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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

December 2018

Non keratinocytes are a group of cells in the oral mucosa which exhibit unique structural features and perform various functions. The Melanocytes, Merkel Cells, Langerhans Cells and Inflammatory cells constitute the group of oral non keratinocytes. These cells are also called clear cells and do not take part in epithelial maturation. Proper synchronization of the keratinocytes and non keratinocytes is essential for maintaining the epithelial homeostatsis.

The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value markets. Energy bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking energy bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, ragi flour, wheat flour & sattu flour with honey and jaggery. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65ºC, packed in films, and stored under ambient conditions.

Background- One of the primary pathologies associated with hypertension is a complex autonomic malfunction with evidence of sympathetic hyperactivity and/or vagal withdrawal. Objectives- To assess the possibility for early detection of hypertension in children of hypertensive parents based on analysis of effect of Isometric Hand Grip (IHG) and heart rate variability.

The diatoms collected and isolated from the Yumurtalık Bay at Northeastern Mediterranean at Gulf of Iskenderun, and species were cultivated under laboratory conditions, identified using molecular techniques, and their growth and biochemical composition were investigated. Sampling was carried out using a plankton nets having 20 μm and 55 μm mesh size for 10 minutes at different depths, horizontally. Salinity, temperature and pH were measured with a YSI model salinometer at each station. The isolation of the required species were done by serial dilutions and applying agar plating methods.

Introduction: Academic performance is an individual’s inherent potentials in terms of intelligence combined with other sociological factors. In this era of globalization and technological revolution, education is considered as a first step for every human activity. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living. It ensures the acquisition of knowledge and skills that enable individuals to increase their productivity and improve their quality of life.

<p>Background: Nicotine use is a major public health problem that increases medical morbidity and mortality. Compared to the general healthy population, the prevalence of smoking is found to be much higher among people with psychotic disorders. In Given its effect on modulating dopamine and glutamate, nicotine may have an impact on the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. In fact, schizophrenia patients may use nicotine to self-medicate negative symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with poor attention to and processing of sensory stimulation.

This paper focuses on child labor in artisanal coal factories, with the aim of contributing to a better knowledge of children at risk by presenting the working conditions of children in artisanal charcoal factories in Tiassalé. This research work was based on a sample of 90 respondents and was determined using the reasoned choice method. Four (4) modes of data collection were retained: documentary research, observation, questionnaire, and interview. As for the analysis of the data, the mode of treatment is qualitative and quantitative.

Dermatoglyphics is an art and science of fingerprints which involves the study of fine dermal ridge pattern and configuration of digits, palms and soles. It was derived from Latin words “derma” means skin and “glyphics” means carvings. The term “Dermatoglyphics” was coined by Cummins and Midlo (1991). Dermatoglyphics may be of immense clinical implication to separate those persons who are at a higher risk for developing oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma at early stage.

Background: Avedis Donabedian defined the quality of care as the kind of care, which is expected to maximize an inclusive measure of patient welfare, after taking into account the balance of expected gains and losses associated with the process of care in all its segments. According to the World Medical Assembly, physicians and health care institutions have an ethical and professional obligation to strive for continuous quality improvement of services and patient safety with the ultimate goal to improve both individual patient outcomes as well as population health.

A 30 year old female patient presented with complaints of weakness of all four limbs, swelling and pain on movement, difficulty in walking since last one month. She was investigated and diagnosed as a case of inflammatory myositis, she was treated with steroids, she showed good response to steroids and was discharged.

Uses of certain herbal folk remedies is well known in rural area in Iraq & other countries this mostly due to lack of medical education among lay peoples and sporadic distribution of small districts & villages which are faraway from primary health centers .for examples of theses remedies are seeds, plants, berries, roots, banks, these remedies are widely used for treatment and prevention of various disease.

The patients with essential hypertension are increasing all over the world. There may be development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in essential hypertension. An association between essential hypertension and defective insulin secretion has been identified. Clinical Studies have shown that about 50% of hypertensive individuals have hyperinsulinemia orglucose intolerance, whereas up to 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes have hypertension.

Academic stress and depressions are the burning causes of suicide and suicidal attempt for college students. There are lots of cases reporting by media about the college students’ suicide in daily newspapers that make too much pressure and stress on parents, society, institutions and maybe also in government.

Background: Intravenous regional anesthesia(IVRA) technique is easy, reliable and cost effective with a high success rate of 94–98%when used in short operative procedures of hand or forearm ( Mahmoud et al., 2015; Scott, 2014). Many adjuvant drugs have been added to local anesthetics, such as, NSAIDs, paracetamol, opioids and adrenergic receptor agonists. Objective: To evaluate the effect of paracetamol on sensory and motor block onset time, sensory and motor recovery and postoperative analgesia, when added to lidocaine in IV regional anesthesia (IVRA).

Background: Inguinal hernia repair is associated with considerable postoperative discomfort. The perioperative management of pain following abdominal surgery can pose a challenge to anesthesia providers. Conventional practice has involved the use of opioids as well as neuraxial analgesic techniques. Unfortunately, these therapies are not without potential risks and side effects.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a chronic sleep related breathing disorder which requires long term, multi disciplinary management. The most common clinical procedure involves continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Orthodontic management of OSA syndrome could be provided to children as a preventive and interceptive modal or to adults by an interdisciplinary management. Oral appliances are simple, non invasive, cost effective and reliable treatment method compare to all other airway pressure therapy and surgical approach.

Pressure ulcers are a localized area of tissue necrosis that develop when soft tissue is compressed between a bony prominence and an external surface. This condition has been recognised for at least 5000 years and its incidence has been on the rise due to an increasing geriatric population. All the while the cost of managing pressure ulcers has also been on the rise, overburdening health care delivery systems worldwide, especially more so in developing nations. Currently pressure ulcers are seen as a preventable entity, therefore prevention should be a priority in their management.

Background: In an elderly, muscle strength is a main determinant in the performance of everyday tasks. Lack of muscle strength said to be associated with increased risk of fall in elderly. Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the effect of resistance training on exercise intolerance and risk of fall in elderly using 6 Minute walk distance (6MWD),VO2 MAX, Time up and go(TUG) test, Functional independence measure (FIM) scale,10 Repetition maximum (RM). Methods: Senior citizen clubs across the city were approached for evaluating risk of fall in elderly.

Mammography is rapid and inexpensive, but it is of limited usefulness in detecting implant rupture in women with silicone implants. It is very inaccurate for intracapsular rupture and will reliably detect extruded silicone only in an extra capsular rupture.

Amyloidosis is characterized by extracellular accumulation of insoluble protein fibrils in various tissues and organs. Cardiac involvement is the most serious localization and the leading cause of death, requiring early diagnosis that may be difficult. We report the case of a patient presenting Waldenstrom's disease complicated by cardiac amyloidosis and we review the cardiac involvement in immunoglobulin related amyloidosis.

As we become more civilised, there’s been an gradual increase in crime rate leading to gross injustice owing to shortfalls in terms of identification. With advances in field of dentistry it aids in identification and providing evidences of the crime to the law firm. The pattern on the lips has individual characteristics. The finger prints in the beginning were the only means of identification but now investigators can also rely on cheiloscopy as evidence.

It is a case of ARVD in young patient diagnosed with classical signs and symptoms correlated with ECG and 2D Echo findings, treated accordingly. ARVD can be found in association with diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma, and woolly hair, in an autosomal recessive condition called Naxos disease, because this genetic abnormality can also affect the integrity of the superficial layers of the skin most exposed to pressure stress.

Objective: Caregivers of persons with intellectual disability are faced with multiple challenges, and their works are highly frustrating, especially in Nigeria where caregivers have no defined scope of service and supports. There has not been much study on care-giving and depression among caregivers of children with intellectual disability.

"Red man syndrome" (RMS) or Red neck syndrome is the most common adverse reaction to vancomycin, characterized by flushing of the upper body, pruritus, mild to profound hypotension, chest pain, and muscle spasm. Rapid intervenous (IV) infusion of vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, is the most common cause of this syndrome. Even though it is not an allergic reaction, this syndrome most often looks like an Allergy. Some oral drugs, also, release histamine in the body which can result in red man syndrome nevertheless it occurs predominantly during parenteral administration of vancomycin.

Background: Neonatal sepsis refers to systemic infection of the newborn. It is characterized by nonspecific symptoms, and documented by positive blood culture. An estimated 1.6 million deaths occur due to neonatal infections worldwide, 40% of them being limited to developing countries. The incidence of neonatal sepsis in our country is around 30 per 1000 live births. These children are more likely to have neuro developmental side effects. Therefore it is important to diagnose and treat the condition as early as possible.

Purpose: This clinical report presents and describes the case where the minimally invasive infiltrant resin technique was used for hypoplasia white stains related to traumatic dental injuries. Results: The Hypoplastic stains showed visually perceptual improvements. The general clinical outcomes of the case was considered successful and recovered the patients’ self-esteem.

