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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

April 2012

This study was carried out to determine the influence of tides to the quality of cave water in Zanzibar Island, part of Tanzania. It was to establish the effect of tidal change on the cave water quality using pH, temperature, EC, TDS, and nutrients (NO3-N, NH3-N, PO43-) in the water as indicators. Overall results indicated that, the cave water quality changes with tides regardless of the fluctuation of the investigated parameters. Moreover, most of the tested parameters were not in range compared to those proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

Contemporary discourse in terrorism studies have been polarised into two dominant schools of thought—Orthodox tradition and Critical terrorism studies (CTS). Orthodox approach argued that state has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force and that terrorism is carried out by non-state actors only. While critical theorists critique orthodox approach for ignoring terrorism used by the state against its own citizens, and argued that terrorism and its nature is not limited to violent acts itself but depends on the context, circumstance and intention.

Urban growth is a worldwide phenomenon. It is not only a haphazard physical explosion of urban population but also manifests a disorderly and discontinuous development of urban place. Urban growth is such a process which takes place slowly or rapidly to occupy the adjacent land of a city or a town and brings about socio-cultural changes in the land use pattern, demographic features (population growth, literacy rate, occupational structure etc.) and transforms the economic livelihood of the people of the concerned area.

The aim of this study is to explore empirically the relationship between foreign direct investment and gross domestic product growth in Nigeria. Using co-integration, Error correction mechanism, Unit roots techniques for this study analysis, the findings of the study are: First, the main determinants of FDI in Nigeria are market size (proxied by GDP), stable macroeconomic policies and a level of human capital that is tolerable by investors. Secondly, FDI contributes positively to Nigeria’s economic growth. It had a positive and significant relationship with the growth of the whole economy.

This study indentifies various categories of variables that help to increase agricultural growth in Nigeria. The variables includes, an increase in agricultural farm inputs through Government Capital Expenditure (GOVTEXP) on agriculture, Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF), Fertilizer input (FERCONSUM), Rainfall and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).All these contribute to increase in the growth of agricultural commodities to Nigerian GDP.

The development of early civilization to modern society of the present is developed based on communication development. The communication plays important role in day today life in all levels including the researchers too. In the modern society negative impacts like cyber bulling, sexting and unwanted texting also finds from certain peoples through social networking sites. This article finds the dominating variables from the study variables such as mobile phone, internet and face book. The study is carried out with reference to research scholars from the selected universities of Tamilnadu.

It is an era where there are constant advancements in the area of Information Technology. Technologies such as, internet, database management system, bar code readers or information systems in general have created countless databases of scientific, administrative and commercial nature. Information retrieval is not enough for decision making. Thus, it becomes important for us to develop automatic and intelligent tools for analyzing, interpreting and co-relating data in order to develop and select strategies in the context of the application.

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of quality of Kiswahili instructional materials on the performance of Bachelor of Education (Arts) University of Nairobi distance education students. The paper sought to determine the quality of the instructional materials, also called modules, by looking at the content, the assessment procedures in the materials and the presentation style. The study used survey research design. A sample of 60 Kiswahili distance students and 6 Kiswahili lecturers from University of Nairobi participated in this study.

This paper describes a traffic noise prediction methodology for heterogeneous traffic conditions. Traffic noise characteristics in cities of developing country like India are slightly varied by virtue of the fact that the composition of the traffic is heterogeneous associated with variance of road geometry and varying density of the buildings on the either side of the road. Traffic noise prediction models developed on the basis of homogeneous traffic are not apt to predict the actual noise levels for Indian countries.

This paper described a simple automated instrumentation and measurement system that was designed to offer a more reliable and fast method of measuring process parameters: temperature and pressure, in thin film deposition systems. The designed computer based measuring system was based on thermocouple type K temperature sensor, MP20C-01-F2 pressure sensor, parallel port for interfacing and LabVIEW driver for accessing temperature and pressure data.

Authors synthesized the Oligomeric Chitosan material for the use of CO2 capture and storage from industrial point sources. Oligomeric Chitosan tested for CO2 absorption efficiency in industrial flue gas at temperature 1320C. The results showed the absorption of 10.65 gms of CO2 in 100 ml of 1 % solution of Oligomeric Chitosan and is higher by a factor of 21.5 at breakthrough point compared to conventional scrubbing agent Monoethanolamine(1% solution).

