to affect work. Recognized factors in Alzheimer’s disease include acetylcholine deficiency, free radicals, and inflammation of the brain tissue. Many of the current drugs used to treat the disease like Donepezil have unpleasant side effects and doctors are keen to find alternatives.

Consumer is the king of any business .Understanding consumer needs and wants is important and foremost task of any marketer. Consumer satisfaction is a judgment made by the consumer .Consumers normally has a general objective of creation and maintaining a collection of goods and services that provide present and future satisfaction. The good are produced only to meet the needs of the consumer. So the analysis of consumer behavior is one of the foundation on which future marketing depends.

Land cover changes have significant impacts on hydrological processes at the watershed level. The objective of the study was to apply a rainfall-runoff model derived using Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to predict hydrological impacts of land cover changes in Upper Athi River Catchment, Kenya. The derived HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model was first calibrated and validated in the period 1984-1990 using six events in the study area. Land cover data used in the study were obtained from Land sat TM images of the years 1984, 1988 and 2010.

The study was conducted from June 2011 to November 2012. We investigated the contribution of Lake Tana fisheries to the livelihoods of the people living around the lake. Random sampling techniques were used to select respondents. In total 145 respondents were drawn. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one way ANOVA and correlation analyzes. We found that there were significant income difference between fishers using modern and traditional boats (P<0.01); perform fishing daily and occasionally (P<0.01); and fishing in groups and fishing alone (F=23.71; P0.01).

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ficus religiosa (FR) commonly known as Bo tree or Peepal, has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments including diabetes mellitus. However, the plant has not been widely studied for its hypoglycemic/ anti-hyperglycemic effects, except for a few preliminary studies. In this study we provide the experimental evidence for the clinical use of FR in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The present study was carried out to assess the genetic variation in oats (Avena sativa L.) at DNA level. The three decamer primers, RAPD primers (GLD-18, GLE-08 and GLA-03) were used to estimate genetic diversity in Avena sativa genotypes. The assay revealed a large amount (65%) of polymorphism. The total of 20 bands were scored for three RAPD primers ranging from 4-9 corresponding to an average of 4.2 bands per primer and 13 bands of these were polymorphic. Polymorphic bands for each primer ranged from 0-100%.

Wavelet analysis is a recently developed mathematical tool for many problems. In this paper, we apply Haar wavelet transform method to solve typical Initial value problems. Numerical examples are shown which including first, second, higher order differential equations with constant and variable coefficients, singular non-linear initial value problems. The results show that the haar wavelet transform method is quite reasonable when compare to R. K. Method and exact. R. K.

Gilgel Gibe 1 hydropower reservoir is highly threatened by siltation/sedimentation problem due to excessive erosion from the upper catchment. To mitigate the serious erosion from the upper catchment and reduce the sediment delivered to the reservoir so as to increase the life span of the project, implementing a suite of best management practices (BMPs) is needed. However, as climate changes, the effectiveness of the BMPs will be affected. Hence, understanding the effectiveness of the best management practices as climate changes will be important for better planning of watershed management.

The Primary objective of a business undertaking is to earn profits. Profit earning is considered essential for the survival of the business. Profitability analysis measures how will a firm is performing in terms of its ability to generate profits. Profitability of the firm is highly influenced by internal and external variables, i.e., size of organizations, liquidity management, growth of organizations, component of costs and inflation rate.

Ornamental fishes are often called as ‘living Jewell’ due to their colour, shape, behaviour and origin. They are peaceful, generally tiny, available in attractive colours and capable of living in confined spaces. The brilliant, flamboyant colour and uncommon appearance of the fish appeal to one and all children and aged alike. The trade in ornamental fish and aquarium supplies is a multi-million dollar industry that spans the globe. In West Bengal with its highly conducive climatic conditions provides scope for the development of indigenous ornamental fisheries.

The present study is aimed to investigate the impact of arsenic on gill and liver tissues of fresh water fish, Labeo rohita. In the present study, the protein, amino acids, glucose and glycogen were observed in gill and liver tissues of arsenic treated fish. At the arsenic treatment, the level of protein decreased and amino acids increased and glucose increased and glycogen decreased in the gill and liver tissues of fish. The present study concludes that the toxicity of arsenic alters the protein and carbohydrate metabolism of fresh water fish, Labeo rohita.