Aim: To evaluate and compare the post operative complaints in diabetic and non diabetic complete denture wearers. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare problems faced by diabetic and non diabetic complete denture wearers. Materials and Method: This study was done with a sample of 100 patients out of which half were diabetic and half were non-diabetic. A self-administered structured questionnaire pretested through a pilot survey was used in the study. The data was analyzed using the Graphpad Prism 7.0 version.

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is presented with thrombocytopenia, recurrent foetal loss, arterial & venous thrombosis. Primary APS is common compared to secondary one. Here we presented a 25 years old male with progressive exertional chest heaviness over last one year and diagnosed as chronic stable angina. Coronary angiography (CAG) revealed acute thrombotic occlusion of proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery and underwent primary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) and stenting. Subsequently he received dual antiplatelet and anticoagulant.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness and flexural strength of yttrium stabilised zirconia ceramics after various low temperature aging using computerised micro hardness tester and universal testing machine respectively.

Introduction: In year 2013, it was assessed that hospitals and medical institutes in Delhi were generating 70 tonnes/day of biomedical waste, of which only 10.7 tonnes/day were being treated properly.Violation of biomedical wastes rules by some hospitals was evident in some of the medical institutes. So, a study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Bhopal.

The maximum ability to utilize oxygen (VO2max) was observed in active duty marine reserves before and after the implementation of a high intensity interval training program (HIIT). Eleven males volunteered for this study of 32± 6 years of age and heights of 1.77 ± 0.08.With the implementation of HIIT in marine training protocol there was a significant difference seen in VO2max pre and post HIIT training p =.00. Paired t-tests were used to find differences between pre and post HIIT protocol on VO2MAX (alpha = 0.05). This is suggestive that HIIT is effective in improving VO2MAX.

Venous malformations are slow growing benign tumors of aberrant venous connections. They are clinically present in adults as bluish, soft, compressible lesions typically found on the face, limbs, or trunk. Rapid growth may occur during puberty, pregnancy or traumatic injury. Calcifications can be seen in these malformations. Here, we report a case of slow flow venous malformation in the floor of the mouth manifesting as a small bluish swelling which was subsequently treated with 3% sodium tetra decylsulfate.

The aim of this study is to warn about the evolution of meningococcal infection to sepsis and fulminant purpura which required the amputation of both legs. The case of a 2-year-11-month-old female infant is reported who was referred to the pediatrics emergency department of Hospital de Base in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. The child was admitted to hospital without pulses in the lower extremities and changes in coagulation, thereby limiting any possibility of an surgical intervention involving the limbs.

The objective is to connect the two noteworthy streams of the state – Godavari and Krishna – to profit ranchers of Krishna and Guntur locale. Its essential goal is to utilize Godavari's surge waters for the adjustment of Krishna delta district that faces intense deficiency of water for water system from June to August. At present, an expected 80 TMC of the 3000 TMC of the Godavari's surge waters goes squander into the ocean consistently. Once the venture is settled, the overabundance water will be occupied to dry spell inclined Rayalaseema area.

Congo fever is a widely distributed vector borne viral disease, seen in different regions of the world. CCHF virus (CCHFV), which belongs to the Nairovirus genus and Bunyaviridae family, is causative agent for this fatal condition. As this virus is highly pathogenic and easily transmissible it forms a threat on Human society and it has a fatality rate of 40-70%.The virus can be transmitted to human being either from animal which is exposed to tick or directly from tick.

Introduction: Edentulism is a common problem in geriatric patients. In order to restore function and esthetic of an edentulous patient, complete dentures are provided. One of the most important step in fabricating a complete denture is Impression making. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate common clinical practice concerning choice of impression materials and impression techniques used for complete denture fabrication by prosthodontists, general dental practitioners and other Dental specialists in Chennai.

The field of animal reproduction especially that dealing with dairy sector, has seen the application of many innovative and sophisticated techniques in the recent past. Sexing semen is one such technology that has attracted the attention equally of dairy professionals and farmers as well. This is based on the principle of flow cytometry combined with the X and Y sperm separation techniques that are available in the domains of standard physics and biological sciences.

Objective: To define the tubal factors as a cause of female infertility and compare between HSG and laparoscopy as valid diagnosis for tubal disease. Study setting: Infertility centre at Al-Batool Teaching Hospital in Mosul. Design: Descriptive case serial study. Study Participant: Three hundred infertile women attending Al-Batool infertility centre in Mosul. Intervention: (300) infertile women enrolled for this study from November 2006 to May 2008 (1.5 years), their age were between 17-43 years old.

Allergic Rhinitis (AR) represents a global health problem. It is an extremely common disease worldwide, affecting 10 to 25% of the population. AR constitutes approximately 55% of all allergies seen in India. However, in India, AR still does not receive the attention it deserves by both patients, as well as, clinicians. This hospital based cross sectional retrospective study was done on 2525 patients who had attended E.N.T. OPD at a tertiary care hospital of Central India, with aim to study clinical profile and demographic factors of allergic rhinitis.

Background: Major hypercalcemia is a rare therapeutic emergency in lymphoma, its two most common causes are hyperparathyroidism and bone metastases, its clinical signs are not specific, which stresses the difficulty to formally establish a diagnostic etiology.

The environment contains various microbial agents that have potential of causing diseases. Immunity plays an important role of protecting body from various causative agents by recognizing foreign agent and eliminating them from the body but sometimes these immune system acts against self-antigens. Thus, resulting into auto-immune diseases which affects multiple organs including oral cavity. Knowledge of these diseases is not only important to diagnose the diseases but also helps in treatment.

Background: Diabetes is emerging as a new epidemic in today’s era with the increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyles, affecting a large proportion of the female population extending to reproductive age group. It is well known to have short and long term consequences for the fetus and mother. Thus, proper control of diabetes in pregnancy is essential to ensure better obstetric outcomes. Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the significance of HbA1c levels in third trimester in predicting adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been discovered to induce strong angiogenic activity and proliferative capacity in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effect of bFGF with and without synthetic alloplastic bone graft (bioactive glass) in periodontal infrabony defects. Methods and Material: Following initial periodontal therapy, 16 systemically healthy patients in the age group 20-65 yrs., having bilateral intrabony defects, were randomly assigned to two treatment groups using a split mouth design i.e.

A In acute lung injuries there is depression of surfactant activity, exacerbating respiratory failure. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that the main mechanism to reduce the surfactant activity is toxic pulmonary edema with the lung vessels porosity increase, allowing toxic substances to pass into the alveoli followed by inactivation of the surfactant. Exogenous surfactant preparations used are also inactivated by these toxic agents.

Background and purpose: Dengue virus is the fastest growing vector-borne disease today. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are an estimated 400 million dengue infections each year in over 125 countries. The purpose of the present study is to assess the level of Knowledge and Practice about Dengue Fever among people. Materials and Method: A Quantitative descriptive design was adopted for the study. Health centres were selected randomly and a total of 60 samples were selected using convenience sampling technique.

Literature aims to have a comprehensive representation of wide array of orthodontic wires available for correcting dental irregularities or preserving the maintaining the existing tooth or teeth positions. The properties of these materials is explained in terms of stress strain relationship in response to external load. Wires considered to be one of the active components differ on the basis of various mechanical and physical properties under various stages of operation.

Background: Specifically, poor cervical posture during sleep, which is believed to increase biomechanical stresses on the cervical spine structure, can produce cervical pain, stiffness, headache and scapular arm pain resulting in low quality of sleep. A neutral position of spine maintains cervical spine curvature prevents any cervical waking symptoms by minimizing end range positioning of spinal segments. Maintenance of normal cervical curve is a good cervical posture and will maintain a healthy neck.

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Metallo-β lactamases (MBL) have recently emerged as one of the most troublesome resistance mechanisms owing to their capacity to hydrolyze all β-lactams including carbapenems.. Objectives: To know the antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Also, to detect MBL production and biofilm forming ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various clinical isolates from our hospital.

So far dental implants have taken over the field of dentistry as the most approachable method for replacement of missing teeth wherever possible. However as newer advances are being made to combat the existing hurdles of aesthetics and durability, a newer material for dental implants has been in revision. Zirconia has emerged as a new material for dental implants.

The aim of our research is to study the OR in infertile patients by assessing hormonal status including basal FSH, LH, ovarian volume ,ovarian diameter, no. of small antral follicle, endometrial thickness, CCCT and femara challenge test. It was carried in the fertility center of Al-Saddar teaching hospital of Al-Najaf city from January 2009 to August 2009. A comparison was done between three groups: Control group (25 patients) without treatment. CCCT group (25 patients) with induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate tab. And lastly femara challenge test group treated by letrozole tab.

Background: Cutaneous malignancies are relatively rare in Indian subcontinent compared to western part of the world. Rarity of its incidence could be due to protective effects of melanin.Though it is the largest organ by surface area, occurrence of cutaneous malignancy is quite less compared to other organs. Presentation is usually earlier due to the fact that it is easily noticeable. Objective:To determine the age and sex incidence, common site of presentation, type of histology,optimal management and its outcome, also avoidable risk factors.