The inherent limitations of embedded systems make them particularly vulnerable to attacks. In order to develop a hardware monitor that operates in parallel to an embedded processor and detects any attack that causes the embedded processor to deviate from its originally programmed behavior. To explore several different characteristics that can be used for monitoring and quantify trade-offs between these approaches. This embedded system uses two processor. The failure of one processor activates the other which leads to the continuous function of the system.

The phenomenal growth of the Internet in the last decade and society's increasing dependence on it has brought along, a flood of security attacks on the networking and computing infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) have become widely recognized as powerful tools for identifying, deterring and deflecting malicious attacks over the network. Essential to almost every intrusion detection system is the ability to search through packets and identify content that matches known attacks.

This paper deals with the performance analysis of the learning model used to optimize the Mathematical Pathway – ‘Ganitha Vithika’. Using the Mathematical Pathway Database generated by the Learning model that contains information of all the mathematical concept competencies a child has to achieve from class 1 to class 7 for a large population of children, the performance of an individual child is evaluated which indicates whether the child’s progress is normal or exceptionally good or there is a need for guidance.

Life is full of losses from the time of birth to the day of death. Most of the other losses could be recovered except the loss arising from death. No one is immune to the loss from death. Death is therefore a fact that each family member should understand and accept that at one time or another the pain of death will be experienced. Family members respond to news of death differently depending on their relationship to the deceased as well as personality.

The first EAC was established in 1967 under the Treaty of East African Cooperation. It collapsed in 1977 and was re-established in 1999 under the East African Community Treaty. This article addressed the legal instruments under which the EAC has been re-established. The revival of EAC integration occurred after the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which is the premier institution for the regulation of international trade. All EAC partner states are members of the WTO.

This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition of cave water in Zanzibar Island, part of Tanzania. It was done by studying major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), and major anions (HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-), in the water as indicators. Overall results indicated that, the cave water was influenced by marine and weathering contribution. However, weathering was more pronounced at Chomvi ndogo, Chomvi kubwa, and Miza wa Miza caves where it was more than 87% compared to Kilindi, Choweni and Makutani caves where it was less than 77%.

Economy of a State is for all its citizens. When the worst on economy is suffered by all its citizens then why not the goods of economy are shared by all? Inclusive Growth (IG) gives an answer to this question. IG with broad base across the sectors is pro poor and reduces rural-urban and rich-poor divides. IG is incorporating all its members (citizens / beneficiaries) under its web and progressing towards a substantial and sustainable development which will result in economic welfare in the long-run.

This paper attempts to have an insight into the personality attributes of motor stunt-bikers. Motor stunt-biking is an acrobatic maneuvering on motorbikes. Majority of these stunt-bikers enter the arena just after 18 years of age. They generally avoid any public interaction on the issue, primarily, because of the element of illegality associated with stunt-biking. Therefore, eight male stunt-bikers in the age range 18-23 years who gave their consent were administered a semi-structured interview schedule and a personality test.

World Health Organization has identified violence against children as a growing public-health issue with a global magnitude. The aim of this research is to assess domestic violence and its psychological impacts among children in Kermanshah city of Iran.

Business finance for Small and Medium Enterprise in Kenya is what determines their mortality rate. The objective of the study was to find out major sources of financing of SMEs in Kenya: the extent to which, formal financing were accessible to the SME. 60 SME Owner/Manager were interviewed in Kakamega Municipality. The study utilised descriptive research design which included surveys and fact- finding enquiries of different kinds and data collection using questionnaire.

Teacher Advisory Centres (TACs) were established in the 1970s for Kenya primary school teachers’ professional development. However the teachers lack professional development opportunities and there are reports on teacher centred teaching approaches and poor pupil learning outcomes. Research has found that teachers who participate in sustained curriculum based teacher professional development activities reported changes in practice resulting in turn to high student learning achievement. The study interrogated the problem: How effective are TACs in teacher professional development?

As scholars get interested in human rights violations during colonial rule in Kenya especially during the Mau Mau struggle for independence, other colonial scandals of lesser magnitude remain unearthed as this article demonstrates. The manner in which the colonial governments constructed the public works and railways in particular has not received adequate scrutiny by historians. The construction of railways required mobilization of tens of thousands of labourers who more often than not worked under appalling conditions.