There are about more than 3000 species of mosquitoes have been recorded in the world. The four different nucleotide sequences of mosquitoes of culex, anopheles aedes aegypti in mosquito biodiversity of their sequence similarities and evolutionary relationship were analysed.

Optimal Load Dispatch (OLD) plays an important role in power system operation. The objective of Optimal Load Dispatch of electric power generation is to schedule the committed generating units outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraints. This paper presents a new optimization approach to solve the Optimal Load Dispatch (OLD) problems with power flow constraints. The proposed Hybrid PSO method employs PSO combined with EP technique.

BCR-ABL leukemic fusion gene types in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) correlate with the disease clinical course and outcome. There is limited reported data regarding the frequency and types of BCR-ABL leukemic gene in the Sudan. This study aims to determine the frequency and types of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts and investigate their possible diagnostic role in patients with persistent myeloid leukocytosis. Following informed consent, one hundred and fifty-one patients with persistent myeloid leukocytosis for >8 weeks and in the absence of infection were enrolled.

Vascular lesions are one of the most common tumours of the oral cavity. Treatment is based on the clinical behaviour and natural history of individual lesion. Deciding the line of treatment has been the most difficult part for a surgeon in most cases. Several conservative methods have been tried and tested, but the defininite one is still to be explored. Sclerotherapy with setrol appears to be one of the better treatment options with minimum toxicity. This paper present a case of hemangioma treated successfully with setrol.

This paper elaborates on how technological innovations have led to the improved information management and library services. Information technology (IT) and Information Communication Technology (ICT) have changed the information seeking behavior of the users and services being provided by the librarians. Journey from print phase to the era of Electronics (E) has been discussed. How information needs have been changed from asking for a book or a journal to an article or a topic with the provision of E-resources has also been discussed.

Fundamental analysis is an approach to arrive at the ‘correct price’ of the security. Its objective is to identify the under priced and overpriced securities in the market place so that the investment decision-buying and selling of securities can be made. A security is said to be under priced if its current market price is less than the ‘correct price’ known as ‘intrinsic value’ or ‘true value’. Conversely, it is overpriced if the current market price is above its intrinsic value.

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition, SILAR and by Spray pyrolysis techniques onto a cleaned glass substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and various structural parameters were reported. The spherical shaped clusters and the presence of elemental constituents were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX) respectively.

Rotavirus is causative agent of diarrhea resulting in mortality in children up to the age group of 5 years. The first infection occur between age group of 6-9 months. However, the need for screening of rotavirus is important to access the incidence of severe disease or effectiveness and its serotype distributions. To detect any new ideotype in re-assortment a continuos screening of existence genotype is required. Multiple assay now exist for measuring the serological response to Rotavirus infection.

This paper is written following an evaluation of the church role towards ecological crisis that is happening at the Mau forest complex in Kenya. The place of the church in Kenya, and Africa is central, and the church theology still plays a normative role. Mau forest complex is a very important ecological feature in Kenya, and a major catchment area.

Research results have shown that soil compaction caused by agricultural machinery traffic can have an adverse effect on crop production. Various authors have tried to numerically model and investigate the degree of compaction in relation to machinery axle load, traffic, and the mechanical characteristics of the soil. Assuming a uniform soil/tire interface contact pressure distribution is one of the main problems with most of the FEM-based numerical models. Soil/tire interface contact pressure is not uniformly distributed; it varies depending on the soil properties and tire characteristics.

The persistence of regional disparity has been one of the major policy concerns of the Government of India since 80’s. The accentuation of regional income inequality particularly during the period of liberalization and globalization raises question about the role of market controlled regime in bringing about equitable development all over the country. Still after twenty years of performance in neo-liberalised environment, the debate continues about whether excessive reliance on market creates development distortion by aggravating inequality further.

Distribution of resources is not uniform over the earth surface. At the early stage of human civilization, people were habituated to lead their livelihood from natural resource base. Later on they identified new resource base from nature and produced new resources with the invention of new technology. By these ways, different types of economic activity have been creating through dynamic resource process or utilization. This paper is an endeavor to search the reflection of the economic surface by the influence of resource base change of Rampurhat-I and II C.D.