Aims: To assess the perception about career opportunities in public health dentistry among post graduate students. Settings and Design: A cross sectional survey was carried out in the Department of public health dentistry among the post graduate students in the Dental Institutions in Bangalore city.

Background: Some psychiatric disorder has been started during childhood. Often they have long duration of illness and if not treated it affect children’s ability in achievement of school, developing relationship in society and family and lead to significant impairment in personal life. Assessment of psychiatric behavior and treat co morbid psychological condition may lead to improved functioning and prevent chronology. Aims • Assessment of Psychiatry behaviour in pediatric patients of 6-12 years age.

The rapid emergence of more and more resistant strains of microorganisms is a matter of concern for the scientists world over. As the advances in science are coming up with better and better antibiotics, the irrational use by the clinicians for fast relief makes them ineffective and resistant as the organisms mutate in their genetic process. The emergence of MRSA and multidrug resistant strains of most bacteria such as Superbug’s has become an utmost challenge to mankind. Bone infection is resistant to treatment due to multiple reasons inherent to bone itself.

Introduction: Head and cervical posture relationship has been a concern for many years because changes in head posture and its functional alterations can be related to craniofacial morphology. Changes in head posture also affect the upper and lower lip pressure which can presumably influence the inclination of the incisor .So, the aim of the present study was to investigate association between head posture, dental arch crowding and inclination of incisors.

Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a serious mental disorder characterized by episodes of depression, hypomania/mania and mixed episodes, with inter episodic recovery. For over 60 years, lithium carbonate has been used as first-line therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder as mood-stabilizing drugs. Lithium is probably more effective in preventing mania than depression, and reduces the risk of suicide in people with BPD. Neurological disturbances caused by lithium range from simple side effects to acute neurotoxicity.

Background: Furcation area offer unique and challenging problems, creates situations in which routine periodontal procedures are somewhat limited and special procedures are generally required. Materials and Methods: This study is comparative evaluation of DFDBA+ CGF +PRF versus open flap debridement with PRF in grade II/III furcation with follow up of 12 months. The study population included 30 subjects, who visited the out-patient department of periodontics, Govt Dental College and Hospital Srinagar with complaint of bleeding and sensitivity, diagnosed as chronic periodontitis.

Background: E. coli accounts for up to 80% of UTI. Emergence of MDR and ESBL enzyme producing E. coli is increasing which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Phenotypic expression of the gene depends on gene regulation. Aim: To determine the prevalence of UPEC, rate of MDR strains, to characterize phenotypic screening and genotypic characterization of the ESBL producing genes among uropathogenic E. coli.

Background: Simulation in laparoscopic training has gained wide acceptance but long-term retention after basic skills training for novices has seldom been explored, and transfer to more complex surgical interventions remains controversial. Objective: To assess (i) skills retention at more than six months after initial training and (ii) skills transfer to a simulated surgical procedure. Methods: Prospective comparative study of simulated surgical training. Nine six-year medical students had two training sessions on the Simbionix LAP Mentor™'s "basic skills".

Aim – The aim was to compare the efficacy of anti-inflammatory effect of dispersible Piroxicam and dispersible Diclofenac sodium in patients undergoing surgical removal of mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods -The study comprised of thirty patients with bilaterally impacted mandibular third molars. Split mouth study design was employed. The right side served as the Study Side, given tablet Piroxicam 20 mg twice daily and the left side served as the Control Side given Diclofenac sodium 50 mg thrice daily.

Background: Maternal Mortality and Morbidity remains high even though several national programmes exists for improving maternal and child health in India. This could be related to several factors, an important one being is non-utilisation or poor utilisation of antenatal health-care services, especially among rural population. Objectives: To estimate the utilisation of maternal health care services in the rural area. To assess the factors influencing their utilisation of maternal health care services.

Objective: Comparative study of the adverse effects of antiretroviral drug regimen ZLN and TLE as first line ART in the initial 3 months of starting of therapy in 300 patients in MBGH,Udaipur, Rajasthan. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Patient’s records were obtained from ART Centre, MBGH Udaipur from starting of HAART to 3 months of treatment for clinical and laboratory evidence of toxicity as per NACO protocol. Results: Total 300 patients were observed.

Background: Substance abuse has a broader perspective than an individual, emphasizing the role of society and culture. And the relevance of substance abuse in medical students is of more growing concern. Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice substance abuse among medical students. Materials and Methods: A Cross Sectional study was done among 200 medical students with predesigned questionnaire.

Background: Squint (strabismus) is deviation of one of both eyes which can be paralytic (incomitant) or non_paralytic is due to many causes one of them the refractive error ( hypermetrobia, myopia and astigmatism).Strabismus may be esotropia (inward deviation of the eye) exotropia (outward deviation of the eye) / hypertropia ( upward deviation of the eye) or hypotropia (downward deviation of the eye).Hypermetropia (long-sightedness): Is a common eye condition where nearby objects appear blurred, but the vision is clear when looking at things further away. Hypermetropia in children.

On a global basis, the combined agricultural emissions of Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) account for about 20% of the annual increase in radiative forcing of climate change. Quantification of these gas emissions from soil is difficult because of their large spatial and temporal variability. Field experiments were carried out at Tamil Nadu, South India during 2010-2011 quantifies the green house gas (GHG) emissions from conventional flooded rice – rice and futuristic maize – rice cropping systems with minimum tillage.

Several contributions on the ecological interaction between hydrocarbon and soil habitat-water relationship in different parts of Niger Delta have been revealed. Based on demonstrated remediation potential of plants species, this study was aimed evaluating the suitability of three species (Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Heyne, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) De wit. and Crotolaria retusa Linn.) of the Fabaceae family for the restoration of infiltration rate of crude oil impacted Niger Delta soil habitat. Standard field and laboratory methods of data collection and analyses were adopted.

The issue of the mechanism of biogas flow through the adhesive bed was described and flow analogy was made for the porous structure model. With regard to the problem of biogas flow through the adhesive bed, the process issue was recognized in the description of the mechanism of gas movement in the porous structure for the development of a new generation of alternative energy sources, especially biogas production from swine slurry. The paper presents preliminary results of experimental tests in the field of hydrodynamics evaluation of biogas flow through an adhesive bed.

Plants that serve medicinal purposes contain phytoconstituents. These phytoconstituents are responsible for therapeutic uses of them. Nanomedicinal focus has majorly been on higher plants. Recently, nanomedicine have gained global attention in medicine. In this study, a cost effective and eco-friendly technique for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using 1mM, 2mM and 5mM AgNO3 solutions with the extract of a fern Phymatode scolopendria as reducing and capping agent was described.

The present study attempt to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies in tuber extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottl. and Willd.) Hook. f. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of samples in different solvent extract confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like Carbohydrates, Saponins, Tannins, Flavonoid, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Proteins, Phytosterol, Steroids, Phenols and Terpenoids. The solvent Petroleum ether, Benzene, Acetone, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and aqueous extract showed good results.

Child neglect also called psychological abuse which is defined as a failure by a child's caregiver to meet a child's physical, emotional, educational, or medical needs (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2012). Forms of child neglect include: Allowing the child to witness violence or severe abuse between parents or adult, ignoring, insulting, or threatening the child with violence, not providing the child with a safe environment and adult emotional support, and showing reckless disregard for the child's well-being (Child Neglect and Psychological Abuse, 2011).

Evalation is defined as a process which enables to get an award on developed competences in order to decide or to act. This study has bean performed upon the analysis of the evalution of reading activity concerning the Elementary Primary Studies Certificate (Certificat d’Etudes Primaires Elémentaires). It starts from hypothesis: there is a gap between the Institutional prescription about the evaluation of reading activity and the reality of that evaluation concerning the Elementary Primary Studies Certificate.

Background: The general objective of the study was to examine the role of political leadership in electoral process and political stability in the East African Community States. To achieve the general objective this study was evaluate the relationship between post-election phase processes and political stability in the East African Community States. This study adopted a quantitative approach of both descriptive and correlation designs. The target population consisted of 123 individuals working within the electoral commissions of different EAC Countries and the EAC Legislative Assembly.

Aims: This study was carried out to examine the fungi associated with the spoilage of some fruits in Wuse Market, Abuja. Materials and Result: In this study, five different kinds of fruits were collected from Wuse market and examined for Fungi growth using Potato dextrose agar and the pathogenicity of the isolated fungi was confirmed using Koch's postulate.

This study was conducted to analyze the resource use efficiency of cassava production in Kebbi State, Nigeria. One Local Government was selected from the Four Agricultural Development Zones of Kebbi State. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the five (5) villages and the five (5) farmers. Inputs-output data was collected from fifty farmers each from one Local Government, making a total sample size of 200 farmers. Data was analyzed using production function model and marginal analysis model.

Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is a precious timber plant which has been serving the world’s population since human civilization. It (S. album L.) grows in sandy alluvial or laterite soil having adequate edaphic as well as environmental factors. But it ensures its survivility when host plants are available in its surrounding root zone. It has also been found that host is no more required for its growth and development after 3-4 years. Demand for sandalwood and oil is increasing and the gap between demand and supply is widening.

Thalassemia are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders, characterized by abnormal production of hemoglobin and associated with low hemoglobin production and excessive destruction of red blood cells. Parents of thalassemic children have concerns regarding treatment for their children. There is a significant psychological impact on parents like emotional burden, hopelessness, and difficulty with social integration. They experience negative thoughts about their life, guilt, increased anxiety and low self-esteem.

Dry dressing treatments in harvest fresh mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.). R. Wilczek) seeds (cv. chaiti) with chemicals (viz., bleaching powder, ferulic acid, Iodinated calcium carbonate, Calcium carbonate), pharmaceutical formulations (viz., aspirin), finely powdered crude plant materials (viz., red chilli powder, amla powder ) and wet treatment (viz., soaking-drying, moist sand conditioning drying and moist sand conditioning soaking drying) effectively controlled the loss of seed deterioration after subsequent storage under ambient conditions.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the chicken marketing in BirninKebbi Local Government Area. The specific objectives include describing the socioeconomic characteristics of chicken traders, estimation of the market structure, conduct and performance of chicken marketing. To address the aforementioned objectives, econometric models were employed. Alternative marketing channels and their systematic linkages and relative importance in the flow of birds and egg from the point of production to the end users were identified and mapped.

On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics, an analysis of the orientation of structural interactions was carried out. In the systems in which the interaction proceeds along the potential gradient (positive work), the resultant potential energy is found based on the principle of adding reciprocals of corresponding energies of subsystems - there is a corpuscular mechanism.

Cereals and legumes contain high amount of phosphorus in the form of phytic acid or phytate. Due to the absence of phytatse enzyme, monogastric animals cannot digest phytic acid which is the nutritional constituent of animal diet. Phytic acid act as an anti-nutritional chelating agent of different metal ions like Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn. The main objectives of the research were to isolate and characterize phytase producing bacteria from traditional fermented foods like idli and jalebi batter, and optimize phytase production by the isolated strain of bacteria.

The main objective of this study is to review the present marketing mix applies particularly to the marketing. This study provides an idea to the marketers and can be used as tools to assist them in pursuing their marketing objectives. The survey research design method was used in this study which involves using a self-design questionnaire in collecting data from sixty 30 respondents. All respondents are using products form OFFICINA for several months. The instrument used in this study is a close-ended questionnaire that was designed by the researchers.

The three-detector microwave ellipsometer working at 30 GHz frequency is an experimental bench used to characterize dielectric materials. This paper is aimed at showing the reliability of the measurement of this original bench. Thus, the latter is described first. Then, error sources and their influences on the measurement are studied. We finally show that a numerical correction used for calibration guaranties the reliability of the measurement.

This study has examined the effect on employee participation in decision making and its impact. The implications of this study include the need for manufacturing firms to demonstrate high level of commitment to employee involvement in decision making for performance enhancement. Data were generated by means of questionnaires. The sample for the study was 160. Out of the 160 questionnaires 150 were found to true and other to be flaw. The studies were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, regression analysis and chi-square test.

Background: India is harnessing a hard and strenuous path since the launch of National family planning program which was later integrated into Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent health (RMNCH+A) strategy. In this context Odisha, geographically located at the southeastern coast of the country with a population of 42 million is selected for the research study.

The semiconductor materials adapted to the tropical zone according to their optoelectronic properties and especially their gap energies and their molar composition were chosen. To cope with the low efficiency encountered in single junction solar cells, these materials were used in the choice of a geometry of a Ga0.67In0.33P/GaAs/Ga0.70In0.30As tri-junction solar cell adapted to our area study.

Background: The demographic profile of a state helps in analyzing trends in order to plan programmes to benefit its people. In present study, demographic profile of Uttarakhand and its division is studied. Material and Methods: In this study,z-test for proportions is used for comparison of estimates of population and basic household characteristics between Kumaun and Garhwal division of Uttarakhand. Result: Between the two divisions, Garhwal has improved population and demographic profile. The socio economic determinants were highest in Dehradun while lowest in Tehri-Garhwal district.

The conservation of Giant Panda has the potential to support various factors such as increase in protecting Giant Panda from exclusivity and economic perspectives especially tourism revenue in ecotourism and conservation (Ahmad et al., 2016). Findings of this study focus to develop a new measurement scale for locals’ perception about Giant Panda conservation. Previous studies on wildlife conservation perception were combining with newly found factors through local community to develop a new measurement scale. Data were analyzed through factors analysis.

Statement of the Problem: The issue on the continuing degradation of the earth’s natural resources and the environment are being recognized as world’s serious problem. Our country is not left out in acknowledging this thus; several efforts have also been made. These include the creation and implementation of environmental laws, RA 9003(Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000). Environmental awareness is quite a distortion but through proper and massive information dissemination, the aim can be attained.

The wild development of multimedia content is pushing forward the worldview of cloud-based media facilitating nowadays. Due to developing time of web and the ease of using it, the copyright assurance and confirmation of content has become exceptionally imperative issue. To unravel the issue of copyrights, digital watermarking has been used over quite a while. Still, the issue of secured outsourcing isn't completely illuminated since replicating media substance is nearly cost-free, and the authorized clients afterward redistribute the media content misguidedly.

In this work, Private Information Retrieval (PIR) problem is being studied in the presence of third party for secure distributed storage systems. Secure distributed storage systems is designed to protect both user privacy from the databases and data security from an eavesdropper. In addition, secret sharing scheme is also used for security purpose. Secure Erasure coding method is used for node failure as well as for reduced backup storage.

Cloud computing become more popular over the world. It provides services over the Internet. Cryptographic techniques provides protection for data of users in public cloud, but there are some issues, such as secure data group sharing and fine-grained access control of time-sensitive data. In this paper, we proposed a secure corporate cloud based data sharing system for employees in which multiple companies can use cloud document sharing system.

In healthcare industry, clinical decision support system plays an important role. As the clinical data is confidential data, there is a huge requirement of a secure data security system which can maintain secrecy of data. In this paper, we propose a homomorphic encryption technique which is able to perform the different operations on data by preserving the privacy of data. As, the data privacy is the primary concern. All the operations are performed on the encrypted data.

We proposed a secure cloud-based application to enhance revocable attribute-based encryption technique. Along with it to boost the security of the document we proposed a modified AES algorithm with some pre-encryption modifications in document to make system more secure and efficient. In our paper first, there is designing of a revocable attribute-based encryption (RABE) scheme with some modification in previous RABE algorithm together with the characteristics of ciphertext relegation by some effort and exclusively combining some techniques to scale down the computation overhead.

The potential ability of aquatic plants naturally grown in marshlands and wetlands receiving municipal sewage from Solapur city were sampled. These macrophytes were exposed to a mixed test bath of metals and examined to know their potentialities to accumulate heavy metals for judging their suitability for phytoremediation technology. Potentialities for metal absorption, accumulation, magnification and enrichment were found to be dependent on the plant species and metal types. The studies were conducted from June 2014 to June 2018.

The Different mathematical function gives analysis of equation for next sequence of order in positive and negative mode in expansion of the system consequent of elemental method for 1st order is continued with 2nd order finite conduction mode as alpha functions with system identified specific functions. Regularity of esteemed function gives variation of real function and constant function with study factor in simpler tends exponents solution starts from first margin point and last margin point in multiplicative fundamental identity in applied mathematical system.

Global climate change is a situation caused by natural causes and human activities. There is a balance between the light coming from Sun and beam of light reverberated from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere. The main reason for global climate change is that the current balance is not protected due to external factors. The aim of this research is to determine the rate of global climate change on Ankara. In this study, the stationary temporal climate series of temperature, precipitation and evaporation series for Ankara were analyzed using by Box-Jenkins method.

In the paper, a physics of the “poker” effect was investigated experimentally and discussed by authors. Some unusual effects were discovered during experiments when heated end of the probe was quenched in an electrolyte of the optimal concentration. It’s impossible to explain the results obtained using solutions of the parabolic heat conductivity equation. The physics of the “poker” effect can be clearly explained if to take into account an existence of free electrons in the metal and the instant formation of a double electric layer.

The newly synthesized naftopidil analog HUHS1015 has been developed as an anticancer drug. The present study aimed at understanding the mechanism underlying HUHS1015-induced cell death in CW2 and Caco-2 human colonic cancer cells. HUHS1015 reduced cell viability in CW2 and Caco-2 cells in a concentration (10-100 μM)-dependent manner. HUHS1015 decreased pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) protein, and the effect was inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. PKM2 deficiency activated caspase-3, -4, -8, and -9 in Caco-2 cells, although such effect was not obtained with CW2 cells.

“The real cause of hunger is the powerlessness of the poor to gain access to the resources they need to feed themselves.”-Frances Moore Lappe India is primarily an agrarian country where around 55 percent of the population depending on agriculture as their livelihood. The very popular “Lal Bahadur Shastri’s slogan “Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan” highlighted and stressed the importance of farmers in the country. According to the 2011 census, around 68.84% of Indians lives in rural areas. Majority of people in India are still dependent on farming for their livelihoods.

The main purpose of this study was to explore the practice of continuous assessment strategies on students’ EFL reading skills performance. It was conducted in ten Secondary Schools of Ilubabor Zone involving 500 students. The study was guided by the following basic research questions: First, what continuous assessment strategies were being practiced in Secondary Schools of Ilubabor Zone? Second, what is the relationship between the continuous assessment strategies practiced and students’ performance in Secondary Schools in Ilubabor Zone?

Systematic Investment Plan is a recurring investment pattern. By implementing this style of investing, a great deal of risk can be reduced. The paper’s main objective is to understand how a systematic investment plan works and the importance of awareness of this style of investing amongst young inexperienced investors. It also shows how inculcating a disciplined routine of investing could decrease risk and help save a lot of money. Through primary data collection in this study we also try to understand the preference and choices of young investors and the risk they are willing to take.

This study aims to identify the factors influencing revisit intention of visitors in Tasik Kenyir as an ecotourism destination. A conceptual framework based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to investigate the factors that influence revisit intention of visitors to Tasik Kenyir. A structured questionnaire was designed as the instrument to gather data for the study and were distributed to the visitors in Tasik Kenyir chosen using the non-probability convenience sampling method.

Beyond to highlighting on the public institutions organizational structure and the challenges of reform implementation in Ghana public sector agencies in this paper, the researchers emphasized their analysis in the previous empirical investigation and scholar literature(s). Samiatu S. (2010),George a.

The digital revolution is accompanied by a pernicious evil which is '' browsing ''. As a criminal activity that generates income, "grazing" has become a "professional" activity among some young people in Abidjan. The objective of this study is to know the sectors in which the money acquired through the "browsing" is generally injected and to know the beneficiaries. The methodology is based on a documentary and field research among the populations.

Technological advancement and globalization have caused major changes in the world of economy as well as the traditional business model. The present study examined the influence perceived value, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust and perceived security towards online consumer repurchase intention among youths in Malaysia. A total of 200respondents responded to the questionnaires. Statistical software SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and Microsoft Excel system were used for the analysis of collected data.

The Government of India implemented a drastic change in the economic environment on 8th November,2016, by demonetizing the high currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1000. Demonetization was a step taken by the honourable Prime Minister to eradicate black money or in other words to get rid of corruption in someway and to flush out the fake currency being in circulation from the economy. The objective of this paper is to deeply go through the issue of demonetization and to study the hardships being faced by the rural people due to demonetization.

Background: Children are essential assets of a country, because they are the future human potential required for its future development. Children belong to 5-15 years ago group are vulnerable because of their rapid growth rate. In the absence of parents, orphanages are an alternative, which provide care and support for these vulnerable children. An estimated 153 million children in the world are orphans.

Incubated soil samples from different treatment combinations were showed that pH of both alluvial and black soil have very small variation but T2,T11 and T14 were appeared in decrease the alkalinity and to continued upto 60 DAT. The EC of treated soil with different combination of organic acid and fly ash in both alluvial and black soil have not much showed more decreasing trend but minimize the soluble salt content.

Background: The present study is the first of the genre in the upper course of Cavally. Objectives: It aims to make a systematic inventory of shrimps. Methods: Samplings were made on the upper portion of the river in a mining environment and then upstream and downstream of this area between September 2015 and August 2016. Shrimps were caught monthly using dip nets and keep nets. Results: Totally 1051 individuals were harvested. They belong to the families of Palaemonidae and Atyidae. Five valid species (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, M. macrobrachion, M. felicinum, M. thysi and M.

In the mid-1980s in Africa, the issue of combating the phenomenon of child labor is making news in Côte d'Ivoire. From a phase of denial, this country has moved to an effective fight against this phenomenon in agriculture and other sectors of economic activity. In this context, the policy of compulsory schooling was developed in order to substitute school for child labor. This article aims to describe the policy on the one hand and analyze its impact on children's schooling and their involvement in child labor on the other.

The main theme of the research paper is to highlight the challenges faced by the global community in Global prosperity and development. The study focuses on the Sustainable Development Goals. The objective of the research paper is to discuss the prim indicators of the development. The research has national and International significance. The research also discusses the pitfalls and hurdles to find out the Development Goals. This is the general phenomenon of the developing countries to meet the challenges like Poverty, Hunger, Health, and Education.

The aim of the research is to know the role of social capital as one of the main pillars of the economic development process, which requires the treatment of the causes of underdevelopment, reducing unemployment and economic inflation, and to bring about a radical change in society in order to elevate it to certain levels to achieve its aspirations to live in welfare according to accepted health, educational and social standards.

The study determined how students assess the various components of their learning environment. It also identified how the learning environment affects students' lea rning achievement. A sample of 152 MBA students randomly selected from a population of Tribhuwan University, Kathmandu University, Pokhara University and Purbanchal University’s students. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, regression analysis, Multicollinearity and F-test.

This research article examined the effects of intensive guided use of the technique known as shadowing to improve overall English pronunciation, intonation, word stress, and sentence stress in the EFL classroom. The research participants were 20 level A1 students from an Ecuadorian university. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed utilizing an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. Qualitative data were gathered through structured interviews. Quantitative data were collected analyzing videotapes recorded by the chosen sample.

English teacher should think hard how to make the teaching process be interesting and lively in order to reach the goal of teaching. CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach) strategy is recommended to be applied in teaching writing especially writing composition, cause this strategy has three components; curriculum content, academic language and learning strategies that the teacher can combine them in the teaching with the five phases; preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, and expansion.

Background: The standard screening test for cervical cancer is the Pap smear and cervical cancer is a significant health issue worldwide. Early sexual activity, multiple sexual partnerships, parity, young age at first pregnancy and early marriage are traditional risk factors for developing cervical cancer. Aim of study: To determine the benefit of pap smear in diagnosis and management of precancerous cervical lesion. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 45 women who attended the private clinic in al-Kut city, Wasit for the period from January 2017 to April 2017.

Literacy is a sensitive indicator of cultural advancement of an area. It develops the personality and rationality of individuals, qualifies them to fulfil certain economic, political and cultural functions and, thereby, plays an active part in the socio-economic transformation of a society. According to the 2011, Census of India, Literacy has been defined as “A person aged seven and above, who can both read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate”. Lack of literacy breaks the economic, political and all development process of that society or a region.

This paper projects Swami Vivekananda as a preacher of spiritual idealism laying focus on Indian spirituality and his stature as a key person and tallest figure in bringing out social and religious reformation by adding preaching and practice as twins for spiritual idealism which is part and parcel of ancient Indian thought, philosophy and culture. It also analyses how he brings home an important point that spirituality is an essential part of life to lead a peaceful and happy life.

As paradoxical as it may seem, marriage and divorce are two very common terms in common parlance, but to be seen closely, few people can identify them well. This is perhaps due to both the conception and the practice of these two phenomena. Indeed, marriage is a data that over time and in the social environment is apprehended and practiced differently by the people. Divorce being intimately related to marriage follows this same logic. From this observation, one is straight line to question what is marriage today and by implication divorce? What are its duties? Its typologies?

Introduction: Cataract derives from the Latin cataracta meaning "waterfall" and the Greek kataraktes and katarrhaktes, from katarassein meaning "to dash down". Cataract is an opacity within the lens the patient may have a cataract in one or both eyes. If present in both eyes one cataract may affect the person’s vision more than other. Most of the cataracts are age related or they can be related or they can be associated with other factors the development of cataract is mediated by number of factors.

Student Teaching Program (STP) caps the professional practice in the Teacher Education Curriculum. Hence, STP needs to be assessed in regards to the following components: Program Objectives, Administration, Supervision, Policies and Guidelines, Instructional Activities, and Methods of Assessment towards the development of Student Teaching Manual (STM). The study employed a descriptive method of research using a normative survey technique with documentary analysis. Unstructured interview was used to supplement the data.

Maturity is the ability to respond to the environment in an appropriate manner. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and location to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in Wechsler, David (2000). Adult development and maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful (Adler, Nancy 1997).

Computational Chemistry plays an important role in the research of new possible medicines. In this work, anti cancer activity and molecular docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of anthracene derivatives namely 9-Chloroanthracene and 2,6-Dimethoxyanthracene on effect of anticancer. The binding interactions in the targets active sites were reported. Results show that 9-Chloroanthracene and 2,6-Dimethoxyanthracene are promising leads, so the study of these compounds is recommended.