Recognition and inclusion of cultural parental expectations of their children at different stages of development is critical in formulating comprehensive early learning and development standards. While there has been significant research on ‘best practices’ from the west that are largely school based expectations of children at different stages in Uganda, there is a lack of research into traditional parental expectations of their children at different stages of development.

The weather factors (rainfall, temperature, soil moisture, snowfall and so on) like other inputs such as land, labor HYVs seeds, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides etc. are also a direct input in crop production. Moreover, in a state of backward agriculture where the technological adoption and diffusion is very slow or near nil, the weather factors count more than other inputs because of their direct and indirect effects.

The current terrorist insurgency by the Northern Nigeria-based Islamic fundamentalist-‘Boko Haram’ has continued to pose serious threats to Nigeria’s corporate political entity. This is evidenced in the sect’s undeterred spate of terrorist’s attacks on citizens,the nation’s security personnel,wanton destruction of lives and property. This study focused on the assessment of ‘Boko Haram’ terrorist activities in Nigeria, and the obvious implications on national security. The study used secondary data source to analyze Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.

In fewer than twenty years, mobile phones have gone from being rare and expensive pieces of equipment used by businesses to a pervasive low-cost personal item. In the era of information explosion, people are to be provided with quick and timely access to information. Indian Telecom industry is one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world.

Studies indicate that hypertension has no single cause but is the result of the interaction of biological, psychological and social factors. The family support may be a social aspect in the process of health disease. This study aimed to correlate indicators for anxiety and family support perception in hypertensive persons, and to seek evidences of converging validity between the variables of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Trace-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments. Seventy hypertensive persons, 52 women (74%), aged 27 to 65 years (M=52.3, SD=8.9), participated in the study.

An empirical model between Peak Discharge (QP) and corresponding Return Period (T), obtained from Plotting position formulae, has been developed at Kharkai Barrage Site, India. Mathematical model has been developed by using Least Square Principle, Computer Programing and Software Packages. The model thus developed has been found to be highly satisfactory as the values of percentage deviation and standard deviation of percentage deviation are too low i.e. 0.94 and 0.57 respectively.

The need to process documents on paper by computer has led to an area of research that may be referred to as Document Image Understanding (DIU).The goal of DIU system is to convert a raster image representation of a document.

Field survey for sorghum covered kernel smut incidence and severity were done in two districts of North Gondar Administrative zone, Amhara National Regional State in North western Ethiopia, during the main crop season. In each district eleven representative Peasant Administrations (PAs) were selected randomly based mainly on sorghum area coverage. In each PA disease was assessed in ten randomly selected farmer fields. In Gondar Zuria district, the disease was highly distributed through out the surveyed areas and disease incidence ranged from 10.5 to 29.2%.

Alien legumes exert major influence in modulation of sustainable agriculture and crop productivity in diverse ways. An investigation was carried out in inventorizing alien legume plants and their invasive nature in districts of Nadia, Hooghly, Howrah, 24 pgs (N) and Kolkata in Gangetic West Bengal during 2005-2011. As many as 40 alien species were documented, of which 14 species are highly invasive in nature and the tree Leucaena leucocephala was the worst invasive in nature.

The present study was aimed to understand the better stability effects and higher tolerance range of cellulose encapsulated Lactobacillus in certain pH conditions over non-encapsulated Lactobacillus. The recommended dose of 106 to 109 cells/day was given by bioencapsulating 108 cells of Lactobacillus and CFU were assayed after 15 days and 30 days.The cellulose encapsulated Lactobacillus was found to be 80% and 90% viable after 15 and 30 days of storage respectively when compared to the nonencapsulated lactobacillus.

Tuticorin is an industrial city located in the south east coast of India and it receives untreated sewage and industrial effluents. The present investigation was carried out to find out the changes in physico-chemical and biological parameters including fecal coliforms of Thirespuram coastal waters, Roach Park and Punnakayal estuary of Tuticorin coast to assess its impact on the benthic communities of these areas. Among the various parameters, salinity was low during monsoon at certain stations due to the river run off.

Phosphate sorption isotherm is a valuable tool for the management of P fertility in soils. This study was conducted to examine how P sorption characteristics were influenced and could be predicted from selected properties of tropical soils. Langmuir and Freundlich equation were adopted in the evaluation and estimation of P sorption parameters in nine soils types of South Western Nigeria developed on basement complex. Two profile pits were dug per soil type where they were dominant (predetermined by Smyth and Montgomery, 1962).