Moringa oleifera is the most common natural water coagulant that concerned by many researchers. In this study coagulation-flocculation apparatus was employed, low turbidity water 32 NTU and Moringaseed extract were used to investigate the optimum dosage for turbidity removal, settling time, total organic carbon (TOC) and pathogen removal. Different concentrations 0, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ml/L were applied. The results showed that, the removal efficiency increased with the concentration of the dosage, and the permissible limit according to WHO was achieved at 300ml/L.

The world is divided into two categories where majority have to walk miles for the meal and few walk to digest the meal. Among the former category are the third world countries especially from Asia, Africa and L.America which came out of colonial clutches in 1950s.Since 1950s these countries have embarked on the tempo of the development.

Customer is the king in any profession and so are our library users. Librarians have started striving all the ways and means, utilizing all the available formats and forms and using all channels of communication in fulfilling the information needs of library users – who are techno savvy in this modern web era. The tools of web 2.0- library 2.0- have come handy to LIS professionals to reach the wider online users easily.

The present investigation was carried out to revive the old art of dyeing with natural dye from barks of Odina wodier. L. Odina wodier belongs to family Anacardiaceae, commonly known as votiyar tree. The dye has good scope in the commercial dyeing of SILK in garments industry. In the present study, bleached silk fabrics were dyed with chemical and natural mordants. Dyeing was carried out by pre-mordanting, post mordanting and simultaneous mordatning. The dyed samples have shown good washing, light, rubbing fastness and perspiration fastness properties properties.

The study analyses the impact of external on economic growth in Nigeria. The time series data were derived from various secondary sources such as: the Central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletins, Economic and Financial Review and Annual reports and statement of accounts and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS).Data were also extracted from Debt Management Office (DMO) publications and website. The macroeconomic data cover gross domestic product (GDP) and external debts from 1992-2012.

The diversity of predacious Coccinellids is of great practical and scientific importance due to their worldwide utilization as natural enemy of phytophagous insect pests. Present inventory was carried out in two types of habitats namely, agro- and forest habitats for predacious coccinellids in Tripura, northeast India. Random collection was made by hand picking and sweep netting during January 2008 to December 2010. A total of 1627 individuals of coccinellids representing 24 species under 17 genera were collected.

Finger millet is the fourth most important food crop of Nepal. In many countries millet has been used as a major ingredient in the manufacture of malt. Millet malt is extremely used in the preparation of weaning foods, infant foods and beverages. Today there is a growing demand for gluten free food and beverages from people with celiac disease. Information regarding the malting of finger millet in Nepalese context is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the malting characteristics of some Nepalese finger millet varieties.

A supportive environment is critical to the realization of the full potential of any child, not excluding orphans. Being institutionalized – although much better than living on the streets or with abusive relatives – can never substitute for the benefits of being raised by caring parents. The surest way of providing a child with a simulation of an experience of parental care and affection is by ensuring a supportive environment for the child right in the midst of institutionalization, and the way to achieve this is by putting the necessary support facilities in place.

3-Formylquinolin-2(1H)-ones have been synthesized efficiently by dechlorination of 2-chloro-3-formylquinolines with acetic acid and sodium acetate in just 1.5 to 2.5 min. under microwave irradiation. Consequently, microwave irradiation significantly reduced reaction times compared to traditional heating methods. Particularly synthesis by solvent-free solid supported microwave irradiation was found more eco-friendly and had higher reaction efficiency.

In this work, adsorption of Rhodamine 6G, Carmine, Fast Green FCF,Safranine O from aqueous solution onto activated charcoal were prepared from Bamboo seed seed by physicochemistry activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activated agent at 700°C for 1hour and particle size 600µm analyzed results by U.V-Visible technique .The influence of variables parameters including PH, amount of adsorbent, sieve size of adsorbent, temperature and contact time on dyes removal were studied. The isotherm data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin,Harkins-Jura and Dubinin-Radushkevich.

In this study we developed strain specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA molecular markers based on Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of specific sequence in combination with dilution plating on semi-selective medium to detect and estimate density of propagules of a commercial strains of B. bassiana. Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, the fifteen primers of four Operon series (OPB, OPC, OPE and OPF) were selected for 16 accessions of B. bassiana.

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nano rods arrays have been grown on glass substrates with different pH by using a seed layer. ZnO seed layer thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method on glass substrates. Ammonia was used to achieve the desired pH value. ZnO seed coated thin films were immersed in aqueous solution for 4 hours at 90°C. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate was used as source of zinc ion, while hexamethylenetetramine solution served as the complexing agent. The effect of pH of precursor solution on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nano rods was investigated.

Between 1974, when the first food and drug decree was enacted, and 1994 when NAFDAC was established, no fake drug manufacturer or importer was prosecuted. Consequently, there was public outrage when no culprits were indicted over the death of 150 children in 1989 as a result of formulation error in a drug. It is interesting to note that this fight cannot be over unless various stakeholders come to collective agreement and working partnership that endures. The source of data for the study is primary and secondary and engages the historical method.

Protein alternatives in diets for warm water and cold water fishes should replace their natural proteins not only in quantity but also in quality to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). After making a thorough survey in the district of Midnapore, West Bengal, India, an inventory of non-conventional protein alternatives with special reference to aquatic weeds/macrophytes has been made.

Reverse transcriptase of the human immunodeficiency virus reads the sequence of viral RNA nucleic acids that have entered the host cell and transcribes the sequence into complementary DNA sequence. Reverse transcriptase protein structure was retrieved from NCBI and the similarity searches were made by using BLAST PDB Database, and further the protein structure is modeled using Modeler 9v1. Structural visualization of reverse transcriptase was done by Accerlys Discovery Studio. Using Q-Site Finder, prediction of ligand binding site was done.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in agriculture is an emerging field focusing on the enhancement of agricultural and rural development in India. It involves application of innovative ways to use ICT in the rural domain. The advancements in ICT can be utilised for providing accurate, timely, relevant information and services to the farmers, thereby facilitating an environment for more remunerative agriculture. Given the development scenario in Indian Agriculture, ICT movement is still evolving.

The aim of this study was to carry out nutrient content of Sclerocarya birrea (Amarula) fruits as one of the Kenyan drylands indigenous fruits with a high potential. Mature fruit samples were collected from the field in Mbeere in Eastern part of Kenya and then taken to the Forest Products laboratories for analysis. Edible portions were analysed for the nutritional composition. The analysis carried out included energy, moisture, ascorbic acid, proximate and minerals (i.e. Ca, Mg, K, Cu, P, Fe and Zn).

Excessive fatigue and rutting strains due to traffic loading contribute significantly to the failure of asphalt pavement. In the design of asphalt pavement, it is necessary to investigate these critical strains and design against them. In Nigeria, the only developed design method for asphalt pavement is the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) method. Most of the roads designed using the CBR method failed soon after construction by fatigue cracking and rutting deformation.

Churni is a river in the Nadia district of West Bengal, India. It has been opined that the Churni is most probably an artificial canal, not a true river. Local history says, during the 17th century the river Churni was dug by the orders of Maharajah Krishna Chandra, the King of Nadia as a moat against the Bargees of Maharashtra. Only 80 years ago, in the 1930’s, it was the major trade route inside undivided Bengal. Now, the river has lost its navigability. The river is subjected to different anthropogenic activities throughout its course.

Against her profound belief in the inadequacy of any fictional work to perfectly represent the Holocaust, Cynthia Ozick wrote her novella The Shawl under the inexorable pressure imposed by her sense of belonging to the collective memory of Jewish suffering. But, unlike most of the Holocaust fiction, the two stories of The Shawl and Rosa do not so much integrate historical records of what actually happened, as much as they dramatically reenact the whole agony within a symbolic framework.

Knowledge of mosquito vectors fauna is crucial to disease control measures. Entomological surveys were conducted in endemic areas of malaria and lymphatic filariasis at Ed Damazin locality, Blue Nile State, to investigate mosquito species composition. Mosquitoes were caught throughout the year, in dry and wet seasons during July 2007–August 2008. Mosquitoes were collected as larvae using WHO standard dipping method and as adults by CDC miniature light traps, a local made light traps (Madeni light trap; MLT 2008) and pyrethrum spray collections.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Iraq represent the sixth country incidence rates of colorectal cancer in Asia while India the first country followed by, Yemen, Bangladesh, Egypt and Pakistan. The purpose of presence study is the evaluation of the arginase activity of Iraqi Patient with colorectal disease and other intestinal disease in comparison with other colorectal cancer tests such as CEA, CA 19-9 in Iraqi patients and if it can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with colorectal cancer and other intestinal disease.

Automatic transmission is used to maintain the equilibrium between power and torque produced by the engine. The power produced by the engine is transmitted to drive wheel through transmission unit, reduction unit and differential. A desired speed ratio, kinematic and dynamic requirements can be fulfilled by the equilibrium of torque and power. Accurate speed ratio’s can be achieved by using Planetary Gear Trains which are used to transmit motion between two or more shafts.

Gait analysis is used in clinical evaluation of musculoskeletal system, design and assessment of prosthesis (especially for lower limbs), in the process of rehabilitation after injury and in biometrics. This paper reviews the general methodologies involved in kinematic gait analysis right from acquisition of data to processing and interpretation of meaningful results.

Studies on transplantation of oysters in Mulky estuary was carried out from January 2010 to May 2010. The assemblages of macrobenthos with the transplanted oyster were recorded. The assemblages of macrobenthos increased gradually over the months. Overall, the population density and species of macrobenthos with transplanted oysters varied from 36 to 86No/m². Minimum number of macrobenthos was recorded during February 2010 and maximum during April and May 2010. The survival rate of transplanted oysters varied between 86.60 and 100%.

Large size perforations and delayed presentations are not uncommon in Indian surgical practice. Unfortunately this condition has remained largely unreported. The actual size of perforation is known definitely only intra-operatively. Therefore, definitive protocols for its management have not been formulated. Here we are presenting our experiences regarding giant duodenal ulcer perforations.

One of the most important and underappreciated reproductive health problems in developing countries is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. Many microorganisms seem to be involved in male & female reproductive systems. However, such infections, as well as those involving other and cases of endometritis, leading to uterine synechiae, are less common than tubal occlusions parts of the male genito-urinary tract, may cause a microbial colonization of the semen. Some conditions; however, seem to have a greater impact on female fertility.

The present study aims to analyse the spatial and temporal variations in the levels of cropping intensity and farm mechanization among the six blocks of the Rampur district and examine the causal relationship between cropping intensity and farm mechanization in the district. The study is based on secondary sources of data collected from the district statistical handbook for the periods of fifteen years (1995-2010). The boundary of block has been considered as the smallest unit of study.

The oxidation stability of base stocks in the presence of some synthesized Benzothiazoles derivatives, 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio)-N-butylacetamide (Ia), 2-(benzo-thiazol-2-ylthio)-N-octyl-acetamide (Ib) and 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio)-N-dodecylaceta-mide(Ic), as oxidation inhibitors has been studied. The structures of these prepared compounds are elucidated by the common tools of analysis, Elemental analysis, I.R. and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

Latent TB infections (LTBI) constitute a pool fornew TB cases, ~5% of LTBI individuals progress to overt disease during their lifetime. Simple and cheap progression risk factors are needed to triage individuals for treatment. In aprospective case control study and following informed consent, apparently healthy 98 household contacts (HHCs) and 186 community contacts (CCs) were enrolled. Tuberculin skin test (TST), whole blood stimulation/IFN-γ release assays and IL-4/IL-4δ2 mRNA copies were studied.

The study is about developing a class of line search exchange algorithm for solving linear programming problem using an experimental design procedure. The new algorithm, namely, minimum exchange algorithm has been developed and a first necessary condition for the existence of an optimizer of a linear programming problem has been obtained. This algorithm has been shown to converge. Numerical illustration and comparison show that the algorithm compares favourably with the simplex method for solving linear programming problems.

Being a part of North – East India, which is one of the hot spots of freshwater biodiversity in the world, Tripura afford lucrative habitats for variety of Ichthyo fauna in its lotic and lentic ecosystems and shares fish genetic resources with Indo-Gangetic plains. Among the North Eastern States, in terms of number of available fish species, Tripura stands third. It posses 147 species belonging to 79 genera under 34 families and 11 orders, which is 18% of Indian fresh water fishes and 54.3% of fish species of North East India.

Headache is the most frequent symptom in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. However, patients presenting with solely headache in cerebral venous thrombosis are uncommon. We report a patient who is a smoker, presented with headache and a history of dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis. Magnetic resonance venogram of brain showed thrombosis of the left transverse, sigmoid sinus. Patient was treated with heparin and warfarin and improved on treatment.

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