Small bowel perforation may be suspected according to patient’s clinical presentation with high index of clinical suspicion, or existence of extra luminal air foci on diagnostic imaging usually performed to evaluate abdominal pain such as CT scan with double contrast or by help of focused abdominal Sonography for trauma (FAST) exam or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL). Blunt traumatic perforation following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) can occur with severe abdominal trauma mostly related to part of the gastrointestinal tract is compressed against a fixed bony structure.

Education is one of the most powerful weapons that have no alternative to attack poverty, step up global development and identify the bad and good sides of the world. The development of any country relies largely on education particularly, on quality of education.

Most of the researchers used diverse procedures for finding pertinent information and find the keyword based search, which are not able to fetch the relevant search result because they do not know the real meaning of the term or expression and relationship between them in the web search. Data processors are stimulated to move their byzantine data from local repository to commercially available open cloud. We need to search and retrieve all the files which are semantically linked to user demanded query along with proper storage and secured access.

The North East Region (NER) constitutes eight states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. Its population of 45 million (2011 Census) constitutes 3.8% of country’s population. Rural Population of 327.71 lakh is 84.34% in NER as against 72.20% in India. Agriculture provides livelihood support to 70 % of region’s population. It produces only 1.5 % of country’s food grain production and continues to be a net importer of food grains even for its own consumption. Agricultural land including fallow is 22.20% as against 54.47% in India.

Metacognition has been an area of interest to educational researchers for more than 40 years. A large body of literature exists on this topic, both theoretical and empirical. However, there are few studies that summarize specific instructional practices for improving students’ capacity for metacognitive thinking. Similarly, there is a dearth of evidence showing how specific practices are implemented to affect student achievement.

The purpose of this mixed-methods sequential explanatory study is to explore the perceptions of ESL parents regarding the use of educational mobile applications to help ESL elementary school students develop their language skills. Quantitative data were collected via surveys taken by a sample of 72 ESL parents from Unity Point Elementary School, Carbondale, Illinois. Later, qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews from eight ESL parents from Unity Point.

treatment. The Decompressive hemicraniectomy at a earlier time significantly reduces the mortality. Materials & Methods: About 812 patients who underwent any type of craniectomy from May 2016 to May 2018, at the Institute of Neurosurgery, Madras Medical College, Chennai, TamilNadu, India were retrospectively studied. Various pre-operative prognostic factors were studied. Observation: Post operatively, the outcomes were assessed by univariate and multi variate analysis.

Introduction: Cervical Corpectomy is a rewarding surgery for Cervical compressive Myelopathy. Increased signal intensity in T2 weighted MRI indicates significant prognosis. Materials and Methods: About 100 patients of cervical compressive myelopathy, who underwent cervical corpectomy, from June 2014 to June 2018 at "The Institute of Neurosurgery, Madras medical College, Chennai, were retrospectively studied. Pre-operative MRI signal changes and post operative functional outcome by Nuricks grade were analysed. Results: Increased signal intensity is seen in about 83 patients.

Arising ethnic and cultural conflicts has become an important phenomenon that has drawn the world’s attention. The political insensitivity of leaders and negligence has caused a lot of civil unrest. This paper focuses on the complexity and sensitivity of culture and how it defines people’s identity. It explains the interdependence of culture and society and how a society is stratified into majority groups and minority groups. This research further gives a list of various problems minorities face in a society and the legal instruments that protects the rights of minorities.

Surgical Reconstruction of the lost interdental papilla is the most difficult and elusive goals of periodontics in the field of reconstruction, regeneration and esthetic aspect of periodontal therapy .Loss of interdental papilla could result in patient complaints such as phonetic problems, food impaction, functional problems and esthetic concern. It is clinically represented by open embrasures and is often referred to as the "black triangle".

Background: Depression is an extremely common illness affecting people of all ages, genders, different socioeconomic groups and religions in India and all over the world. Globally, an estimated 322 million people were affected by depression in 2015.Since ancient times, India, has given importance to the health of people and has highlighted the need for a physically and mentally healthy society. The maxim, “there is no health without mental health” underlines the fact that mental health is an integral and essential component of health.

Background: Exploring anatomical variations in human body is interminable. Slight variations are observed in the individuals especially in the veins. Knowledge of these variations is a need of modern days advance medical science to conduct innocuous procedures or to avoid needless complications. Aims: This is a case report of a 60 year old male cadaver having variations in the superficial veins of the neck.

Aim: To evaluate the smile aesthetics in central Indian population. Materials and Methods: Static photographs of posed smiles were taken in natural head position, with camera lens perpendicular to the occlusal plane. The following smile parameters were quantified using Adobe Photoshop ruler software: • Maxillary incisor exposure (mm) • Smile index (SI) (mm) • Smile arc • Most posterior maxillary tooth visible • Anterior height of the smile (%) • Posterior height of the smile (%) Statistical Analysis: The data obtained through questionnaire was synchronized and analyzed statistically.

Background: Ultrasound of abdomen and pelvis is a commonly advised investigation in our clinical practice. Bladder wall thickness (BWT) can be easily assessed by ultrasonography. A consensus on the normal values of bladder wall thickness is lacking. There are no studies regarding normal BWT in Indian subpopulation. Objective: Our aim was to determine normal bladder wall thickness by ultrasound in adult healthy Indian subpopulation and to study the impact of age and sex on the normal bladder wall thickness. Design: Cross-sectional study.

Six years old male child known case of β – Thalessemia Major from 6 months of age, who is on repeated blood transfusions admitted with failure to thrive, breathlessness and reduced activity. Complete investigation was done for this child who showed microcytic hypochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged bleeding and clotting time, abnormal liver function test and Tricuspid regurgitation grade III with moderate pulmonary hypertension and cardiomegaly. With the above high risk complications the child was posted for elective splenectomy and managed successfully.

The objective of this study was to develop a robust, rapid and validated reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of related substances of Abacavir sulfate. Reverse phase method was developed and optimized with chromatographic conditions as column of YMC Pack Pro C18, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3µ particle size, 0.05% Phosphoric acid in water as mobile phase A and 100% Acetonitrile as mobile phase Column flow fixed as 1.0mL/min in gradient mode. The column temperature was maintained at 45°C.

Background: It is well known that dental fear is a common phenomenon among children and adolescents. CFSS-DS is the most widely used scale for measuring dental fear in children. Objectives: To investigate the agreement between parental rating of dental fear and self-rating of their 6-12-year-old children and to assess the relation of dental fear with child’s age and gender. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among primary school children between 6 and 12 years old, in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. A total number of 536 child/mother pairs were enrolled.

Modern era is the period of aesthetics with the increased awareness and enhanced desire to look good. The demand for cosmetic therapy of gingival hyperpigmentation is common. Various methods have been used for depigmentation; each method has its own advantages and limitations. The selection of a technique for depigmentation of the gingiva should be based on clinician’s expertise, patient’s affordability and individual preferences. The present case report is an attempt to compare and discuss the effectiveness of different techniques for gingival depigmentation.

Introduction: In Mexico, one of the main causal agents of nosocomial infections belong to the genus Staphylococcus, bacteria that in many cases have multiresistance to antibiotics and also produce biofilm. Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus spp isolated from various biological samples from patients hospitalized methicillin resistant by detecting the mec A gene and biofilm production by phenotypic detection Agar Congo Red.

The Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) Hypermobility is very unpleasant and distressing condition, which causes hypertranslation of the mandibular condyle anterior and superior to the articular eminence during mouth opening. It can be classified according to its reduction as subluxation or dislocation. In recent times, various treatment modalities are available for its management. Surgery is considered as a last resort for TMJ Hypermobilty but recent recognition of its failures has developed the interest and research in ‘Prolotherapy’ (PrT).

Since independence, the Ivory Coast has developed an urban framework dominated by the city of Abidjan. Under the influence of decentralization, secondary cities began to develop little. In fact, Biankouma, a secondary town in the Tonkpi region, is not immune to this situation. The objective of this study is to analyze the urban changes made in the city of Biankouma which is subject to urban renewal. To conduct the study, we used the hypothetico-deductive method to conduct an exploratory and descriptive research combining the quantitative and qualitative approach.

Background: Autologous blood transfusion is a proven method of blood conservation in elective surgical procedures. Moreover due to increasing concerns about the transmission of blood borne diseases through homologous blood transfusion, autologous blood donation has now become more popular among the patients. This study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India to assess the feasibility of autologous transfusion in elective maxillofacial surgeries.

Introduction: Primary tuberculous osteomyelitis of mandible is an extremely rare condition, particularly in comparison to pyogenic infections and neoplastic diseases involving the mandible. Osteoarticular tuberculosis accounts for 1–2% of all the types of bone tuberculosis. Bone tuberculosis forms about 10% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, of which 50% occur in the spine. Tuberculosis of the flat bones of the skull is uncommon and that of the mandible is especially rare as it contains less cancellous bone.

Aims and objectives: To determine the prevalence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhosis with ascites in KIMS hospital Bengaluru. Materials and methods: 58 patients with liver cirrhosis with ascites, who were admitted to KIMS hospital Bengaluru from March 2017 to August 2018) were studied retrospectively. The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was established on the basis of clinical evaluation, biochemical parameters, abdominal ultrasound and viral markers.

Aims and objectives Comprehensive treatment plan is required before the start of endodontic treatment. Grossly mutilated teeth pose assess problems and restorative boundaries. This paper includes two clinical cases which were reffered to department of conservative dentistry and endodontics. Endodontic treatment was achieved for the tooth and restorative management with composite buildup without post was planned and further porcelain fused to metal crown was given in both cases and futhur follow up was carried on for eight months in respective teeth.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the reliability of retromolar space as a predictor for lower third molar eruption among subjects with different anteroposterior skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: The material included orthopantomograms (OPG) and lateral cephalograms (LC) of 90 patients in which a total of 180 lower third molars were studied. The subjects were grouped according to the (ANB) angle and sub grouped according to the level of third molar as compared to the occlusal plane.

Mouth is considered as the mirror of general health. For good oral and systemic health, proper maintenance of good oral hygiene is very important. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention and treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Ayurveda is considered as the most ancient indigenous medical system of India. Ayurveda includes therapies for treatment of these Orofacial Diseases such as oral cleansing, extractions, excisions, flap surgeries etc.

Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of mastitis and estimate the frequency of lesions diagnosed as tuberculous mastitis solely on FNAC. Methods: A total of 506 randomly selected cases of breast lumps over a retrospective period of 5 years were evaluated clinically and subjected to FNAC. The clinical, cytological, and histopathological data of these patients were studied. The smears were stained with H&E, Papanicolaou, and Giemsa.

Background: We present the study of development of trigger finger in post Carpal Tunnel Syndrome release patients with diabetes mellitus hypothroidism as risk factors. Patient and Methods: 103 patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in age group 45-55 with no trigger finger prior to surgery selected, underwent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome release and followed up for 3-5 months and developed triggering of the finger.

Objective: In this prospective, secuentially randomized study, acute and chronic pain, testiculer arterial flow measurements and sexual functions were compared between Kugel and Lichtenstein hernia repair which are tension free, with Shouldice repair technic which is tensioned classical repair technic. Patients and methods: A prospective series of 92 inguinal hernia repairs performed in 66 patients. Shouldice repair performed to 19, Lichtenstein repair performed to 24 patients and Kugel repair performed to 23 patients.

Ameloblastoma is the most common benign but locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm affecting the jaws, accounting for 1% of all tumors of the maxilla & mandible and 11% of all odontogenic tumors. Though nearly half of the tumors do occur between the ages of 20 and 40 years, it is relatively rare in paediatric patients and accounts for approximately 10-15% of all reported cases. Recurrence frequently appears after inadequate treatment.

India has always been a land of exotic snakes. Snake bites become a very important preventable public health hazards as a result of urbanization and cutting down of forests. However, it is believed that in India about 2 million people are bitten by snake and about 35000-50000 cases prove fatal. This amply reflects the magnitude of the problem. It is mainly due to unawareness about the snake and snake bite management. As a result of this there is delay in correct treatment and failure to perform necessary interventions.

Baseline morphometric information at a sub basin level is essential to develop an appropriate strategy for sustainable, socially acceptable, ecologically benign and economically viable development of a river basin. The present study was carried out in one of the less studied Thirumanimuttar river sub-basins of Cauvery river in the state of Tamilnadu, India. We used GIS and RS tools to study the morphometric characteristics of the basin. The seventh order main river is formed by several lower order streams forming a dentritic flow pattern.

Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy of scintigraphy, ultrasound and fine needle aspiration in thyroid nodule detection and determination whether it is benign or malignant , in order for malignant to get timely diagnosis and be adequately treated in early stages of the disease, reducing morbidity and mortality and avoiding unnecessary procedures, including unnecessary surgical treatments of benign ones .

Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA), or Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS), is a rare congenital mullerian and mesonephric anomalies presenting with a characteristic triad of uterine didelphys, unilateral obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis .suspicion and knowledge of this anomaly are essential for a precise diagnosis.

Background: Canalis sinuosus is a neurovascular canal in the anterior maxillary region. The importance of this anatomical variation can be considered during the surgical interventions in the anterior maxilla. Injury to this canal results in the paresthesia after surgery. CBCT plays a important role in evaluating these anatomical variations as it provides reliable images of maxillomandibular complex. CBCT helps the clinician to evaluate CS for treatment planning and to prevent the intra and post operative surgical complications.

Background: Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by Corynebacterium Diphtheria spreads by human contact. During 2007-2011, a total of 55 countries worldwide, reported >20,000 cases of Diphtheria and among them India reported the most cases (n=17,926).Objective: To study the frequency, clinical profile, progress and the outcome of neuropathy amongst Diphtheria cases. Methodology: A retrospective study of 26 patients who developed weakness following acute Diphtheria was done.

Background: Work-related stress is a serious problem that affects the health and well-being of employees as well as the productivity of organisations. Stress has a huge impact on the performance and productivity of emergency health workers. Paramedics are routinely exposed to a range of highly stressful incidents, as they have to deal with unpredictable and non-specific threats. Objective: The objective of the study was to explored the factors associated with stress and identified the effects of stress and burnout on Red Crescent ambulance workers.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of Pomegranate juice and Chlorhexidinegluconate as ultrasonic liquid coolant on aerosols in comparison with normal saline clinically and microbiologically. Method: Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were divided into Group 1: normal saline, Group 2: pomegranate juice, Group 3: 0.12% chlorhexidinegluconate, used as ultrasonic liquid coolants. One blood agar plate was kept in fumigated chamber 10 minutes before scaling. Calibrated face shield was used by clinician to evaluate face contamination during scaling.

The four common In the period of Soviet government, Uzbekistan has had not only the weak economy even it had not rights to use its natural wealth. The mineral wealth of Uzbekistan was considered a proper of the All Union, even “…the profit from buying and manufacturing gold, precious and non-ferrous metals, materials with strategic significance, other invaluable products being very consumption in the world market had not come to the treasury of Uzbekistan. So, this article discusses the problem of concerning the industry of the gold in Uzbekistan in 1940-1970, a period of 30 years.

Background and Objectives: Low back pain can be defined as pain localized below the line of the twelfth rib and above the inferior gluteal fold, with or without leg pain. Nearly 76% of Computer professionals from India reported some kind of musculoskeletal discomfort in various epidemiological studies. This present study is aimed to investigate if there was a correlation between BMI, posture and working hours of administrative workers in being a risk factor for low back pain. Methodology: Administrative workers who use computer for their daily work were considered for the study.

The article deals with issues of logical and substantive contradictions in the texts of the Zoroastrian canon of Avesta. It also provides a comparative analysis of the levels of social relations of Vedic and Avesta societies.

Aim: To compare and evaluate the efficacy of two miniplate and one large plate in treatment of mandibular body and symphysis fractures. Materials and Methods: A Prospective cohort study was performed on patients who were surgically treated for mandibular fractures from the year 2015 to 2017. The primary predictor variable was fixation technique, which was conventional 2.0 two miniplates and one large plate with bicortical locking screws. The outcome variables were complications, stability and wound dehiscence. Results: Out of 20 cases 10 were included under Group A and 10 under Group B.

On the basis of using data of Bac Giang Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. The article uses descriptive statistics method in oder to evaluate reality of citrus trees (orange and pomelo) production development in Luc Ngan district of Bac Giang province and shows thatareaand harvest of orange and pomelo increased but productivity on for products had a drop and theseproductivity fluctuated in the period 2011- 2015. The orange and pomelo average productivity tended to increase slighly. This does not match its inherent potential.

In Islamic world, there are six most reliable hadith collections. In particularly, they are Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abi Dawud, Sunan al-Nasa’I, Sunan al-Tirmidhi and Sunan ibn Maja. Other than Sahih al-Bukhari very little has been written about the other five collections. The reason of that only just recently that a full translation of the Sunan al-Tirmidhi has become available in English [1]. However, Isa Tirmidhi’s ideas were famous for its reliability in European scholars until its publication.

This study examines the dynamic effects of crude oil price on energy consumption in Nigeria over the period 1981-2017 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. The results are mixed. On the first part, there is a short causal impact between financial sector proxy by industry variables and bank performance. However in the second phase, the results suggest that all the variables are unable influence return on assets except Central Bank asset to GDP in the long run.

The notion of social networks alludes to a free exchange platform where Internet users exchange at ridiculous cost without geographical and ethnic barriers. For this fast mode of communication, text is the main means used to convey a message. The present study makes a descriptive and explanatory analysis of some enunciative sequences of the text and shows that it is particular text because of the combined use of the alphabetic and numerical systems. In this variety of writing, the creation of lexical units and syntagmatic sequences are multiple and respect no grammatical rule.

This study presents the results of the experimental study on the efficiency of gamification as a teaching approach in the teaching-learning process and curriculum delivery of Mathematics.

Background: This paper, discuss the application of risk management on EPCC construction projects executed in Sudanese oil field and its effect on the projects objectives. Methodology: Descriptive study design based on 18 individual interviews face to face covered the study population, the interviews conducted on January, 2018.

The present paper is an attempt to study the consumer behavior towards online shopping. The objectives of the study are: to identify the relationship of demographical factors that influence online shopping, to study the preferences of the consumers toward online shopping and to study the satisfaction level of the consumers while they shop online. To achieve the objective, null hypothesis ‘Online shopping is not reliable and trustworthy to the consumers’ was tested. The present study has been conducted among the consumers of Karimnagar District.

This study aims to analyse social logics that condition the reconversion of the activity of syndical auxiliaries in fund extorsion. To do this, a survey was carried out with syndical auxiliaries in the district of Abidjan especially in Abobo. Qualitative approach through open interviews, allowed us to collect necessary data to achieve the following results: liberalization of urban collective transport carried away proliferation of syndical structures formed of actors with divergent objectives in sight of obtaining incomes of this sector.

The article analyzes the socio-political situation of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the eve of achieving the independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan (1986-1990), the policy of the USSR government and the Communist Party’s policy of tyranny towards Uzbekistan. The article also analyzes the socio-political and economic situation in Uzbekistan for the independence of Uzbekistan.

In this article has been expressed military activity of Samarkand qurboshis and also given their ideas which belong about Independence and freedom.

The purpose of this study was to identify whether teachers use authentic materials while they teach reading skill. For this reason, this assessment is on teachers’ use of authentic materials for reading skill. The study was conducted in a sample of 40 purposefully selected grade eleven students of Ayertena secondary preparatory school. To collect the required data for the study, interview, and questionnaire and document analysis were used as an instrument.

The objective of article is to analyze and describe quantitatively administrative and legal provisions concerning driving license (SIM) service in the region of East Java Police Department. Research methodology uses qualitative approach, while data analysis utilizes Miles-Hubberman Model.

Acquiring English language is effective with careful observation and imitation of effective users of the language. Classic English literature can be used in the class for students to improve their language skills. Literature is surely not an end in itself but the means of beginning a creative process in the minds and emotions of the students and assist them in grasping the language with ease and effortlessly.

The United States developed and grew from thirteen colonies to fifty states and has, gone through so many discoveries, explorations and settlements. The Immigration has played an important role in American history, and has the most open immigration policy in the world. The extensive explorations in US were from many lands like Spain, Great Britain, Holland and Sweden. In 1875 it was declared the regulation of immigration was a federal responsibility. After that there was series of Immigration acts and programmes were implemented.

The advent of social media, most notably, platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, has been cherished by liberals and progressives alike as the dawn of a new age for free speech and expansion of domain for more civic and efficient communication between diverse groups of individuals and people. The euphoria that defined the prevalent mood in the 2000s later devolved into a more sober and realistic attitude among champions of unrestrained free expression.

Background: Sickle cell anemia induces sickling of red cells due to polymerisation of sickle haemoglobin. Renal medulla is hypoxic and hypertonic and hence RBC are more prone to sickling. Some authors observed that changes in renal doppler indices {resistive index (RI), Pulsatility index (PI)} occur earlier than rise in biochemical parameters, hence this might be a better screening tool. Aims: correlation of renaldopplerindices in sickle cell anemia patients with biochemically normal, lower than normal and high renal function parameters.

Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, characterized as an important public health problem today. Due to lack of physical activity and eating habits, also related metabolic dysfunctions that increase the possibility of developing diseases. Studies using HIIT (High-Intensity Interval Training) have the advantage of promoting adaptations similar to continuous aerobic training, but in a time-efficient way in obese individuals. Carry out a narrative review of periodical publications on HIIT training as a control of obesity and metabolic dysfunctions.

A blend of concrete is prepared with 20% of Ground-Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS), 10% of Silica fumes asmineral admixtures and 5% of organic admixture (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) replacing cement. An experimental program was conducted to study the variation in compressive strength of concrete with combination of mineral and organic admixtures in alkali and acidic environment. 21 specimens each of controlled concrete and of concrete with combination of mineral and organic admixtures were cast and compressive strengths were tested after 28 days.

As on date the most widely used construction material is still Reinforced cement concrete. Concrete is strong in compression and week in tension, steel is placed in concrete where ever tension is anticipated, the process become cumbersome time consuming and expensive process. Fiber reinforced concrete has emerged as consequence which offers improved tensile strength in addition to compressive resistance. Tiny Twin Twisted steel fiber with more frictional resistance are added in concrete matrix to improve tensile strength of concrete.

Background: Online shopping provides all types of items to be available in the virtual world. It is just like a shop in the neighborhood, selling all type of goods but with some prominent differences. Self efficacy of a person affects his/ her shopping behaviour. Person generally avoids tasks where self efficacy is low but undertakes task where self efficacy is high. AIM: This study is aimed to assess the relationship of online shopping and general self efficacy among para medical teaching professionals at Punjab.

Côte d'Ivoire produces cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in peri-urban areas. The cultivation is threatened by a disease which symptoms are similar to a virus disease despite the use of varieties so-called resistant to virus diseases. In order to implement a control method, a comprehensive diagnosis was made. After assessing the extent of the disease in two large cucumber production areas on the outskirts of the city of Abidjan, two direct and indirect diagnoses were made. The first one was made on the basis of observation and description of the characteristic symptoms of viral infection.

Dandoba hill which is also known as Dandakaranya is famous for the temple of lord Shiva covered by unique flora. This forest is conserved for its bioasthetic value. There occurs great diversity among the Angiosperms. Present work is a piece of taxonomic work based on critical field studies of members of family Capparaceae from Dandoba hill. Amongst the members of family Capparidaceae, the genus Capparis and Cadaba were recorded commonly from the study area which might be, due to the typical dry environment of the study area. Genus Capparis commonly known as ‘Caper’.

A series of new 4-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzo- thiazepine 6(a-j) have been synthesized from (E)-1-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-3-aryl-2-propen-1-one 5(a-j). The structures of the synthesized compounds have been confirmed via IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectral analyses. Further, all compounds have been assayed for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bactiria.

Ibuprofen is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to alleviate pain and inflammation. Faster disintegration and consequently dissolution of an ibuprofen-containing oral tablet is expected to speed up relief from pain and/or inflammation. The purpose of this study was to 1) compound series of ibuprofen-containing tablet formulations for oral administration with varied types and amounts of disintegrants and 2) thoroughly evaluate ibuprofen’s dissolution rates and extents from those formulations compared to a commercially available tablet.

Refined groundnut oil was used in the frying of chicken. The physiochemical properties of both raw and fried oils were studied under similar conditions. Chemical tests of the fried groundnut oil showed a rise in the acid value from 3.81% to 4.54% as oleic, the saponification value which decreased after frying from 144.45 to 88.35 mg KOH/100g, due to the broken of the ester bonds by the heat during frying, the iodine value decreased from 7.29 to 4.88 g/100g as a result of thermal oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids and an increase in the peroxide value from 1.4 meq/kg to 2.6 meq/kg.

Groundwater chemical quality studies were carried many watersheds in India. In this study sixty groundwater samples were collected out in from dug and bore well during pre and post monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed for various water quality parameters such as pH, Electric Conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium Bicarbonate, Carbonate, Sulphate and Chloride.

The experiment was conducted to investigate the soil fertility status of the Varanasi district. The study consisted of field survey for collection of soil samples and their analysis for chemical and physical properties at department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Soil fertility evaluation of an area is an important aspect in context of sustainable agriculture production. The macro nutrients govern the fertility of soils and control the growth and yields of crops.

Background: Approximately 80 million people currently live with epilepsy worldwide. The estimated proportion of the general population with active epilepsy (i.e. continuing seizures or with the need for treatment) at a given time is between 4 and 10 per 1000 people. Globally, an estimated 2.4 million people are diagnosed with epilepsy each year. In our study we are considering the prevalence, adherence, risk factors. Method: The study was conducted in rural areas of Amaravathi capital, AP.

Heavy metals are common pollutants of estuarine ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Copper is one of the most toxic heavy metal to fish and consumption of fish after copper treatment in water may pose a serious risk to human health. Fishes are generally used as pollution indicators in water quality management. Chronic effects include reduced growth, shorter lifespan, reproductive problems, reduced fertility and behavioral changes.

Background and Objectives: Infants born preterm are particularly vulnerable to procedural stress and pain exposure during neonatal intensive care unit stay at a time of rapid and complex brain development. The low tactile threshold in preterm infants when they are in NICU renders them more vulnerable to the effects of repeated diagnostic and therapeutic invasive procedures. The aim of present study was to assess the effect of breast milk feeding on pain during heel stick procedure among late preterm neonates.

Development is a multi dimensional process involving the up ward movement in the entire social system. Therefore, the realization of Millennium development goals calls for project management strategies that will lead to project success and thus millennium development goals becoming a reality. For this to be achieved, effective project implementation strategies have to be put in place so as to assure and ensure project success without which the project can not see the light of day.

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