Fertilizer use is a key factor for increasing agricultural production in sub Sahara Africa and its utilization has increased rapidly in the last two decades. Adoption of chemical fertilizers has largely replaced traditional practices, such as recycling of crop residues and application of organic manures. Poultry manure was used as a soil conditioner to increase the biomass yield of Panicum maximum and to maintain soil fertility. The treatments were 0kg, 50kg, 100kg and 200kg per plot. Each plot has a dimension of 4m by 4m. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks.

Anthocyanins and flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds and capable of inhibiting the growth of human cancer cells. It is mainly responsible for cyanic colors ranging from salmon pink through red and violet to dark blue of most flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. Quercetin, a novel flavonoid, was present in the onion peel (Allium cepa). In the present study, we explored the cytotoxic effects of anthocyanin on human epithelial cells and the Breast cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

This paper explores the role of data on the strategic decision making process. This is a desk top research study which looked at different studies done by researchers on the role of data and its role in strategic decision making. The main objective of this study is to establish the roles data play in strategic decision making. The strategic decision making process has also been identified and the theories underlying strategic decision making process have been explored. First it looked at the definition of data in relation to information and knowledge.

Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of different dosage regimens of iron prophylaxis among the subgroups of boys and girls. A quasi experimental study was conducted in rural health centre area of Department of community medicine, RMMC&H. Hundred and one anemic adolescents were identified, out of which only 93 participated till the end of the study. 93 The Individuals were graded mild (10-11.9gms/dl), moderate (8-9.99%) and severely anemic (8gms/dl) as per WHO [5] and they were divided into two groups.

Objective: To describe the socio-Demographic and clinical pattern of presentation of HIV-1 infected adult patients in North-Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: Patients diagnosed to be HIV-1 positive that presented or referred for care to Infectious diseases clinic, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) from March to December 2008 were included in this descriptive case study. Detailed history and clinical examination was performed and risk factors for HIV infection were evaluated.

The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. A total of thirty buffalo (fifteen were river buffalo and fifteen swamp buffalo) from south Iraq (Basrah city) were used in this study. Depending on the feature , morphology and location the animals were classified to do the genetic study.

Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most important infections among renal transplant recipients; however, the threat caused by the acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria has been growing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of 25 strains isolated from urine samples of renal transplant recipients and evaluate the presence and prevalence of resistance determinants such as Integron in them.

Field experiment was carried out for two years at artificially Fusarium pathogen infested field at Adet research center in North Western Ethiopia, to determine the effect of chickpea fusarium wilt on desi and kabuli-type of chickpea using integrated disease management option that is varieties, planting dates and seed bed preparation methods.

EMS is a monofunctional-ethylating potent chemical mutagen, found to be mutagenic in wide variety of genetic test systems from viruses to mammals.EMS causes base-pair insertion or deletions and more extensive intragenic deletions in higher organisms. The alkyl group of an alkylating agent reacts with DNA that leads to change in the nucleotide sequence, thus resulting in point mutation. EMS is found to be more effective and safe for use in mulberry.

Field experiments were conducted from June to October during the 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons, at the Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, to evaluate the productivity of okra-maize intercropping system as influenced by varying maize plant densities and to assess the advantages of the intercropping system.

By the unusual growth of the web, there is an increasing volume of data and information published in numerous web-pages. From this we understood that web is noisy. A web page contains a mixture of many kind of information e.g. mainly contains, advertisements, navigational panels, copy right blocks etc… in a particular application only part of information is useful and the rest are noise. These all mischief web mining. Advertisements and Sponsor images are not much important in surfing.

In Haemonchus contortus, the wall of the oviduct is thick and muscular, acting as a mere passageway for the oocytes. The seminal receptaculum is not a distinct structural entity but a continuity of the distal portion of the uterus. The epithelial lining near the ovo-uterine junction is of oblique columnar type followed by cuboidal type of uterine epithelium which becomes secretory in the mid region and muscular near the vaginal end. The secretory epithelium of middle portion of the uterus secretes materials necessary for the formation of outer uterine layer of the egg shell.

The fungal and bacterial biocontrol agents and organic amendments were tested individually and in combinations for their efficacy against root rot pathogen, Macrophomina phaseolina under invitro, glass house and field conditions. Among the fungal and bacterial (Pseudomonas) antagonists screened, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf7) isolates exhibited maximum inhibition compared to other isolates. Among the organic amendments, tested invitro against the pathogen, neem cake and coir pith compost were most effective in reducing the growth of the pathogen.

The use of critical concentration approach to diagnosis the nutrient status of plants is somewhat erroneous in that ‘critical nutrient concentrations’ are not independent diagnostics, but can vary in magnitude as the background concentrations of other nutrients increase or decrease in crop tissue. The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS), an alternative is sometimes less sensitive than the sufficiency range approach to differences caused by leaf position, tissues age, climate, soil conditions, and cultivar effect because it uses nutrient ratios.

Mosquito is a vector of many human and animal diseases especially in the tropics. A study of the indoor and outdoor distribution and abundance in Calabar was conducted between May and August, 2011. A total of 142 mosquitoes collected showed a composition of Aedes aegypti, Ae vittatus, Ae domesticus, Ae simpsoni, Ae metalicus, Ae leutocephalis, Ae africanus, Ae taylori, Anopheles gambiae, An. maculipenis, An. rupites, An. Coustani, Culex quinquefaciatus, Cx annuloris, Cx tigripes, Cx decens.

Investigations on the anatomical damage of cassava caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicilliun expansum was carried out in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Inoculated and uninoculated cassava tissues were treated, sectioned weekly for four weeks and photomicrographs taken. The plates revealed massive cell wall macerations and depletion of starch grains in the samples infected with test pathogens.

The goal of the present paper is to find friction between die and work piece. In this work, aluminum 6061 alloy with 5% volume fraction of Sic particle used. Al/SiC composites were produced by stir casting process. Extrusion die were used in three reduction ratios as (Inlet diameter: Outlet diameter) of 12:2, 8:4 and 4:2. Specimens were extruded at 3000C and constant strain rate of 0.002/Sec. Friction values to be determined in three dies and size effect to be studied. Extruded specimens Hardness, surface roughness and microstructure were compared with as cast specimens.

Microbes are potent source of different types of enzymes which are economically important in various industrial sectors. Pectinlyase which is enormously produced by many strains of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi etc. Bacterial species produce this enzyme by using substrate as waste of different fruits such as peels of papaya , orange, sweet lime, guava, apple , etc. Bacterial species produced both types of pectinlyase. Acidic pectinlyase is useful in the fruit and juice processing industries but alkaline pectinlyase is useful in the textile and pulp industry mainly.

Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing stevioside is a natural sweetener, which has antihyperglycemic property. The plant can also be used for treatment of number of ailments like hypertension and obesity. This article serves about structural details, biosynthetic pathway, toxicology and pharmacological action of stevioside in glucose metabolism. The metabolism of stevioside is also discussed in relation to possible formation of steviol. Toxicological studies reveal negligible effect of stevioside on human health.

Chromium in the effluent is a major concern for the tanning industry and it is directed in to fresh water bodies which in turn taken part in biological magnification through food chain. The present study is undertaken to gauge the accumulation of chromium in the tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala, when the live fish is subjected to sub lethal dose of chromium for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days in controlled environment.

The push for financial sustainability introduced a degree of uncertainty into the relationship nongovernmental organizations maintain with their members. Kenya is a developing country that has various challenges in terms of social economic development. This has necessitated the work of various nongovernmental organizations across the country.

An inventory was carried out in parts of Sikkim Himalayas (500-4200m, amsl) to document traditional wisdom on legumes regarding mode of food preparation and resource utilization. The study revealed rich biodiversity and conservation of traditional knowledge on use of legumes in food, fodder, medicine, organic farming and socio-religious festivals. As many as 42 ethno-taxa have been identified, of which 24 plants had use in different ailments including diabetes, high blood cholesterol, fever, digestive disorder and other general health problems.

This paper is based on a study conducted in Eldoret Municipality in Uasin Gishu District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food kiosks in relation to food hygiene. The lax monitoring of sanitary standards in food kiosks in Eldoret Municipality had raised questions regarding the personal hygiene practices of food handlers as well as the environmental hygiene of their premises.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari