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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

May 2017

The purpose of this study was to examine the impediment in implementing multicultural education in case of Wollega Zone in Oromia Ethiopia. Using the survey method, data were collected from5 educational experts, 10 school principals, 51 teachers and 102 students. Students were selected randomly by using simple random sampling techniques and educational experts, school principals and teachers were selected by availability sampling method. Questionnaires, interview, and observation were used.

It is strongly believed that secondary schools can generate energy from sewage to supplement biomass energy thereby protecting the environment. However, potential beneficiaries are oblivious of the environmental health benefits of utilising sewage for energy generation. This study assessed the potential environmental benefits of anaerobic digestion of sewage for energy production in secondary schools of Kakamega County, Kenya. Sewage influents and effluents samples were analyses in the laboratories for Total Kjeldal Nitrogen (TKN), P2O5, heavy metals, E.coli and faecal coliforms.

This study is to investigate the impact of working capital management on firm profit for listed firms on Ho chi minh stock exchange, Vietnam. Using the data of 210 listed firms over 2011-2015, the empirical results show that both proxies for working capital management – cash conversion cycle and working capital coverage ratio – are statistically negatively related to firm profits. These findings indicate that working capital management does have an effect on firm profit, where a reduction in cash conversion cycle or in working capital coverage ratio results in an increase in firm profit.

The attempt to educate the nomadic Fulani in Nigeria was initially made a national policy that became popular at a period. With time it became mere political propaganda, the research was conducted to find out the implications of governmental attitudes to the programme using Goru/Kalgo area of Kebbi State. It is discovered that lot of problems like finance, lack infrastructure, etc are a serous threat with the attendants problem of cattle rustling, kidnapping etc.

The India’s north-east has witnessed active internal armed conflict for decades and several ‘special security’ laws, particularly the Armed Forces Special Power Act (AFSPA), have breaded into the culture of impunity. Women are often portrayed as passive victims during armed conflict situations. Stereotypical essentializing women as victims and men as perpetrators of violence deny each their agency and voice as actors in the process. Sexual violence in armed conflict situation is mostly unreported though widespread.

Reading is to the mind, what exercise is to the body. Reading occupies a key role in the life of a person. It opens the doors of treasures of knowledge. The present study, aims to assess the reading habits of the inhabitants of religious houses and their spiritual growth. The study was conducted in the Mysore Diocese. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The present study is based on some observations on the religious houses in the Mysore Diocese. Inhabitants have focused only on religious collection and reading. Libraries should be utilized to have access to information.

The climatological characteristics of rainfall induced by tropical cyclone over the western North Pacific are examined using the satellite observation. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 provides invaluable rainfall data for tropical cyclone (TC) research since 1998. Based on TRMM 3B42 data, rainfall properties of TCs are statistically quantified for different sea surface temperature (SST) levels and TC intensities. As TCs are stronger, the TC-induce rainfalls increase about 15% per 20 knot of TC’s wind speed. The rainfall induced by TC also increases as the SST warming.

The present paper deals with the study of mangrove associate plant species found in the Ratnagiri District of the Maharashtra State. Present investigation reveals that a total of 21 mangrove associate species are found in the district in a huge population.

This study aims to determine the elasticity of demand for domestic air transport in Vietnam by air fare and per capita income. From the theoretical base and forming of research model, this study analyzes data of airlines of Vietnam for the period of 10 years from 2007 to 2016. The results show that air fare and per capita income are important factors affecting the demand for domestic air transport in Vietnam. Accordingly, the elasticity of demand for the whole market by air fare is -0.7047 and the per capita income is 2.3112.

The aim of this study was to assess EFL teachers’ implementation of cooperative language learning method with reference to promoting speaking skill. To this end, three English language teachers of grade ten and fifty-one students of the same grade level were involved in the study. A mixed-method research approach was used to collect the data. Specifically; questionnaires, classroom observations and textbook analysis were employed. The quantitative data were analyzed through frequency and percentages distribution and the qualitative data were analyzed in words.

Interesting trends observed in the impact of globalization on certain sectors of an economy have attracted studies on the subject of globalization. This study centred on effects of globalization on the manufacturing sector of Ghana having used FDI as a proxy for globalization. The study employed the simple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and the empirical analysis was conducted using data between 1985 and 2013. It was found that the independent variable ‘MANGH’ was significant to explain the dependent variable FDI whose influence was negative.

This paper throws light on digital dualism prevailing in Kerala. The analysis is quite significant and relevant in bridging the digital divide between the formal and the informal sector of Kerala economy. The paper has three sections. The first section dwells on digital dualism. The section also examines the concepts of the informal sector and the formal sector. The second section analyses digital dualism in Kerala. The third and final section presents the conclusions of the study.

In India there are so many rivers. Every river has some speciality and historical background. That is why the river can be an attractive place for regeneration and social communication. The Rejuvenation of Khan Riverfront development project has taken to mature the situation along the river bank and to increase the intrinsic beauties of the river as well as the surrounding areas, its existence could encourage the quality of life of a city. The role of river in Indore for communal have been developed throughout times, from transportation provision into public space.

In India there are so many rivers. Every river has some speciality and historical background. That is why the river can be an attractive place for regeneration and social communication. The Rejuvenation of Khan Riverfront development project has taken to mature the situation along the river bank and to increase the intrinsic beauties of the river as well as the surrounding areas, its existence could encourage the quality of life of a city. The role of river in Indore for communal have been developed throughout times, from transportation provision into public space.

The disclosure of intellectual capitalis important variables in many decisions, for example, administrative decisions (predict the continuity, market value, supporting competitive advantage). The study problem is to know the effect of intellectual capital disclosure on the quality of accounting information in Sudanese food industries. The study results including: the disclosure of intellectual capital contributes to determining the company's future status. Disclosure of intellectual capital contributes to the increase in the number of clients of the company.

The purpose of this study is to explore the roots causes of crime and the roles of community and community organizations in reducing crime or criminal behaviors. Purposively, 36 informants were selected to take part in the study. The result revealed that illiteracy, traditional and backward beliefs, illegal drug intake, dependency on substances, backward living conditions, and unfamiliarity to the law majorly contribute the big share for crime or criminal behaviors. Impulsively, using of local and modern drinks also has leading roles to get in criminal behaviors.

The research is focused on the hypogeous architecture in the English Garden of the Royal Palace of Caserta. In 1752 Charles III of Bourbon, King of Naples and Sicily, ordered the building a new capital with a palace suitable for his reign, and he chose Caserta since it was located in the inner part of the reign and therefore harder to be attacked from the sea.

This study was aimed at ascertaining the impact instructional scaffolding will make on the achievement of students in financial accounting in Abakaliki Urban of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A pretest, posttest, control group, non randomized quasi experimental design was used in this study. The population of the study comprised all SS II students in all the secondary schools in Abakaliki Urban offering financial accounting. Out of the fourteen secondary schools in Abakaliki offering financial accounting, four secondary schools were selected.

The Nigerian economy is mono economy because of its reliance on only oil export. The agricultural sector in the 1960s was a major area of foreign revenue. However, the discovery of oil at a large scale that brought about exploration and exportation of oil in the 70s turned the tide against agricultural sector. The fluctuating price of oil in the oil market as of today has affected the Nigerian economy negatively as it has put pressure on the naira and the rate of unemployment has continued to be on the increase.

Banyuning Sub-district is a suburb of Singaraja City that potentially experiencing the problem of waste. This fact is supported by the existence of settlements, especially the residential as the largest land use in Banyuning Sub-district. As the largest residential, the number of people living in the area is also great. Large population will be the largest waste contributor in Singaraja City. Through analytic survey method with quantitative analysis techniques, it will show the relationship between the social characteristics of the settlers with waste generated.

Investment means putting your money to work for you. Essentially, it is different way to think about how to make money. Growing up, most of us taught that you can earn your income only by getting job & working. And that’s exactly most of us do. There’s one big problem with this: if you want money, you have to work more hours. However, there is a limit to how many hours a day we can work, not to mention the fact that having a bunch of money is no fun if we don’t have the leisure time to enjoy it.

Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have the vast potential to connect devices and different area of the world that are instantly under-served by current systems. A fundamental test for Delay Tolerant Network is to decide the routes through the network ever having an end-to-end, or knowing which “routes” will be connected at every instant of time. The issue has an additional requirement of constrained size off buffers at each node.

In present and future market conservative motors like induction motor are replaced by permanent magnet motors for various applications like industrial, traction, hybrid electric vehicle, etc. The topical growth in Permanent Magnet machines has provided a result for the variable speed applications, which bid easy design for controller as well as operate at higher efficiency. In this paper, the basic introduction of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is discussed.

The reaction of low-temperature oxidative chlorohydrination of allyl chloride, 2,3-dichloropropene-1 and 1,3-dichlorobutene-2 with application of the hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide has been studied. The possibility of preparation of glycerine dichlorohydrin, 1,3-dichloroacetone and 1,2-dichlorobutanone with yields 70-75% from theoretical one has been shown. Selectivity – 85-92%.

Now a day, the world face a huge problem to dumped the old cars/ auto vehicle when it is not working or damaged. This study shows that how we managed the old cars/ auto vehicle to useful for human beings and also clean the ware houses for another storage work. We do the dis-assemblies of these cars in a predetermine assembly line. and then find out which component is useful and which component are useful after heat treatment or small manufacturing works and which components are totally damaged or not utilized again (we dumped it properly).

Organic Rankine vapour compression (ORVC) refrigeration systems using waste heat are well known in the literature. In last year’s, transcritical organic Rankine vapour compression (TORVC) systems are proposed to increase the system coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents the parametric simulation results and the performance analysis of TORVC refrigeration system utilizing waste heat using R134a as working fluid under different operating conditions such as evaporation/condensation temperature and degree of superheating/sub-cooling.

To control the infections and microbial food spoilage, the application of synthetic antibiotics can be replaced by antimicrobial agents from natural sources. Therefore, present study was done to explore nontoxic antimicrobial agents from two enormous plants named Carumroxburghianum (radhuni) and Trigonellafoenum-graecum (fenugreek) through antibacterial and phytochemical assays. In the current work, the crude extracts of radhuni andfenugreek were collected using ethanol and methanol.

Now adays, MANETS are widely used due to its mobility and self-configuring network features, in which any centralized or switching center is not required. In MANETS all the nodes are mobile which are dependent on battery. In MANETS each node have to make connection to receiver node in order to send /forward the data packets in network. As in network there are many mobile nodes and nodes are moving, to send these data packets we required routing protocols .There are many routing Protocols which are classified into 3 types. Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid routing protocols.

Image Interpolation is an oversampling operation used in various applications. Simple interpolation techniques nearest neighbour, bilinear and bicubical produce edge blurring, jagging etc in the interpolated image. To understand the characteristics of image interpolation, study of various techniques is needed. In this paper, the performance of various image interpolation techniques is compared by evaluating the quality metrics like PSNR, MSE and Runtime. This comparison provides the use of different methods and also helpful for implementing the new interpolation methods.

Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a potentiodynamic electrochemical measurement in which working electrode’s potential is ramped in the opposite direction to return to its initial potential. Potentiostat is an electronic hardware that controls the three electrode cell by maintaining the voltage between working electrode and reference electrode constant by adjusting the current at a counter electrode. Though now a day, many manufacturers are developing potentiostats having high accuracy and resolution, but the high cost is the obstruction.

Cloud Computing is effectively usable in IT business such as organization, companies or individuals etc. When users have liberty to use a multiplicity of on-line resources, vibrant supply distribution can be used to rise the routine by scheduling mechanism that all resources are resourcefully assigned to fulfill the customer's request. This paper demonstrates that how resource planning and service distribution is done by seeing EST (early start time), LST (latest start time) and also actual for error acceptance which executes resource anticipation.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using the Geometer’s Sketchpad software on the academic achievement of students in mathematics among grade nine students of Bedele Secondary and preparatory school. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design using intact group of students from two classes in the indicated school. Two instruments were used to gather information:- the students’ mathematics achievement and attitudes/ perception of students toward learning Mathematics.

Low-cost biosorbents can be made from the by-products of agricultural, household and various industrial processes. It has been proved by several researches that these biosorbents provide a better solution for the removal of contaminants from wastewater. The object of the study is to find a sustainable low cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) from wastewater. In current review both adsorbent’s characteristics and adsorption capacities of nine biosorbents for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution were studied.

According to the WHO, a baby which weighs less than 1500 gm at birth is termed very low birth weight baby. Birth weight and gestational age is an important parameter that predicts the outcome of the baby. Very low birth weight babies (VLBW) are at increased risk of a number of complications both immediate and late. Worldwide it has been observed that these babies contribute to a significant extent to neonatal mortality and morbidity. The common causes of mortality in these babies include sepsis, RDS and extreme prematurity.

A tremendous breakthrough in the fields of Medicine and Technology, the massive use of Digital Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants, changes drastically the rehabilitation process and the educational experience of hard in hearing and deaf children. As a result, there is a steeply increasing interest, especially from the funding authorities and the scientific community, on how the application of extensive bionic, prosthetic and augmenting methodologies may reshape the filed of special education.

Software testing has ever remained a brazen out particularly when testing is done with objective in enhancing the reliability. Adaptive Testing (AT) is an online testing strategy, which can be adopted to decrease the variance of software reliability estimator. In order to reduce the computational overhead of decision-making, the implemented AT strategy in practice deviates from its theoretical design that guarantees AT’s local optimality. Adaptive testing is increasing the testing in a predictable way by reducing the number of faults.

Our paper deals with a security system that lets the user to see a visitor while main office door is locked. If the user is in the middle of the meeting in a conference room and having a visitor at the door, this system will send a notification to mobile or PC to unlock the front door using a Web browser. If the door bell has intercom facility, the user can talk to the visitor when the bell rings. We have used Raspberry Pi to implement our paper the smart lock system.

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Currently, there is no effective method for simple, accurate and low cost glaucoma detection or screening. Automatic optic nerve head assessment from 2D retinal fundus images is promising for low cost glaucoma screening. This paper presents efficient method for cup to disc ratio (CDR) assessment using 2D retinal fundus images. The disc segmentation is carried out using active shape model (ASM), elliptical hough transform (EHT) and superpixel segmentation techniques.

Today data is everywhere, increasing itself in a very fast pace every second, minute, hour and day. A huge amount of data is generated by social media, broadcasting videos and audios, business transactions, sensor data, digital technologies like internet of things and cloud computing etc. This large amount of data generated is called Big Data and it has become a part of our economy, business, organization and individual. This paper presents the analysis of what the big data actually is and what are the tools to handle the big data. It also focuses on future scope and trends of Big Data.

Agile development methodologies become popular approaches in current scenario of organizations. In agile methodologies, developers have an open communication with customers to get requirements, in form of user stories, as soon as possible. Identifying right user stories at right time is most important thing in agile development methodologies. To identify right user stories, the prioritization for user stories takes place. Customers play significant role in prioritization of user stories. The customer-oriented requirement prioritization provides more business value to customers.

Numerous secret sharing visual schemes for digital data has been proposed in current years. The first shares are used to generate second share in secret image. These two shares are used to produce the second image which is delivered as an input to the second level. Also, this stepisrecurring for n levels and two shares are sent to communication partners and multiple secret images andalso input reference images can be encrypted/decrypted from share images at different levels.

In this paper, we introduce and study a subclass of meromorphic univalent functions. We obtain coefficients inequalities, extreme points, distortion and growth bounds, radii of meromorphically starlikeness and meromorphically convexity for this class. Further it is shown that this class is closed under convex linear combination.

The competition of both 1.10-Phenanthroline (1.10-Phen.) and L- proline (Pro.) ligands against three transition metals ions, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Co+3 were studied. 1HNMR, FTIR, atomic absorption and chlorine contents were used to identificatethe complex formation. Both Zn+2 and Cd+2 were complexed with 1.10-Phen. while Ni+2 binds only withPro. Hard soft acid base (HSAB) principle is the main explanation binding mode of metal ions in this work.

The competition of both dimethylglyoxime (DMG) andL tryptophan (L tryp.) as ligands against three transition metals ions, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Co+3 were studied. FTIR, 1HNMR, atomic absorption chlorine contents were used to support the final view of complexes formation. Both Zn+2 and Cd+2 were complexed with L tryp. While Co+3 binds only with DMG. Hard soft acid base (HSAB) idea is suggested to explain the difference in binding mode of metal ions.

In this ever-evolving generation, Technological advancements are having exponential growth. People try to learn new thing and technological enthusiastic are always in pursuit to learn about the new technologies. Since Learning and Researching about Technologies is also an ever-going process in an individual life span therefore there comes a time where one might stand in ambiguity and questions what to learn next or what to pursue next. Other person’s recommendations are always has been a prior option but in today world mostly one isn’t available every time to others.

Development of a machine vision program to classify among damaged, undamaged, discolored, unmatured, fungi/ diseased soybean kernels can play a vital role in the visual inspection process which is generally performed for grading commercially clean Soybean seed samples. The US standard/ Canadian standard or other recognized standards provide necessary parameters to assess Soybean seeds sample and define its quality while trading Soybean in commercial market.

Manufacturing is considered to be a global enterprise started during the late 19th century itself to cater the needs of large scale production. After 19th century manufacturing business have changed drastically through the innovations of technology, processes, materials and transportation. The major challenge of manufacturing is to produce more number of products with less material, less energy and fewer labors. In this paper various types of manufacturing environment is addressed with respect to the difference in production volume and amount of workforce required.

Salmonella typhi utilize inter and intra species communication via the process of cell-cell communication, which use to regulate population density with small, diffusible signaling molecules as communication intermediary called Autoinducers-2 (AI-2). Lsrk is the kinase phosphorylate AI-2, be capable to simulate the lsr operon. On the other hand, a solved structure of LsrK from Salmonella typhi is not available on Protein Data Bank. For that reason, we modelled and validated LsrK through online servers. Secondary structural insights were discussed.

Antifungal activity of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against seed-born fungi, the possible effect on seed germination and seedlings vigour were investigated. Five soybean seeds varieties naturally infected and collected from IRAD of Dschang (MAGBA and TGX-1835-10E), and three from IRAD of Foumbot (TGX-1910-14F, HOULA 1, ENGOPA 316) were used. Soybean seeds were distributed among storage plastic, treated with essential oil and stored for 40 days in storage conditions as defined by IRAD.

This study was conducted at Engineering Laboratory Building of ESSU-Salcedo Campus, Salcedo, Eastern Samar. Specifically, this study was concerned with the following objectives: (1) To determine the weight of the Concrete Hollow Block (CHB) using river and sea sands, (2) To determine the compressive strength of CHB using river and sea sands, and (3) To determine the significant difference between the compressive strength of CHB using river and sea sands with a varying amount of fine aggregates of 100%, 50%, and 33.33%.

This study was conducted at ESSU Salcedo Research Area, Salcedo Eastern Samar using fabricated double ring infiltrometers to estimate the range of infiltration rates. Four (4) treatments were replicated three (3) times on a 0.12 hectare located at the southeast part of the Research Area. A total of twelve (12) samples were used. RCBD was used as the experimental design with slope as gradient.

The aim of this work was to verify the Bacillus subtilis efficiency in soybean growth promotion, cultivated in soil with and without natural phosphate fertilization under greenhouse conditions. Seven Bacillus subtilis isolates and B. subtilis cocktail were used. The seeds were inoculated by Bacillus subtilis strains at a concentration of 2 x 108 CFU mL-1 using direct application technique of planting on graves. Biomass parameters, relative efficiency (RE), phosphorus content and phosphate utilization efficiency (P-UEF) were evaluated.

Background: The ultimate goal of any periodontal therapy is the regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a regenerative procedure that uses barrier membranes to direct the growth of new bone. The superior mechanical properties of Titanium-mesh make it optimal for successful GBR. However many problems like early exposure and resultant microbial on growth on its surfaces leads to the failure of regenerative therapy.

In Algeria, the fight against desertification begins with a restoration of steppic rangelands seriously degraded. In this framework more than two million hectares of pastoral land throughout the steppe have been exempted from agropastoral activities and fencing from grazing using enclosure and pastoral plantation with Atriplex canescens. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the two techniques on the restoration of degraded steppic rangelands. The methodological approach is the comparative analysis (One-way-ANOVA) of vital attributes of the ecosystem.

Ayurveda is a science of life emphasizing the concepts of maintenance of health in healthy and treatment of the diseases. It has 8 branches dealing with various specialties, among which Shalakya Tantra deals with the study of functioning and diseases related to the sense organs. Amongst the senses, eye is given the most importance as once the vision is lost the, one will not be able to differentiate day –night and enjoy the beauty of nature. Around 76 diseases are being explained dealing with eye diseases. The classification of these diseases is based on the site of the disease.

The objective of the present study was to synthesis of nanoparticles in plant extract which gained considerable importance when compared to bulk counterparts. Among many nanoparticles, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in drug-delivery system. In present study Celosia argentea L seeds were selected to synthesise zinc oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate its anticancer and antiplatelet activity.

Biodiversity is one of the key factors which make the planet Earth unique. Unfortunately, there are several threats to these resources. Invasive Alien Species (IAS), next to habitat destruction has been a major cause of extinction of native species. Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC known as Mesquites elsewhere and in Ethiopia it is called ‘Weyane/Dergi-Hara’ and ‘Biscuit’ around Afar and Diredawa respectively. Its first introduction is believed to be in late 1970s at Goro nursery, Dire-Dawa, possibly from India.

The city of Sousse, Capital of the region of Sahel, presents the kind of a seaside city in Tunisia, from its location on the Tunisian coastal line and beside its significant history. Indeed, the city of Sousse has seen the advent of several civilizations, which have contributed to its development and its enrichment. The city of Sousse has the advantage of having a temperate Mediterranean climate, an important cultural richness, a balanced economic development and a road and rail infrastructure facilitating access.

Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an important forage species among vetches of central Europe, the Mediterranean, the Near East, Ethiopia, central Asia and İndia. Vetch was used in this trial as the silage material. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria and inoculants as silage additives on the fermentation and aerobic stability of grass silage. Vicia narbonensis was harvested early in the flowering period (flowering 1/10) and ensiled in silo-type glass containers. Each application consisted of three parallels.

The use of Entomopathogenic fungi (Zygomycetes,Ascomcetes and Basidiomycetes) against mosquito larvae is one of the best environment friendly ways to eradicate Arthropods that cause a menace in the society. While most of us turn to chemical insecticides to destroy mosquitoes, these chemical agents have been known to cause allergic reactions in some and are simply harmful to others.

The use of Entomopathogenic fungi (Zygomycetes,Ascomcetes and Basidiomycetes) against mosquito larvae is one of the best environment friendly ways to eradicate Arthropods that cause a menace in the society. While most of us turn to chemical insecticides to destroy mosquitoes, these chemical agents have been known to cause allergic reactions in some and are simply harmful to others.

The present study was carried out to isolate Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) from cultured Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) and that identified by both Biochemical tests (API 20 E) and PCR. A total of 2 E. tarda isolates were isolated from 50 cultured O. niloticus fish collected randomly from the ponds of private fish farms at Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt.

Insecta is the largest class of phylum arthropoda and members of this class are characterized by the presence of three pairs of legs; hence, called Hexapoda, Besides, these tracheate organism have usually one or two pairs of wings. Insects always have been associated with mankind in one way or the other as some of them are beneficial other are pests of crops and house hold articles.

Wetlands with its bio-resources are vital to human life and the service provided by wetlands to human kind is tremendous and non-substitutable. The wetland must be considered as the main source of livelihood of sustainable societies and also wetland plant play a significant role in the socio-economy of the people of Manipur. People have been depending upon wetland for food, fodder, medicine etc. and ecological services that people need for survival since ages.

Biochemical indicators have been proposed as a tool to monitor soil quality, but the degree of precision of these indicators is not yet known to identify changes in fertility over time. The present study evaluated the influence of monocultures on the quality of the Brazilian Cerrado soil, using biochemical indicators. Forty-eight samples of native Cerrado soil and soils converted to sugarcane crops were submitted to chemical and enzymatic evaluation. The implantation of monoculture crops promoted a reduction of 60% in the content of organic matter.

Now a day, hospital aquatic environment is becoming under pressure due to antibiotics and heavy metal interference which highly affect the microbial diversity. These antibiotics and heavy metal have significantly increased the multi drug resistant microbes present in the aquatic environment which act as reservoirs including, hospital sewage, rivers and ocean water. Antibiotic resistance is commonly encoded on the same mobile genetic elements that carry heavy metal resistance genes.

The exposure of the fresh water fish, Labeo rohita to lambda cyahalothrin water, for short term (24, 48, 72, 96 hours) and long term duration (10, 20, 30 days) lead to the formation of histopathological lesions of varying intensities on the gill tissues. In the present investigation, the histopathological changes in gill of Labeo rohita in normal condition and exposed to condition for short and long term period of lamda cyahalothrin water at selected periods have been observed

In this study, several bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples of Jamshoro district and screened for α-amylase production, Bacillus clausii MCC 233-50 was found best amylase producing strain. Fermentation conditions were optimized for amylase production in shake flask using different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, initial pH, and temperature and time period.

The tobacco cured leaf yield as well as leaf quality are important factor which determined market price and net return. The yield and leaf quality of tobacco influenced by a numbers of factors such as varieties, soil, irrigation water and management practices. The nutrient composition and quality constituents like nicotine and reducing sugars in the leaf are influenced by the availability of nutrients in the soil. The permanent manorial trial has been started in 1961-62 and till now continuing at CTRI Research Station, Dinhata.

Poor data quality in database can result from various causes, such as errors in site descriptions, imprecise coordinates or even mistakes. Hence, exploratory data analysis and cleaning are among several range of approaches and methods of data auditing and cleaning, which have been suggested for maintaining or improving data quality.

The effects of different concentrations (control, 10, 20, 40,80 and 100%) of aqueous leaf extract of fresh leaves of Tecomastans (L.) on radical length, shedding of seed coat, germination index, tolerance index, phytotoxic index and biochemical constituents of Viginaradiata (L.) were investigated. Aqueous leaf extract of Tecomastans (L.) affected negatively radical length and delayed shedding of seed coat in green gram.

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. There are currently 371 million people living with diabetes and another 280 million are at high risk of developing the disease. The objective is to examine the impact of whole wheat diet on glycemic control of type 2 diabetics. A total number of 30 diabetics were selected by using purposive sampling method from Coimbatore medical college hospital.

This study investigated the effect of gully erosion on livelihoods in Suswa catchment, Narok County. Data was collected in 4 villages (Eluai, Olepolos, Olesharo and Enkiloriti) using a questionnaire on the effect of the gully on livelihoods (movement, infrastructure, livestock and farming practices). The effect of gully erosion on activities within the four villages was determined using Chi square test. Results showed that the effect of gully erosion on house activities differed significantly between the villages.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases which if not controlled can cause serious complications. Aim: Kidney Profile Evaluation In The Hypoglycemic Type II Diabetic Subjects. Methodology: Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum urea, creatinine, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and microalbuminuria levels were evaluated.

Weedy rice infestation is a big problem in the rice growing areas. A survey was conducted in July 2016 to understand the knowledge and practices of rice farmers about weedy rice in two nagar panchayat of tribal areas of Shahdol district, Madhya Pradesh. The present study aimed to establish awareness of farmer’s about weedy rice and observe the farmer’s practices in the management of weedy rice. We didn’t observe much difference between farmer’s knowledge about weedy rice and their management in two villages.

Statement of problem: Recasting procedure could affect the cytotoxicity of dental alloys because remaining alloy from initial castings is reused commonly with addition of new alloy. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of recasting of cobalt chromium alloys on gingival fibroblast cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Disk-shaped specimens (1 × 2 mm, n=40) of cobalt chromium alloys were prepared with 100% new alloy and 50%, 30%, and 15% once recast alloy. 10 specimens from each group were conditioned in 0.5ml of saline (0.9% NaCl) containing 3% bovine serum albumin(BSA).

This case report describes a case of amlodipine induced gingival enlargement in a pre existing periodontitis case. The uniqueness in this case is that the patient exhibited severe enlargement in spite of using the drug at lower dosage within short span of time. The gingival enlargement complicates the periodontal maintenance and aggravates other periodontal diseases. Drug induced enlargements pose a greater problem to dentists as they interfere with oral hygiene practices.

The Institute of Medicine defines clinical practice guidelines as "Statements that include recommendations, intended to optimize patient care, that are informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefits and harms of alternative care options Guidelines for their use in licensed indications (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease) include recommendations and guidance for patient selection and subsequent monitoring with discussion of potential adverse effects.

The mandible plays a major role in mastication, phonetic function, and supports the teeth. Mandibular discontinuity produces cosmetic and functional deformities. Surgical reconstruction of mandibular bone defects is a routine procedure for rehabilitation of patients with deformities caused by trauma, infection or tumor resection. Bone grafting has been used in the reconstruction of the mandible. The fibula flap is a versatile method used in the reconstruction of the defects in the mandible.

Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of demonstrating the level of knowledge and practice amongst general dental practitioners in Chennai city, India in 2016-17, in terms of usage of dental burs. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, the general dental doctors in Chennai provided information on their approach in dealing with the dental burs, via a pretested self administered questionnaire. The first part includes the knowledge and the last part involves dentist’s practice in terms of usage of burs.

Periodontitis is defined as an disease of supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms or groups of specific microorganisms, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation, gingival recession or both. The etiology of periodontitis is gram negative anaerobes but multifactorial factors may play a role in etiopathogenesis of periodontal destruction. Among various risk factors, genetic factors play a major role. In regulating the different signalling protein involved in periodontal tissue homeostatis.

One of the most common infectious diseases of humans is urinary tract infections (UTIs), caused by Escherichia coli, which responsible for more than 80% of cases worldwide. Eucalyptus species are well known as medicinal plants due to their biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of eucalyptus oil against clinical isolates of E. coli. The MIC of eucalyptus oil was appeared to be 0.125% for E. coli. Eucalyptus oil is found to have antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of E. coli.

One of the most common infectious diseases of humans is urinary tract infections (UTIs), caused by Escherichia coli, which responsible for more than 80% of cases worldwide. Eucalyptus species are well known as medicinal plants due to their biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of eucalyptus oil against clinical isolates of E. coli. The MIC of eucalyptus oil was appeared to be 0.125% for E. coli. Eucalyptus oil is found to have antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of E. coli.

Aim: to study the knowledge and attitude of dental students towards HIV/AIDS patients. Background: In the present generation, due to the development of various successful Anti-retroviral therapies, the life span of the infected individuals has increased. Hence these patients will require increasingly competent and compassionate health care services, including oral health care. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted on 100 dental students in the 3rd, 4th and 5th year students of a private dental college.

Nowadays, biomaterials applications could be established as a good medium/ vehicle for periodontal research and practice. Such materials based biotechnology routinely used in periodontal applications and is being continued as a very impressive tool to improve related disorders specifically in all dental research including periodontology. In this review biomaterials applications in periodontology will be elaborately discussed in detail including all applied agents.

Objective: To evaluate treatment outcome of tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis at Bhausaheb Sardesai Talegaon Rural Hospital (BSTRH), Attached with M.I.M.E.R. Medical college, Talegaon Dabhade, Maharashtra. Results: Of total 757 tuberculosis cases and 202 extrapulmonary amongst them, 70 (9.24%) patients had TB lymphadenitis.The mean age was 28.8±12years. Commonly affected site observed cervical group 40 (57.1%) with single node involvement seen in 54 (77.1%) cases. Sputum AFB positive in 1 patient (1.4%), HIV association seen in 3 (4.3%) cases.

Background: Oral health is of paramount importance for the physical, social and psychological well-being of an individual. Poor oral health negatively affects an individuals productively. Lack of awareness is one of the major factor leading to oral diseases. Objective: The study was carried out to assess the oral hygiene awareness and practices amongst patients visiting the OPD of A.J Dental College, Mangalore. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among the patients attending the outpatient department of periodontology, A.J Institute of dental science, Mangalore.

The present Exodontia is a procedure that all dentists are taught to perform in dental school and used by most general clinicians in their practice. With the growth of implant dentistry because of its high success rate and predictability, more questionable teeth that in the past may have been salvaged through extreme endodontic or periodontic procedures are now extracted for implant placement. A good skill set in basic and complex exodontia is therefore essential for well-trained general dentists who wish to be clinically involved in this facet of their practice.

In fast paced and upwardly mobile society, patients will mainly see a dentist for two reasons; discomfort or esthetics. Attachments provide a very important psychological union in treating patient as a whole and not merely as a disease. Attachment dentistry provides superior cosmetic and functional alternatives to the standard cast partial denture with clasps. They can offer advantages in advanced restorative procedures because of their adaptability. Attachments are stress redirectors and absorbers. Their function is to preserve soft tissue and bone as well as provide retention.

Background: The inadequacy, lack of suitable equipment in our specialty infrastructure and lack of monthly deaths in people living with human immunodeficiency virus increase the number of deaths and undetermined diagnosis in the internal medicine department of Sendwe referral hospital. The purpose of this study was to determine the biographical characteristics, proportional mortality from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and the map of the morbidity and mortality of diseases related to this infection.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of external beam radiotherapy for the management of refractory plantar fasciitis and to assess radiation induced side effects, including malignancy. Material and Method: The study was carried out in Department of Radiotherapy, PGIMS, Rohtak (India), on 36 diagnosed cases (56 heels) of plantar fasciitis. These diagnosed patients of plantar fasciitis having pain, refractory to medical treatment, were accrued for and given external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) during 2005-08.

Background: Saliva is the first biological fluid that is exposed to arecanut/tobacco and is responsible for its changes especially the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of areca nut and various other products of areca nut on salivary flow rate and pH of saliva. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 Subjects were divided into arecanut/tobacco chewers i.e. study group (group A) and non areca nut/tobacco chewers i.e. control group (group B).

The Cholecystectomy for Cholecystitis and cholelithiasis is immerging one of the commonest general surgical procedure performed in India as well as world. The India is a developing country & has a high growth rate of population accordingly the gall bladder stones and also have high incidence particularly northern part e.g. U.P., Bihar, Delhi and West Bengal etc. As per its etiology, it commonly occurs in case of faulty diet and activity as Fatty, Fertile, Female, and Forty.

Background and Study aim: Schistosoma mansoni is one of the three major species which cause schistosomiasis in humans. Female worms of S. mansoni deposit 190 to 300 eggs daily. Each egg of S. mansoni bears a prominent lateral spine. The key objective of this study was to identify and confirm which species of genus Schistosoma is causing schistosomiasis in student children of Walame Don Bosco elementary school including in those of kindergarten within the same school compound.

Introduction: Since a decade ago, M shape hem dialysis access had been created in our department for patients with native short length arms. Short arm obese and very obese patients also are the rare main targets for its application. Method: This is a case control series study of9obese patients, 2 males and 7 females (BMI≥40, mean=44.80) (6 cases obese class III, 3 cases class II, mean weight=105.55 Kg)who were referred for hem dialysis access. They had short length arm and were selected during 32months.

Aim: We aimed to review and present our data on gunshot injury cases that presented to the Kars State Hospital and Kafkas University Hospital emergency department in this study. Material and Method: Gunshot injury cases that presented to the emergency service between January 2012 and December 2016 and were admitted to various clinics for surgical treatment were included in the study.

Condylar region accounts for 17.5% to 52% of all mandibular fractures. Despite being very common, their treatment remains controversial. Closed reduction as a treatment option for sub condylar fractures has been followed. The study was seen in formalin fixed human cadaveric mandibles. Osteotomised at the subcondylar region the fifteen formalin fixed cadaveric human mandibles have been divided into three groups- Group-A, Group- B, Group-C. Eight formalin fixed cadaver mandibles which were sectioned as hemi-mandibles were used for this study.

Background: Change is inevitable. Considering the technological advancements taking place in dentistry, sticking to age old concept of conventional complete denture is regressive, which deprives patients of better prosthetic options. The transition from natural teeth to prosthesis is most comfortable to patient if replaced by full fixed implant prosthesis. However, such a prosthesis is not feasible in all cases due to anatomical, financial or other restrictions.

An attractive smile is the one that has both harmonious correlations between the shape and colors of the teeth and a good proportion between lip and gingival. When it comes to children, it becomes more important because now a day’s children are more aware of their surroundings and are very conscious about their appearance and smile. Children and adolescents are subject to a wide variety of gingival infections.In 1996, Albandar et al.

Objectives: To study the prevalence of threaten abortion in 1st trimester among pregnant women and to find out any association which has been found between the socio demographic characteristic and obstetrical outcomes. Methodology: A Prospective cross sectional study has been conducted in Fatima Al-Zahra hospital in Baghdad among 409 pregnant women attending to emergency and outpatient clinics during the period from first April 2015 to twenty third February 2016. Data collection was by using a previously designed questionnaire history.

Objectives: To evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of undergraduate dental students and also to correlate the difference between the students of clinical and preclinical courses. Methods: The study was conducted among 203 dental students, using English version of Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire consisted of 30 questions with multiple choice regarding oral health attitude, knowledge practices.

A rare malignant cells population exists in the tumor cells, with exclusive self-renewal ability and capable of differentiate into various cell lineages, determined as cancer stem cells (CSCs). They can produce cancer cells in tumors and perform a crucial function in the initiation and maintenance of a tumor.

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important cause of Healthcare associated infections. Carbapenems are often used as a last resort for treating serious infections caused by multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carbapenamases are β-lactamases which cause carbapenem hydrolysis. Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect the incidence of Carbapenemase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical isolates.

Introduction: Skin Adnexal tumors are rare tumors. They are categorized into sweat gland tumors (eccrine and apocrine), hair follicle tumors and sebaceous gland tumors based on line of differentiation. Benign tumors are more prevalent than the malignant tumors. Aim: To study the spectrum of skin adnexal tumors with respect to age, sex, site and histopathological pattern. Methodology: Retrospective study of 60 histopathologically confirmed cases of skin adnexal tumors in a tertiary hospital over a period of three years (Jan 2014- Dec 2016).

Objectives: The article presents an updated literature review on NiTi endodontic instruments in order to explain and analyze the influence of heat treatment process on mechanical properties of Niti shape memory alloys. The reader should understand the clinical implications of thermal heating of endodontic intruments such as enhanced flexibility and safety. Methods: The literature concerning the influence of heat treatment on mechanical properties of NiTi alloy has been analyzed using selected criteria.

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of breast feeding and bottle feeding on primary molar relation in 3-6 year old children attending different schools of south Bangalore city. The association between infant feeding duration and primary molar relation were evaluated in 400 children at the stage of complete primary dentition. The information regarding their feeding practices was recorded based on the questionnaires filled out by parents/guardians. The clinical examination was done to record the primary molar relation.

Background: Health Related Quality of Life is a multidimensional construct that consists of at least three broad domains − physical, psychological, and social functioning − that are affected by one's disease and/or treatment. HRQoL is usually measured in chronic conditions and is frequently impaired to a great extent. Associations with socioeconomic status (SES) and HRQoL seem to be vital criteria. Objectives: To evaluate individual patient's health status and to monitor and compare disease burden.

The prevalence of hate crimes against homosexuals is an issue deserving of societal and legislative analysis. Hate crime refers to criminal conduct that is motivated by bias or prejudice and impacts the well being of the victim. Health educators, social workers, teachers, and helping professionals can attest that those who identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual are often subjected to victimization. Research regarding the prevalence of hate crimes against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered (LGBT) individuals is at best, limited.

Due to the events of 9/11 and subsequent conflicts centered on countries of the Middle East, stigmatism and discrimination based on one’s religious beliefs and supposed Muslim heritage have become prevalent occurrences across the globe. This research looks at the health perceptions of Islamophobia in the West, and its effects on Muslim individuals, their families and the surrounding communities.

Background: Patients are constantly seeking to increase the quality of health care. One of the important factor of improving the quality of clinical services is the relationship between doctors-nurses in hospitals. The barriers of relationship between doctor and nurse will be reduce the quality of nursing services. This study was performed to evaluate the effect education of removing barriers in relationship doctors-nurses in increasing the quality of services provided in hospitals and clinics of the city of Marivan city.

Restoration of the edentulous flabby ridges often requires special considerations in impression making. The use of conventional impression techniques on flabby ridges can lead to an unstable and unsatisfactory denture. Modified impression techniques when used in this condition can record the flabby tissues in an undistorted form and thus help to fabricate a stable and functionally satisfying denture. The various impression techniques which could be used for flabby ridges are reviewed here.

Obesity and periodontal disease are multifactorial and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating in early life. various epidemiological studies state that obesity is a proven risk factor for adult periodontitis. So the need of the hour is to investigate this relationship in school going children where there is a death in evidence.

Heavy metal exposure in animals can lead to profound effect on growth, development and biochemical constituents. It is necessary that the heavy metal toxicity be well documented and adequate precaution should be taken in mother and fetus to decrease its detrimental effects. An experimental study was performed with viviparous animal Heterometrous fulvipes to access the cumulative effect of chronic heavy metals exposure. Chronic heavy metal exposure resulted in decrease in biochemical constituents of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

Desmoid tumors are non metastatic, rare tumors with a tendency of local invasion and recurrence. These lesions are associated with female gender in their fertile age typically appearing during or after pregnancy. The case of a desmoid tumor of anterior abdominal wall in a 22 year old lady is reported, that presented during pregnancy, describing its CT and MRI appearance. The lesion was treated surgically, reconstructing the defect with polypropylene mesh and was referred to oncology department for further management.

Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the knowledge on root canal anatomy amongst dental students. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a survey amongst dental students of a private dental school about the variations of root canal morphologies and the methods of detecting them. Background: A clear understanding of the root canal anatomy of the human dentition is a prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. The past decade has seen a varied use of methods for detecting the canal configuration. Hence, the student’s knowledge about these was questioned in this survey.

Background: Postoperative dysphagia is a common occurrence for the patients undergoing anterior cervical spine surgery. Although multiple risk factors for developing dysphagia have been reported in the literature, but the controversy still exists among different studies. This study mainly focuses on the recent literature review and summarizes the general overview on the incidence, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical signs and symptoms, assessment, treatment, and prevention of postoperative dysphagia.

Inflammasomes play a major role in the activation of interleukin 1. Interleukin-1 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, which induces systemic and local responses to infection. In this Monograph we have focused on the cascade which leads to the activation of Interleukin 1.

Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to access the dimensional changes of heat cure acrylic resin when immersed in alcohol and chlorhexidine. Materials and Method: This study included 12 specimens. Twelve heat cure acrylic resin cubes similar sizes were fabricated. The present study was undertaken to determine the dimensional change in heat cure acrylic resin cubes on immersing them in alcohol and chlorhexidine for 12 hours. Six cubes were immersed in 250 ml of each of the solutions. Before immersing, linear dimension of the cubes were measured using a digital vernier calliper.

Technically a person with mental retardation scores below 70 on an intelligence test and, as such has limited mental abilities. As we have become much more politically correct, this term is used less frequently and has been somewhat replaced by the term “mentally challenged. However, mental retardation is still the clinical term for someone who scores lower than 70 cm intelligence tests, has limited mental capabilities, and difficulty dealing with day-day-day aspects of living. There is a range of mental retardation from mild to profound. These children need extra care.

Chalcones belongs to natural and synthetic origin has various biological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-parasite, and anti-tumor activities. The aim of this study is to perform insilico design, docking by Hex 8.0 and synthesis, characterization and to investigation of anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. Novel Chalcones are prepared from 2-acetyl-1-naphthol and substituted aromatic aldehydes. All the synthesized compounds were characterized and evaluated for anti inflammatory and anti microbial studies.

Residing at the interface of the body, the lung is a uniquely vulnerable organ optimized for gas exchange, having a very thin, delicate epithelium, abundant blood flow, and a vast surface area. Lung surfactant is a surface active material composed of both lipids and proteins that is produced by alveolar type II pneumocytes that provides a stable, low surface tension for the lung, thereby preventing alveolar collapse at low transpulmonary pressure. Surfactant is a secretory product, composed of lipids and proteins.

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor (IMT), previously called inflammatory pseudotumor and plasma cell granuloma, belongs to a class of rare spindle cell lesions showing a rather unpredictable biological behavior with occasional tendency toward invasion to the surrounding tissue and Local recurrence. The lesion, as primarily described by Bahadori and Liebow in 1973, is a reactive/inflammatory process in the pulmonary system mostly occurring in children and young adults. Since then, many cases have been reported in older patients in addition to extra-pulmonary sites.

Erosive gingival lesions associated with vesiculobullous disease such as Lichen Planus, Cicatrical pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris have been collectively referred to as “Desquamative Gingivitis”. This article reports the management of 3 cases diagnosed as Mucous membrane pemphigoid” based on clinical and histopathologic finding. All the three cases have no extra oral involvement.

Oro-antral communications may develop as a complication of dental extractions, but may also result from accidental or iatrogenic trauma, neoplasm or infection. The use of buccal fat pad as a graft for intraoral defects is an uncommonly reported procedure but, it has been frequently used for closure of oro-antral and oro-nasal communications. This paper demonstrates the use buccal pad of fat and buccal advancement flap for the closure of oro antral fistula.

Posterior hip dislocation is the most common type of hip dislocation and occurs in about 90% of all hip dislocations. Several methods are there for the reduction of hip dislocations. These are Bigelow, Stimson and Allis manoeuvres. These methods allow reduction without disturbing the anatomy or the neurovascular status of limb. The East Baltimore lift is another method of reducing a posterior hip dislocation. For this method (after considering sedation or analgesia) the patient is placed supine. The affected leg is flexed at right angles at both the hip and the knee.

Background: Diabetes mellitus, a silent epidemic with micro and macroangiopthic complications and also has less recognized rheumatic syndromes which are debilitating. Objective of the study: To study the prevalence of rheumatological manifestations uniquely associated with type 2 diabetes and to analyse the risk factors associated with these manifestations in them. Methods: It is a cross sectional descriptive study done with a sample size of 200 persons having established type 2 diabetes mellitus at our institution.

Background: Vision is one of the main special senses of human being. In the visual system eye and its adnexal tissue are affected by variety of lesions. Orbito-ocular malignancies may contribute to visual disturbances, rarely visual loss may take place. The spectrum of malignant tumors of eye and ocular adnexa that can originate, grow, invade and lodge in the relatively small orbital cavity is amazing. Malignant tumors of eyelid, conjunctiva, retina and orbit in both adults and children have been reported.

Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder presenting with hyperglycemia. Worldwide, the prevalence is increasing drastically. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional case-control study. The sample size: 150 cases with age and sex matched .controls meeting inclusion criteria of this study from outpatients and inpatients of RIMS, Ranchi.

The concept of sentinel lymph nodes in oncological surgery is based on the fact that the spread of solid tumors in an orderly manner passes first through the lymphatic system. Thus, the sentinel lymph node, meaning the first lymph node encountered by lymphatic drainage from the site of the tumor, is likely to be the first one affected by metastasis. Therefore, a negative sentinel lymph node makes it very unlikely that other lymph nodes along the same lymphatic pathway will be affected.

Pyogenic granuloma is non neoplastic proliferation of gingival connective tissue, commonly occur in females in their second decade of life due to hormonal imbalance. Extra gingival sites are buccal mucosa, palate and tongue. It can also occur in males in response to minor trauma, chronic irritants which provides the pathway to non specific microorganism but histopathologicaly it does not show any microorganism, so its etiology is still not clear. Clinicaly it is a non tender swelling which sometimes look like a hemangioma or a vascular malformation which bleed profusely on provocation.

PLIF or posterior lumbar interpedicular screw fixation in cases of spondylolisthesis is a routine procedure performed by the orthopedic and neurosurgeons. Use of X-ray, CT scan or Navigation system is employed commonly to achieve the goal with minimal neurodeficits. X-ray is the most common and benefit is the minimal radiation in the operating room.

Background: Antibiotics are main stay of treatment in Intensive care unit in a hospital. Rationale and proper usage of antibiotics can prevent drug resistance. Drug utilization study is a component of medical audit that does monitoring and evaluation of the drug prescribing patterns and suggests necessary modifications in prescribing practices to achieve rational therapeutic practice as well as cost of effective health care.

Fibrous dysplasia is a fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw bone. It occurs in maxilla and mandible with a more predilection to maxilla. It starts in childhood and progress slowly and mostly ceases after the onset of puberty. However it can affect any bones in the skeletal frame work, including the craniofacial system. Though exact etiology unknown, gene mutation is likely to be the cause .The bone formation is accelerated due to this mutation but the new bone layed down is poorly calcified and immatured.

Background: Establishment of occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) is one of the important tasks for successful prosthodontic therapy for function, esthetics and comfort to the edentulous patients. Though various methods are advocated, each has its own limitations and no single method has been formulated. In the present anthropometric study the correlation between vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and distance between tip of thumb to tip of index finger has been evaluated in edentulous patients. The results of this study can be useful in determining OVD in edentulous patients.

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic, debilitating disease of the oral cavity characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis of the submucosal tissues resulting in trismus. There is no definite treatment for this condition. Many medical and surgical modalities have been tried. Various flaps have been used to reconstruct surgical defects following excision of fibrous bands. The buccal fat pad flap is most simple and reliable method because of its rich blood supply and location which is close to the location of various intraoral defects.

Background: Evidence on the safety of herbal products use is still inadequate to substantiate their safety among pregnant women. Herbal usage is differing according to geographical availability, experience and believes. Saudi Arabian community is one of those old communities that encouraged herbal medicines and trusting the safety of plants available in the area even during pregnancy. The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Saudi women toward herbal usage in pregnancy and to identify the commonest herbs used during pregnancy.

Background: This hospital based study to comparative evaluations of two different types of pterygium surgeries and to know efficacy, safety and complication in method of autologous insitu blood versus suture for fixation of conjunctival autograft in pterygium excision surgery. Materials and Method: A Prospective randomised clinical trial. The study included 50 eyes of 50 patients with primary pterygium.

Spinal muscular atrophy is the second most common autosomal recessive disorder after cystic fibrosis (D'Amico et al., 2011). Because of its high frequency, it should be considered first in a case of floppy infant. Here we are reporting a case of 18month female baby who was admitted with complaints of not able to walk for last 5 months.

The eye is a vital organ and an essential component of facial expression. Ocular defects might result from tumor, congenital anomaly and external injury requiring surgical intervention. Loss of an eye has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Enucleation of the eye is therefore normally followed by fabrication of an ocular prosthesis to improve esthetics. A custom ocular prosthesis is a good option when reconstruction by plastic surgery or the use of osseo-integrated implants is neither possible nor desirable.

Fully edentulous patients face several problems such as residual ridge resorption, excess salivary flow, muscle tone reduction and other factors that affect the retention quality of conventional dentures. Such patients require greater retention for chewing and psychological reasons. Implant supported prosthesis increase satisfaction and quality of life in these patients. This article presents a case report where prosthetic rehabilitation of the patient was done with implant supported over denture in maxillary and mandibular arches using different attachment systems.

The management of tooth wear is complex and challenging. Moreover, aesthetic and functional restoration in such patients entails the performance of all procedures necessary to produce healthy, aesthetics, well functioning and self maintaining masticatory mechanism. The following case report provides a description of a patients’ oral rehabilitation with metal ceramic restorations to increase vertical dimension. Patient not only had satisfactory functional and aesthetic results but also showed positive psychological impact and hence improved the quality of life.

Background: Age estimation is an important aid for personal identification in both, living and dead. Radiography has a vital role in forensic odontology and is widely used as a non- invasive method for age estimation, which is carried out through tooth developmental stages in children and from secondary dentin deposition in adults. Objectives: To assess the chronological age from the morphological parameters of all the permanent canines using digital panoramic radiographs and to evaluate the applicability of Kvaal’s method in local Gujarati population.

Fracture of anterior teeth specially maxillary incisors is relatively common occurrence in children & adolescences. There are various treatment modalities of management of fractured anterior teeth. Factors determining the treatment plan and prognosis for teeth fractures include the extent of fracture, endodontic involvement, periodontal status, maturity of root, presence or absence of fractured tooth fragment, occlusion, finances etc.

Tooth avulsion is defined as the complete displacement of the tooth out of its alveolar socket. Management of tooth avulsion in the permanent dentition often presents a challenge. Replantation of avulsed teeth is the most accepted treatment approach considering esthetic and functionality. The aim of this case report is to present the multidisciplinary treatment approach with avulsed maxillary anterior teeth.

Omarigliptin is a new once-weekly DPP-4 inhibitor developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Once-weekly oral administration of omarigliptin reduces dosing frequencies and improves treatment adherence, and potentially contributes to achieving optimal glycemic control compared with once-daily DPP-4 inhibitors. We investigated the effect of omarigliptin on blood glucose fluctuation compared with once-weekly injection dulaglutide in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Back ground: Interaction of environmental and genetic elements plays important role in the pathogenesis of CML and other types of cancer. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is adetoxifying enzyme. Absence or low levels of this enzyme may genetically predispose individuals to CML. The aim of the present study was to determine GSTT1 Polymorphism among Sudanese patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) attending Radiation and Isotope Center-Khartoum.

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. Our extensive efforts have identified and developed novel small molecule inhibitors that can fight colon cancers caused by aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling. A series of naphthoquinone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated using a combination of comprehensive biological and quantitative structure-activity-relationship (QSAR) analysis approaches, which revealed a new class of inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin/Tcf signaling. In this class, compound 27 (named BC27) was the lead compound.

Background: Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors of the cervix (Carcinosarcomas or MMMTs) are rare and aggressive malignancies consisting of an epithelial (carcinoma) and a mesenchymal (sarcoma) tumor component. Objective: To report a rare case of cervical malignant mixed Mulleriantumour. Case: Here, we present a case of old postmenopausal woman with complaints of bleeding per vaginum, underwent endocervical curettage and endometrial biopsy suspicious of malignancy.

The validated protein precipitation method was applied for estimation of AT in human plasma with ATD8 as an internal standard (ISTD) by using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was achieved with 0.1% formic acid in combination with methanol (25:75 v/v) using the C18 column Ascentis Express (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 µm). The total analysis time was 3 min and flow rate was set to 0.6 ml/min. The mass transitions of AT, ATD8 obtained were m/z 482.6396.0 and 490.6®396.0.

Background: Epistaxis is a common innocuous event in childhood.(1) Methods: It is a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Paediatric patients (under the age of 12) presenting to the outpatient department with complains of epistaxis were observed, treated and the follow-up data was analysed. Results: Out of the total number (230) children males out-numbered the females. The total number of children were grouped into 2 based on the investigation and etiology. With associated cause (n=172), with no associated cause (n=58).

Osteoma of paranasal sinuses is a rare benign tumour arising from the proliferation of compact or cancellous bone. They are more common in frontoethmoidal region where as osteomas of sphenoid or maxillary region are rare. These tumors may be incidentally detected on radiographs, or may grow to produce symptoms if extends into orbit or skull base. We present here a rare case of large osteoma of the maxillary antrum and ethmoidal sinus in a 60-year-old man which was removed using combined endoscopic and external approach.

Saliva is a most valuable oral fluid that is often taken for granted. It is critical to the preservation and maintenance of oral health, yet it receives little attention until quantity or quality is diminished. The quantity of the saliva affects its ability to carry out the functions in the oral cavity including retention of the denture. Usually mouthwashes are an antiseptic solutions intended to reduce the microbial load in the oral cavity, although mouthwashes might be given for other reasons such as for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory or anti-fungal action.

Background: Coronary artery disease is sometimes associated with chronic conduction block. Our aim is to correlate between chronic conduction block and coronary artery disease. We performed ECG and coronary angiography of all patients who were admitted for permanent pacemaker implantation to find correlation between them. Methods: Coronary angiography was performed in all 160 patients of chronic conduction block during twenty four months of study period who were admitted for pacemaker implantation. We compared the coronary artery disease in different types of conduction block.

Introduction: It has also been noted that one-third of all neonatal deaths occur on the first day of life, almost half within 3days & nearly three-quarters within the first week of life. In developing countries, about 34 of every 1000 live births result in neonatal death. The primary cause of neonatal deaths are sepsis(52%) which includes pneumonia, meningitis, neonatal tetanus, diarrhoea), birth asphyxia (20%)and others(13%).

Herpes Zoster also known as Shingles is an acute viral infection which is an extremely painful and incapacitating ailment. It results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. The triggering factors for the onset of an attack of Herpes Zoster include some form of immuno suppression. The diagnosis of Herpes Zoster can be made on proper medical history and a thorough clinical examination. During the prodromal stage, the only presenting symptom may be odontalgia, which may prove to be a diagnostic challenge for the dentist.

Candidiasis, a common opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity is caused by Candida species. There are many risk factors involved including the use of prosthetic dentures with poor denture hygiene. We hereby present a case of an elderly female wearing maxillary and mandibular complete dentures for 20 years with poor denture hygiene. She complained of burning sensation in the mouth for 1 week. After complete examination, a provisional diagnosis of Pseudo membranous candidiasis w.r.t mandibular ridge and Atrophic candidiasis w.r.t maxillary ridge and the hard palate was made.

Background: In recent years, esthetic demand in dentistry have increased rapidly, driven by an enhanced awareness of beauty and esthetics. Loss of the interproximal dental papilla may cause formation of black triangle and in maxillary anterior region cause functional, phonetic and esthetic impairment. There are number of factors affecting the papilla fill in embrasure space, they are periodontitis, abnormal tooth shape, history of orthodontic treatment etc. Black triangle may be present when distance from contact point to alveolar crest is more than 5mm.

Sacral neuromodulation is a new minimal invasive therapy. It is FDA approved for refractory overactive bladder, frequency urgency syndrome and non-obstructive retention. Here we review this therapy indications, outcome, surgical procedure and complications.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the psychosocial impact that maloccluiosn ahs on an individual self designed Questionnaire and co-relating the effects and malooclusion. Material & Methods: A specially designed questionnaire was filled by 120 subjecsts seeking Orthodontic treatment, the questions aimed at finding out the effect malocclusion had on psychology of the patient and the social impact. Results: The sample consisted of 120 adults with mean age of 20 years (SD±2.4), and largely female comprising 140 (88%) and males were 19 (12%).

Introduction: Pain control is an important part of dentistry, particularly in the management of children. Behavior guidance, and dose and technique of administration of the local anesthetic are important considerations in the successful treatment of a pediatric patient. The purpose of the present text is to compare the current methods available in the administration of local anesthesia used for pediatric dental patients and to discuss the relevant data on topics involved.

Background: Addiction is a complex disease, with physical, mental, social, and environmental factors. To be successful, treatment plans must address all these components. In some cases, hospitalization may be required.

Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting the oral cavity and is one of the principal causes of tooth loss now. It also has a strong relationship with various systemic diseases such as diabetes, cardiac diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, HIV, chronic lung diseases.Sufficient knowledge of oral health care behaviour and understanding of scientific reason for its improvement is an important precondition to improve oral-health. Educational level is one of the factors that could determine the oral health status of the individuals.

Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, awareness and practice of tray selection for alginate impression among dental practitioners Objective: To assess the extent of knowledge among dental practitioners regarding tray selection for alginate impression Materials & Method: The survey was cross-sectional in design. 100 questionnaires were distributed to the dental practitioners in Chennai. The questionnaire consisted of 10 multiple-choice questions. Results: The 100 questionnaires which was obtained was then evaluated and tabulated.

Metastasis is a complex biological course that begins with detachment of tumour cells from the primary tumour, spreading into distant tissues invading through the lymphovascular structures followed by their survival in the circulation. The prime reason for morbidity and mortality in any type of cancer is due to metastasis that occurs as a result of adaptation of genetically unstable cancer cells. Metastasis is very uncommon to the jaw bones and oral cavity.

Background: Labial frenum is a dynamic structure and is subject to variation in size, shape and position. The purpose of this cross sectional study is to examine the prevalence of various types of maxillary frenal attachments and its morphology in children. It can be gingival type, mucosal type, papillary type and papillary penetrating type. Materials and methods: A study involving 150 children between 0 to 12 years of age visiting a private hospital in Chennai were clinically examined for maxillary labial frenum attachment under direct visual method.

AIM : The aim for this study is to determine the effectiveness of Berry’s Biometric Index (BBI) to measure the size of anterior teeth in South Indian population. BACKGROUND: BBI is one of the method to measure the size of anterior tooth. It is measured by measuring the bi-zygomatic width of patient which is divided by 16. It can also be measured by measuring the length of the face divided with 20. REASON: The best method to measure the size of anterior teeth is remain unknown. Hence, the best method to determine the size of anterior teeth need to be explore for future use.

Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice among dentists, considering the need and methods of disinfection of dental impressions. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through questionnaire composed of multiple choice questions. The study included 150 students and a questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was provided to each student. Results: Out of the 150 students who took up this survey, 60% were BDS students and 40% were MDS students. Only 26% of the students believed that disinfecting dental impressions leads to change in dimensional accuracy.

Background: Relining is the resurfacing the fitting surface of a denture with a new material. Rebasing technique is the same as for reline except in the laboratory the palate is removed and a new one waxed in before processing. Cold cured acrylic or tissue conditioner are used. The flanges are trimmed (to reduce danger of over extension) and the undercuts removed. The new relining is then mixed and applied to the fitting surface. The denture is inserted and the patient asked to bite gently on the denture to ensure that the occlusion is not altered by the procedure.

Aim: The survey is conducted to create awareness and knowledge on risk factors of hypertension among undergraduate students in Chennai, India. Objective: The aim of the current study was to use representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, awareness and management of hypertension students in Chennai. Background: Hypertension is the major driver of the cardiovascular epidemic facing India in the 21st century.

The aim of this review is to find out in detail about adverse effect of psychoactive drugs. A drug is any substance other than food, that when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body. However, it can cause adverse effect to the human body. Example for psychoactive drugs are cocaine, heroin, marijuana and etc. Psychoactive drugs can be classified into three types which are depressants, stimulants and also hallucinogens.

Background: Aerosols, produced during ultrasonic instrumentation during a dental procedure are contaminative and should be assessed and controlled qualitatively and quantitatively. It is well known that pre-procedural 0.2% chlorhexidine rinse will reduce microbial count in an aerosol. But very little is known about maintaining the safest distance between two dental chairs, the efficacy of tempered (45ºC) chlorhexidine, and the combined effect of these two protocols in effective reduction of aerosols spread in a dental operating room.

The survey is conducted to assess the knowledge, awareness and practice of alginate storage among the dental practitioners. The aim of the current study was to use representative survey data to examine in the knowledge, awareness and practice of alginate storage among dental practitioners which have different major. The study is a cross-sectional survey. A self-structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used for this survey. Total samples of 50 subjects were included in this study.

Morel-Lavallée Lesion (MLL) is a soft tissue injury that results in separation of skin and subcutaneous fat from underlying fascia and collection of fluid in between them. It is a rare entity thathas been reported in past and needs urgent detection and management. A high suspicion index is required to diagnose these injuries as they can often go undetected and lead to long term complications. We here in report a case of adult female presented with extensive injury where clinical history and examination lead to diagnosis of MLL.

Silicone is the most common material used to fabricate maxillofacial prosthesis but silicone suffers from a rapid deterioration. Regular cleansing of facial prostheses cans causesilicone damage. Hard and rough silicone material may cause irritation to surrounding soft tissue and may look unnatural over a period of time due to aging of the material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones under the influence of chemical disinfection and storage.

Benign and malignant tumors are rare conditions; it was not uncommonly occurs in salivary glands and usually presented as a painless mass. The presence of pain and facial nerve palsy may indicate malignant transformation. Diagnosis is made by imaging and biopsies. Objectives: This study aims to know the pattern of Benign and malignant tumors in salivary glands among Sudanese patients in Khartoum state according to many categories age, gender, clinical presentation and diagnosis.

Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) represent the most frequent of all oral neoplasms & in India, OSCC is the leading cancer in men and fifth common cancer in women. The five year survival rate of 60-80% for OSCC has not improved in the last 3 decades inspite of improvements in therapy strategies. Research on cancer tissues has revealed that there may be a link between molecular level and tissue level changes that drive malignant changes in the tissue and play a pivotal role in disease progression.

Immediate implantation is a growing trend in modern implant dentistry. Immediate implant placement of dental implants into infected sockets has been shown to be a predictable and successful procedure when proper protocols are followed. Various studies have suggested that immediate placement of an implant into an infected site is contraindicated, as sites exhibiting pathology have been thought to compromise osseointegration.

The estrogen-mimic bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic phenolic compound which people are exposed to frequently via different exposure routes. In this study association between urinary BPA concentration and breast cancer was investigated. This case-control study included patients with malignant breast mass, benign breast mass and women with normal breast. The effect of urinary concentration of BPA on breast cancer was tested using multinomial logistic regression models.

Aim & Objective: To assess the preparedness amongst the dental students of Saveetha Dental College in performing clinical procedures after a preclinical fixed prosthodontics course. Background: During the undergraduate course of 5 years in dentistry, the students spend 3 years of their education getting trained in the clinic working with patients. But to be able to work in clinic with patients, there has to be a certain level of preparedness in the student. For this purpose, the students have preclinical courses in all the fields which they'll have to perform.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Karisalai Karpam. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous decoctionof Karisalai Karpam was studied using in vitro and in vivo models, phytochemical screening result revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, flavonoid, anthocyanin, terpenoid and absence of glycosides.

Eye drops are the most conventional ophthalmic drug delivery system available in the market with various patient compliance problems. In this current work pH triggered in situ ophthalmic gel of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride and Ketorolac tromethamine combination are prepared by using carbopol 934 as gelling agent and carboxy methyl tamarind kernel powder and Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K15M as viscosity enhancing agent and rate controlling polymer, Benzalkonium chloride was used as preservative in the above formulation.

Aim: To determine the microbial content present in the hand wash soap bottles used in dental clinics. Materials and method: Swabs were collected from 10 different clinics from the hand wash soap bottles used in dental clinics. They were then cultured in agar medium and the microbes were identified by its morphology and gram staining. Background: Hand Washing continues to be the single most important step in the prevention of the spread of infection in hospitals.

Peptic ulcer is a most common ulcer of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. This pathological condition is caused by chronic inflammation due to Helicobacter pylori, excessive use of NSAIDs like aspirin and smoking. This disorder also results in release of massive amount of toxic free radicals which results in oxidative stress. Ethnobotanically, the flower of Andrographis paniculata has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and skin diseases.

Background: Histological grading is an important diagnostic tool to predict the clinical and biological behaviour of cancer. Cervical lymph node metastasis indicate poor prognosis of oral cancer. Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a great predisposition to produce metastasis in lymph nodes. An analysis of the prognostic factors is important for predicting prognosis and reducing the mortality in these patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to do a comparative study of different grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinoma and assess their relationship to Lymph node metastasis.

In developing countries people are more worried about infectious risks of blood transfusion but various reports show that antigen-antibody reactions are responsible for vast majority of transfusion related complications, most common and serious being intravascular haemolytic transfusion reactions because of ABO incompatability caused by giving wrong blood to the patient. We report a case of 24 year old female patient who underwent emergency caesarean section for foetal bradycardia and was accidently given mismatched blood transfusion in preoperative period.

Background: Dental identification is an important identification tool in Forensic odontology. There is a difference of opinion regarding whether ethnicity influences dental morphology or not. Few studies have shown the associations between these dental features and crown traits in humans. The present study is an attempt to find correlation of occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular third molars with forensic Odontology. Objective: To determine the prevalence of different occlusal morphological patterns of permanent mandibular third molars.

Trigeminal neuralgia is the painful entity affecting oral and facial structures. In this disease, patient experiences severe burning, throbbing, intermittent pain. “Fothergill’s disease” and “Suicide disease” are other rarely used nomenclature options for “Trigeminal neuralgia”. “Tic douloureux” is the medical term for “trigeminal neuralgia”. Trigeminal neuralgia often compromises the life quality of the patient. Severe, intermittent, electric shock like pain on the face is caused due to “Trigeminal Neuralgia”.

Context: Developmental dental anomalies are routinely encountered by paediatric dental professionals at an early age. Their early detection, appropriate and timely management may help in an aesthetic and functional oral cavity. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various developmental dental anomalies like cusp of carabelli, microdontia, macrodontia, hypodontia, fusion, gemination, talon cusp, supernumerary and dens in dente in school going children in South Bangalore.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of gingival retraction systems on thin gingival biotype. Objectives: • To compare and analyse the effect of gingival retraction on bleeding on probing using impregnated cord and retraction paste systems. • To compare and analyse the effect of gingival retraction on clinical attachment level using impregnated cord and retraction paste systems. Materials and Methodology: The study was conducted on unprepared mandibular first molars in 30 selected human participants.

Background: Apical root resorption is an unwanted effect associated with orthodontic tooth movement especially intrusion. Immuno analysis of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) has identified Dentin Sialo phospho protein (DSPP) to be present during root resorption. This study is aimed to identify and quantify DSPP, released into GCF during orthodontic intrusion using Ricketts’ simultaneous intrusion and retraction utility arch and to investigate the potential of DSPP in GCF as a biomarker for root resorption.

Introduction: Today, Indians and especially the youth are increasingly using the mobile as a means of communication with their near and dear ones as well as with their professional contacts. However, concerns continue to be raised about the widespread potential adverse health impacts associated with their use. Material and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted amongst medical and paramedical students of a Health institute to study mobile phone dependence among the study subjects. Results: 159 out of 270 were aware of the documented increased risk of cancer with high mobile usage.

Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorder is disorder of the muscles, tendons, peripheral nerves or vascular system not directly resulting from acute trauma or instantaneous events. Dental work often involves time spent in static, uncomfortable positions, which can lead to musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim of this study was to find the characteristics of musculoskeletal disorders amongst the dental students from a health university.

Aim of the present study was to examine the gender differences in home environment and self-esteem of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. A sample of 228 adolescents (Male=120, Female=108) with age ranging from (13 to 16 years) participated in the study. Home environment inventory by Mishra (1989) and Self-Esteem scale by Rosenberg (1969) were used to measure the variables (home environment and self-esteem).

Buccal fat pad (BFP) has been used clinically for various applications as pedicled graft including closure of oronasal and/or oroantral communication and for malar augmentation in Down’s syndrome (Jacobson and Sheer, 1972). Histologically, buccal fat is similar to orbital fat and helps in motion of the masticatory muscles and maintaining the shape of the face. The size of the buccal fat pad is usually constant regardless of the size of individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity, usually affecting individuals over 50 years of age.

Background: Academic learning environment impacts learning outcomes. Thus, educators outlined the importance of examining the academic learning environment in each college. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study to explore the academic learning environment in the nursing college at KSU was done. A convenient sample of undergraduate nursing students gave their perceptions about the academic environment in the college.

Root-canal treatment is a therapeutic procedure performed to treat and prevent apical periodontitis when pulpal disease is considered too advanced to be managed by vital pulp therapy. A thorough conceptualization of the complex interplay between infection, inflammation and healthy tissue can help to increase the visualization of how treatment procedures might influence biological events and help in periapical disease prevention.

The aim of the present work was aimed to carry out comparative study between method (1) [official method (BP, 2017)] and method (2) [developed validated analytical method (Adam et al., 2012)] for the separation of cefixime trihydrate and its degraded products by using two different mobile phases, keeping the other parameters such as stationary phase, column condition, wavelength, and device constant.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of cements on fracture resistance of full zirconia and zirconia-based ceramic single crowns. Maxillary premolar crowns in 2 mm thickness were fabricated on metal dies in 3 groups: Group MO: 24 monolithic zirconia crowns; Group ZL: 24 zirconia frameworks veneered with feldspathic by the layering technique; Group ZP: 24 zirconia frameworks veneered by the heat-pressed technique.

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of four modality of treatments for myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). The MPDS represents one of the most important pain in the face.

Dentigerous cysts are one of the common cysts of the jaws, usually associated with crowns of permanent teeth. Multiple dentigerous cysts are rare and are associated with certain syndromes. Non-syndromic multiple dentigerous cysts are very rare. Here we report a case of multiple dentigerous cysts in a non-syndromic patient.

Introduction: To evaluate and compare the labial and lingual cortical bone thickness in maxillary anterior segments during en masse retraction using skeletal anchorage aided by micro implants. Methods: The study was done in-vivo on 10 subjects, with angle’s class i bi-maxillary protrusion and/or angle’s class ii div 1 protrusion patients between the age group of 18-30 years in the permanent dentition.pre-treatment and post treatment CBCT’s were taken for all the patients. titanium small head micro implants, were used as anchor units for en-masse retraction.

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common, chronic inflammatory condition and presumably autoimmune disease, which frequently present with burning sensation. Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that occurs in about 0.02 to 4% of general population affecting skin and mucosa. The lesion has a chronic clinical course with periods of exacerbation and remission with reports of lesions for up to 20 years. Although various etiological agents are proposed, the exact etiology & treatment is unknown.

Periodontal disease is a chronic infection affecting the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, primarily caused by the bacteria of dental plaque. It begins as gingivitis, an inflammation of the soft tissues, and can progress to periodontitis, where destruction of connective tissue attachment and alveolar bone can eventually lead to tooth loss. Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular disease and, also with measures of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction.

65 yrs old male patient presented with a fractured upper left central incisor. Intraoral examination and cbct reviled, thin gingival biotype and thin buccal bone plate respectively. Immediately following extraction, implant was place and loaded immediately using buccal shell technique; guided bone regeneration and connective tissue grafting were done simultaneously. After 4 months of healing the screw retained provisional helped us achieve a emergence profile similar to as that of the adjacent teeth.

Background & Purpose: Neuro-rehabilitative and restorative therapies have emerged as a promising tool in recovery of spinal cord injuries. Comprehensive program can modulate the spinal excitability and help in yielding desired results. A handful of studies on humans has surged the interest in this field. Other than the expensive tools available for tapping plasticity changes in CNS some other tools like evoked potential have been found to be equally satisfactory. Evoked potentials could be useful prognostic, longitudinal monitoring and CNS remodelling tools.

Introduction: Deep intraosseous defects represent a major challenge for the clinician. Sites with intraosseous lesions have been shown to be at higher risk of disease progression in subjects who had not received periodontal therapy. Treatments of intrabony defects include scaling and root planing with surgical access flap. Additional osseous resective therapy and ⁄ or reconstructive therapy by means of the application of membranes, biological agents or grafting biomaterials can be used to correct the bone deformities induced by destructive periodontal disease and achieve regeneration.

Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is one of the most commonly encountered abscess in the Head and neck region. Peritonsillar abscess also called as Quinsy is commonest infection in head and neck region. It is collection of pus within the peritonsillar space as a result of acute tonsillitis and subsequent Peritonsillar cellulites. The aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of Medical and Surgical treatment surgical modalities available are- incision & drainage, needle aspiration.

Objective: The objectives of the study were to assess and evaluate the knowledge before and after administration of client volunteer teaching and find out the association of knowledge of tuberculosis patient with selected variable. Methodology: Quasi-experimental research approach with one group pre-test and post test design was used and 100 respondents were selected by purposive sampling technique in selected DOTS centre of Ambala, Haryana. The content reliability for structured knowledge questionnaire was formulated by Kuder- Richardon 20(Kr -20) i.e 0.83.

Aim: To compare the changing trends between implant supported prosthesis and cast partial dentures for patients with hemimandibulectomy Study design & methods: MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane, EbscoHost and Google Scholar were searched from January 1985 to December 2015. Appropriate case reports, case series or clinical reports which indicated the cause for resection were included. The data was compared only between implant supported prosthesis and removable cast partial denture. Masticatory efficiency, esthetics and functional ability were selected as outcome variables.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy results in patients who presented with abdominal pain and received a diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain following the examination and tests. Material and Method: We included a total of 52 patients who presented at the emergency service between 01.01.2011 and 01.01.2012 with symptoms of abdominal pain and received a diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain following normal examination, routine blood and urine tests and ultrasound analysis.

Background: There is a paucity of significant data with regards to the high prevalence of breast cancer and its risk factors within the parish of Manchester. Atypical hyperplasia with a relative risk of 4-5% 5 has been demonstrated to have a positive association with the development of breast cancer. The objective the study is to clearly and concisely assess the association between atypical hyperplasia and breast cancer from convenient data obtain at a central Jamaica hospital over a five-year period.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of procalcitonin for early detection of intestinal ischemia and necrosis in patients suffering from acute intestinal obstruction on presentation at emergency department before urgent operation. METHODS PATIENTS AND: This was a prospective study of 80 patients who suffering from acute intestinal obstruction and underwent urgent operation in emergency department of Aswan University Hospital. This 80 patients were divided into two groups. Group A (non-ischemia group, n=28). Group B (ischemia group, n=52), this group was divided into two subgroups (B1and B2).

Objectives: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a mineral- rich medicinal herb is a powerhouse of calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium and antioxidants (vitamin A, B, C, D, E, K). All these attributes appear to maintain a big potential for investigation of re-mineralization properties of this medicinal herb.

Background & Objectives: Tuberculosis in India is one of the largest public health problems of immense consequence, with an estimate one death per minute. It is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lung is most commonly affecting site, hence we aimed to isolate, and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis from respiratory specimens by conventional methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 117 respiratory samples were included in the study.

Primitive Neuro ectodermal tumors (PNET) are predominantly a childhood tumor of ewing's sarcoma family with very aggressive nature. Most common site of involvement includes CNS and skeleton system. Renal PNET is a rare, extra-cranial entity. Characteristic histological features of these tumors are small, uniform round, blue cells. Differential diagnosis of PNET of kidney includes lymphoma, monophasic Wilm's tumor, carcinoid, clear cell sarcoma. Here presenting a rare case of primitive neuro ectodermal tumor of kidney in a 12 year old female.

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM), a rare soft tissue benign neoplasm mesenchymal in origin, predominantly occurs in the female pelvic peritoneum and perineum region during reproductive age. It is slow growing, locally infiltrative, and has a high risk of local recurrence and the neoplastic character of blood vessels. We here present two unusual cases of angiomyxoma presenting as huge abdominal lump. Magnetic Reasonance Imaging (MRI) & Computed Tomography (CT) depicted findings of AAM which were confirmed on histopathologic evaluation.

Cervical cancer has a major impact on the lives of Indian women with an estimated 132,000 new cases and 67,000 deaths reported worldwide in 2012. Locally advanced cervical cancer is commonly seen in Bihar because of the high prevalence of associated risk factors like low socioeconomic status, poor access to health care, high parity, early age of marriage and first pregnancy, smoking, persistence of genital infection specially HPV, low immune status, poor genital hygiene and nutritional status.

Background: Smoking habit acts as the risk factor for Periodontal disease and Adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mild maternal smoking might also cause whopping adverse pregnancy outcomes. Lack of awareness in pregnant woman regarding the adverse outcome of pregnancy with maternal smoking is very common in developing countries like India. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge and awareness of south Indian pregnant female about maternal smoking and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Chronic liver diseases remains as one of the most serious health problems worldwide. Chronic liver disease involves a wide range of liver pathologies that include fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis,and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since ancient times herbal medicines have been used for various diseases. In the recent decades an increasing number of herbal products, including medicinal herbs and phytochemicals, have been used for treating a variety of diseases worldwide.

With the increasing work load in our daily lives and the urgent and fast need to accomplish our goals, a lot of stress has seeped into our lives. Stress is defined as a physical, mental or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Every part of the body is affected due to stress; be it minds body and even our oral cavity. It can either be direct expression of emotions or conflicts, or can be indirect result of emotional problem. The oral mucosa is highly reactive to psychological influences.

Introduction: According to figures from August 2011, neonatal period, and accounts for 41% of all child deaths before the age of five. That share grew from 37% over the last decade, and is likely to increase further. New-born deaths dropped from 4.6 million in 1990 to 3.3 million in 2009, but fell only slightly during the last decade. The present study attempt to highlight the factors affecting neonatal mortality for better understanding of causes in order to decrease the NMR. Objective: 1. To study the effect of neonatal factors on their survival. 2.

Purpose: Visual restoration bypenetrating keratoplasty in a visually disabled case of xeroderma pigmentosa. Case: A teenaged girl with XP having diffuse corneal opacity due to the disease process was operated by keratoplasty regained satisfactory workable vision to make her independent to move around despite high risk factors for failure. The associated cutaneous ailments and malignancies were also managed effectively. Conclusion: The patients of XP suffering from corneal morbidities can be given some relief by performing PKP although the improvement may not be permanent.

Dermatoglyphic is a science that deals with study of epidermal ridge patterns of sole, palm, and fingertips. These dermatoglyphs are unique for each person, by which number of parameters can be determined. Recently unusual and atypical dermatographs have been found to be associated with mental disorders such as autism. So these parameters could help to diagnose as well as help in treatment planning of individuals. Autism is a complex developmental disorder that usually appears during the first three years of life.

Background: Snake bites are the common cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries. Snake bite is a serious problem in many sectors, especially in south Asian countries. Snake-bite has become an occupational disease. The main objective is to study the demographics and ASV use, assess whether ASV has been given or not for patients who had been treated in hospitals in the management of poisonous snake bites in the scenario of global ASV scarcity. Methods: Patients of snake bites with signs of envenomation were included in this observational, prospective study.

Background: Adhatoda vasica Nees (Family - Acanthaceae), commonly known as Vasaka, Adosa Arusha is found indigenously in India. Vasica is most well-known for its effectiveness in treating respiratory conditions. Yogischews fresh leaves of the plant with ginger because of their stimulant effect on the respiratory system. Vasica is an antispasmodic and expectorant, and has been used for centuries with much success to treat asthma, chronic bronchitis, and other respiratory conditions.

Aim: The aim of this clinical practice guideline is to help dental practitioners make decisions regarding appropriate materials and techniques for onlay restorations. Background: Onlay restorations are an excellent choice for the clinicians to restore structurally compromised posterior teeth. These restorations are bonded directly to the tooth using resin cement and can actually increase the strength of a tooth by up to 75%. Many techniques have been suggested for the preparation of onlays.

Aim: The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the available information concerned to the tooth-implant supported fixed partial denture and to critically analyse the technical complications, the biological impact of tooth-implant supported prostheses and the guidelines that may be helpful in preventing long term complications. Background: Implant-supported prostheses (ISP) has substantial biological and biomechanical advantages.

Central neuraxial blockade in the form of epidural is very popular for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries as these techniques avoids the disadvantage associated with general anaesthesia. We have conducted such study to find out and compare appropriate concentration of ropivacaine with clonidine for lower limb surgeries in epidural anaesthesia. We have compared the efficacy of 0.5% ropivacaine+clonidine combination against 0.75% ropivacaine+clonidine combination during epidural anaesthesia in 60 healthy patient of ASA grade one or two scheduled for elective lower limb surgeries.

Background: Highly sensitive C-reactive protein as a marker of systemic inflammation and the contribution of individual components of metabolic syndrome to elevated C- reactive protein was studied in the present study. Objectives: To study the prevalence of various components of Metabolic Syndrome in elderly patients. Association of individual components of metabolic Syndrome with highly sensitive C-reactive protein.

Aim: This article describes the noninvasive treatment alternative to enhance the appearance by detachable cheek plumpers used with the conventional complete dentures, using different attachments (push buttons and double die pins). Background: In the era of increasing demand for esthetics, the role of complete denture is not limited to the functional efficacy. So much attention is given to the lip fullness for the complete denture patients. Similarly slumped tissues in the cheeks should also be an area of concern and be included in the treatment planning.

A simple, sensitive and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of Sulbactum sodium (SBS) and Ceftriaxone sodium (CTS) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The RP-HPLC, separation was carried out by using Agilent XDB, C18 (150 x 4.6 mm, 5m) analytical column and detection was carried out at 218nm by using variable wavelength detector.

With the upcoming advanced technologies in the world one of the latest and innovative technology is the use of various applications of smart phones. One of the latest software application used is the Whats App. This is a highly debatable topic as to whether it is a boon or a curse! This article reviews on use of smart phone app “Whats app” in dentistry with its various advantages.

Aims: To assess the level of knowledge and attitude of dental students and their siblings towards oral health; their oral hygiene and periodontal status; and also to evaluate the effect of dental education on the same. Materials and Methods: 80 participants were selected and divided into 4 groups as follows- Group A - 1st year BDS students, Group B - Siblings of group A participants, Group C - Final year BDS students, Group D - Siblings of group C participants.

Introduction: Calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste are both popular medicaments in endodontic therapy. Recently chitosan has been suggested as a carrier for these medicaments. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating and comparing the contact angle, and thereby the wetting ability, of these 2 medicaments when used with chitosan against the surface of radicular dentin. Materials and Methods: 40 dentin blocks of thickness 2 mm were prepared and divided into 2 groups of 20 each.

Preserving natural roots for overdenture treatment is basically to improve support, rentention and stability of the prosthesis. This article gives an overview about tooth supported overdenture and implant supported overdenture of overdentures. A brief description has been made of the cases.

The primary consideration for patients seeking prosthodontic treatment is esthetics. The esthetic restoration has an important psychological effect on the edentulous patient. When anterior teeth are selected for completely edentulous subjects, the mesiodistal width of the maxillary central incisors is important because they are the most prominent teeth in the arch when viewed from the frontal aspect.

Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive, inflammatory and irreversible fibrosis of the pancreas. Surgical intervention is warranted in a significant number of patients and the surgical options can broadly be classified into drainage, resection and hybrid procedures. Pancreaticojejunostomy anastomosis following these procedures is conventionally done in two layers. In our centre, we routinely perform a single layer anastomosis.

Variation of vasculature in the upper limb has been infrequently reported. In the present case we report the high division of brachial artery above the cubital fossa, superficial course of ulnar artery associated with the origin of common interosseous artery from the radial artery in a male cadaver. Knowledge of anomalous origin is of significant importance to perform invasive surgical procedures and for vascular surgeons.

Background: Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. Aim: This in vitro study was done to evaluate the antibacterial effect of ozonated olive oil and cold pressed neem oil against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) (ATCC 29212).

Breast milk is undoubtedly the best source of nutrients and antibodies. Despite the negative effects of pre lacteal feeds, in India practice of giving pre lacteal feed varies from 10.2% to as high as 90%. Objective: To find various pre lacteal feeding practices and beliefs in women delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur. Material and Methods: It was a hospital based cross sectional study. 350 post partum women who gave written informed consent to participate in the study were included.

Introduction: The Narikuravar are an indigenous group of people, living in Tamil Nadu in South India. The study related to health of the Narikuravar was not obtained over the last hundred years. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the oral health status and awareness about the oral hygiene measures of the jackal people (Narikuravar tribes). Methodology: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among Narikuravar colony, Valliyoor, Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu, India.

This paper describes why it is important to rehabilitate primary teeth damaged by early childhood caries and presents the step-by-step clinical sequence of restoration using two different approaches. One, using polyethylene fiber post followed by strip crowns after endodontic treatment, and the other, an aesthetic fixed functional space maintainer , whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly.

Background: Dental anxiety and anxiety-related avoidance of dental care create significant problems for patients and the dental profession. Distraction interventions are used in daily dental practice to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. Patients with dental fear tend only go to the dentist when they experience pain, thereby increasing the chance that their visit to the dentist will involve pain and exacerbating their anxiety. Dentists themselves suffer from heightened discomfort when treating such anxious patients.

Globally, two-thirds (38 million) of 56 million annual deaths are still not registered and almost half of the world’s children go unregistered. Various systems for recording and reporting the vital events are well evolved in the industrialized, developed countries while they are still in the primal form in the developing countries. Information on vital statistics directs the policies and programmes of a country.

Objectives: This study was conducted to examine whether the Turkish version of the Palliative Care Knowledge Test (PCKT) was a valid and reliable tool. Methods: Methodological study was conducted with 350 nurses, who agreed to participate in the research, The Public Hospitals Association in Sakarya province center, Turkey. In the study of validity and reliability of PCKT, language equivalence, coverage validity, construct validity, Cronbach alpha, Gutman and Spearman Brown reliability coefficients, item analysis and test retest technique were used.

Background: Vaccination is the most important preventive and cost-effective intervention to decrease morbidity and mortality rates in children. In the past 50 years, vaccination has saved more lives worldwide than any other medical products or procedures. The objectives of the study were to evaluate immunization services at sub-centres and to determine knowledge of Multipurpose Health worker Females (MPHW-Fs) regarding immunization.

The present case report discusses diagnosis and treatment of an extraoral cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic inception in cognation to a mandibular right Central incisor. Patient responded well and the cutaneous lesions rejuvenated uneventfully. In the absence of any clinical symptom complete obturation was done .Patient was kept on customary follow-up.

Background: The sense of smell is very influential in the taste of foods. If the smell pleases us, we anticipate the taste of the food with a great deal of relish. If our sense of smell is impaired, so is our taste. The effect of appliance on taste and flavor perceptions has always been a controversial subject. Several investigators have indicated a loss of taste sensation associated with palatal coverage. Others have found that appliances either exerted no effect on taste perception or actually enhanced this perception.

Introduction: The aim of present study is to assess the current clinico-epidemiological trends of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Malwa(M.P) region and to discover out the association among different variables in the study. Material & Methods: Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were retrieved and analyzed for the retrospective study from the records of 2013 to 2014 for clinical and histological details and the results were expressed to chart the trends in Malwa (M.P) population (India). Results: The study included 300 patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Background: The old axiom that a typical gall stone sufferer is a fat, fertile, female of fifty, is only partially true, as the disease is found in women soon after their first delivery and also in underweight and thin people. So while searching for other parameters, iron deficiency was found to be a new parameter of interest in the etiology of gall stones. Aim and Objectives: To study the prevalence (numbers of patients) of iron deficiency in patient with gall stone disease. To study Serum Iron, Serum Cholesterol and Bile Cholesterol in patient with Gallstone Disease.

Background: Histoid leprosy (HL) is an uncommon variant of lepromatous leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. Methods: In 10 years (2005-2014), 385 cases of leprosy were diagnosed on histopathology and out of these, 13 cases (3.37%) were of histoid leprosy. Results: The male/female ratio was 2.25:1. 10 cases (76.9%) were in 30-60 year old age group. The commonest skin lesions encountered were nodules over normal looking skin in 10 (76.9%) cases. The most common sites involved were upper and lower limbs in 8 (61.5%) cases.

Introduction: Patient satisfaction is a measurable concept comprising of multidimensional elements such as access to care, quality of the provider patient interpersonal relationship and affordability of care. Identifying and understanding the needs and difficulties of patients helps in improving the services being provided. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the level of the patient satisfaction in a tertiary care hospital in Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

The goal of this article was to describe the importance of saving the natural remaining teeth and the fabrication of telescopic dentures as an alternative to the conventional removable dentures, to minimize the complete denture problems. Telescopic dentures consist of an inner or primary telescopic coping which is permanently cemented to an abutment and an outer or secondary telescopic coping which is attached to the prosthesis. These copings protect the abutment from dental caries and thermal irritations and also provide retention and stabilization of the secondary coping.

Introduction: Reliable identification of elastic fibers structures in light microscopy can be altered by several diseases which cause changes in elastic tissues, such diseases are ageing and atrophy caused by arteriosclerotic changes. Numerous empirical methods for elastic fibers displaying were evolved and modified along based on chemical structure of the elastic tissues components A number of techniques can be applied for elastic fibers demonstration these techniques can stain the fibers intensely but sometimes being unrelated.

Statement of problem: Direct relining of complete removable dental prosthesis made with hard chairside reline resin is faster than laboratory- processed reline system. However, the decision to use these materials must be made with regard to their efficiency in enhancing retention of complete removable dentures.

The aim of the present study was to assess the presence and length of the anterior loop in the mental foramen region using CBCT. Both the right and left sides were retrospectively studied in 50 patients. Axial, sagittal, cross-sectional and panoramic images were evaluated and three-dimensional images were reconstructed and evaluated as necessary. The morphology, course and length of the anterior loop were measured. An anterior loop was found in about 25% of the scans. The mean anterior loop proximal edge was 3.24 mm.

Identification and characterization of germplasm is important for efficient management strategies in conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. This investigation aimed to assess genetic diversity of 47 ginger landraces from Burkina Faso base on polymorphism of eight SSR primers. Seven of theses primers produced 60 loci out of which 95.3% were found to be polymorphic. The number of loci ranged from two to 15 with an average of 8.571lociperprimer. Values for Nei’s genetic diversity or expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.123 to 0.454 with an average of 0.314.

Heavy metals and other trace elements are important for proper functioning of biological system, but also their deficiency or excess could lead to a number of disorders. Zinc is essential metal for human health and plants growth. But in case of excess amount it can cause toxicity, as they change their form and become hazardous in the nature. In this study, the microbes like bacteria, yeast and fungi were isolated from soil for remediation of metals present in Gomti River.

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, resulting to impaired carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. The qualitative analyses of Vernonia amygdalina root extract were carried out using standard methods. Acute toxicity of the extract was determined. Adult male albino rats were induced intraperitoneally with alloxan.

Objective: To assess emotional, psychological and social wellbeing, health status and ability to activities of daily living in elderly males and females living in institutional settings Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted of 100 elderly people aged 61 – 100 years [23 males and 77 females] residing in 3 different old-age homes. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data in quality of life of elderly.

A study was conducted on physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of water from the Kayamkulam water. The study was undertaken for a period of twelve mo1nths from august 2014-July 2015.Four sites was selected for this study. The concentration of Heavy metal such as As,Cd,Cu,Pb and Hg levels are determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Heavy metal in water have noted the highest for cadmium and copper and all other metal followed this range Cd>Cu>Pb>As>Hg.

This study was undertaken to assess the ambient air quality (seasonal variations of ambient air pollutants SPM, RSPM, SO2 and NOX) and its impact on road side plant species Ficusbenjamina, in Rewa city with special reference to epidermal characteristics of leaves. The monitored average values of RSPM, SO2 and NOX at the sampling sites are well within prescribed limits, whereas average concentrations of SPM in the ambient air of the Rewa city are above the permissible limits as per National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

The gene of the growth hormone receptor has played a great role in the chicken growing and reproduction. Polymorphisms for this gene were several variations in the animal genome, could be used as genetic marker for growth selection and economic traits. The purpose of this study was to identify polymorphisms in Growth hormone receptor in Iraqi local chicken .we collected 95 blood samples form Iraqi Native chicken (47 samples from the Black feather native fowls and 48 samples from the Nicked neck native fowls) to inspect growth hormone receptor gene polymorphism using PCR-RFLP technique.

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of food poisoning resulting from the consumption of contaminated food with Staphylococcal enterotoxins. Different food can act as a good medium for S. aureus such as milk and milk products. In the present study differential conventional methods were used to detect the S. aureus isolates from 30 samples of milk were collected from different regions of Tamil Nadu. Among that 23 samples showed positive results and 7 samples showed negative results for S. aureus.

Verbenone is a valuable aromatic chemical used in aromatherapy and as a food flavourant. Gluconobacter japonicus MTCC 12284 isolated from decayed yellow orange citrus fruits is reported for verbenone production from biotransformation of α -(+)- pinene .The present study focuses on increasing the yield of verbenone by permeabilising the cells of Gluconobacter japonicus with various chemical agents.

Ayurveda is an ancient science of life since the time of immemorial. In Ayurvedic classics, there is two types of treatment for all diseases, either with use of aushadhi (medicines) or by use of surgery. In Shalya Tanra, there was description of eight types of shastra karmas to perform shalya karma but poorva karma should be done before any surgical procedure and this poorva karma is known as preoperative management in Ayurveda. If poorva karma is performed properly and timely, this results in great success of any surgery and complication free postoperative period.

In this study, a protocol has been developed for micropropagation of Tectona grandis Linn.f. and studied the response of explants during tissue culture stages. The objective of this study is to understand the morphology, physiology and histology of the glandular trichomes, secretary products and Stomata. Maximum percentage of globular callus formation was observed in B5 medium supplemented with 2,4-D 2.0 mg/l (65.4%) with activated charcoal, minimum percentage was observed in 2,4-D 0.5 mg/l (28.8%).

Durum wheat is produced time immemorial long ago and its diversity is high in Ethiopia. But due to low quality and amount of wheat production, the Importation of hard wheat for pasta making industries is more than 40,000 tons per year.

Lycopene is a pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and products. As a natural source of antioxidants, has attracted attentions due to its biological and physicochemical properties. In this study, tomato paste prepared from tomato cultivated in Dezfoul (Khozestan) was dehydrated with methanol, then lycopene was extracted with methanol-carbon tetrachloride mixture. Pure lycopene was obtained by twice crystallization of crude product from benzene through addition of boiling methanol.

The study was aimed to know water quality from analysis of physico-chemical characteristics of Pavana River, Pune from September 2016 to February 2017. Due to the increase in population and industrialization, there shall be a necessity to understand the present status of Pavana River. Many government bodied does that work but there should be requirement of analysis of river with new methods. The experiment was carried out for three season i.e. Monsoon, Post-monsoon and Pre-monsoon. The water sample is collected from river as the depth changes.

Artocarpus hetrophyllus has been traditionally used for treatment of diverse diseases and it possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antipyretic properties. Artocarpus hetrophyllus has a potent cytotoxic effect on human cancer cells. In this study, we reveal the cytotoxic effect of hydroethanolic extract on HeLa cell line. The dose-dependent effect of extract was measured by MTT assay and nuclear changes during apoptosis was assessed by Ethidium bromide Staining.

Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Balasore district, Odisha. There are scanty ethnomedicinal works carried in Kuldiha. ‘Santhal’ community is the major tribal population in the area. Gastrointestinal problem is a very common ailment in tribal societies. This gastrointestinal problem includes constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, indigestion, stomach pain, flatulence, intestinal worm and jaundice. A total of 53 species of 47 genera 29 families were identified to be useful in treating gastrointestinal disorders.

The application of modern technological achievements and innovations should represent a priority in building the management strategy of enterprises. This implies constant modernization of production, introduction of new and sophisticated technologies, innovation of products, services, and modernizing the overall process of working. In the context of the treated topic, an empirical research was completed, which stated that the surveyed enterprises, the involvement of the new technology and innovations in the management strategies is inadequately perceived by the managers and the employees.

Forty Baladi turkey 4 weeks old and 700 - 1000 g average body weight were used. They kept in a balanced diet to study some performance, and clinicopathological changes under E.coli 0157:H7 infection. Ten Baladi turkeys kept as control and 30 were infected with E. coli 015,: H7 by dose 0.05m1 (x 107 CFU) inoculated intramuscularly. Body weight were recorded, blood samples were collected at 7, 15, 30 days post infection, serum was separated for determination of AST, ALT, Total protein. Albumin, urea, creatinine, calcium phosphorous, sodium, potassium and cortisol hormone.

Sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental design, was employed to improve the production of β-glucosidase by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 using solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. Different nitrogen sources were tested for A. niger culture using wheat bran as solid medium. The highest enzyme production per kg of dry substrate (DS) (1.65×105 U/kg DS) was obtained with soybean peptone.

Ayurveda, the science of life is being practiced by Aryans from Vedic period. Kalpana is the process through which a substance can be transformed in to the form of medicine according to the need. Samskaras are to be done for potentiating the drug or the formulation. Among all these pharmaceutical processes Shodhana is one of them. For a single drug many process of Shodhana have been mentioned. Arsenic compounds are being popularly used in Ayurveda therapeutics since centuries. Manashila being important among them.

Arctigenin is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan which can be obtained from plants. It has shown tremendous potential in neurological diseases and cancers. The literature furnishes numerous data on their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, hepatoprotective, antitumor, antimicrobial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, anti-aging and hypoglycemic activities. It has been found potent in vitro anti-influenza A virus and neuroprotective against Japanese encephalitis in a mouse model. It has been also reported useful in Alzheimer disease.

Piper velayudhanii E. S. S. Kumar and S.P. Mathew is an endemic species confined mainly to upper Nilgiris, Tamilnadu, India. The plant has not been find a place either in ethnomedicinal literature or phytochemical research. Hence the present work is aimed at secondary metabolite profiling of leaf and fruit to investigate the scope of bio prospecting one of the more than 2000 species of Piper. The study observed that leaf contains alkaloids, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids¬, saponins and Gum and Mucilages. Notably flavonoids could not make into the list.

Ocimum basilicum commonly known as Basil is one of the promising herb with important multiple medicinal properties. In the present study, Bacillus sp. possessing multiple plant growth promoting activities was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Ocimum basilicum collected from Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, on Luria Bertini media. In Biochemical characterization, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) – Bacillus sp.

Present study was aimed to investigate and determine the morphological and osteological malformations in ornamental fishes in Egypt. Morphological abnormalities were photographed with a digital camera and X- ray system. In present study, out of 250 ornamental fishes produced only 25 individuals with percent of 10% were found to have different types of abnormality, including; lordosis, scoliosis, absence of eyes, absence of tail, black tail and multiple type deformities. The exact cause of abnormalities could not be definitively determined, the possible etiologies was discussed.

OBJECTIVE: An allergic response is due to the invasion of a foreign substance. In regard to dental prosthesis, a wide array of allergic reactions can be induced thus it isessential to assess the levels of knowledge and attitude among the dental practitioners regarding the management of allergic reactions induced by these prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Saveetha Dental College and hospitals, Chennai.

Indian traditional medicine has gained a lot of importance in recent times. Owing to rich herbal flora in India, medicinal plants have become a major source of natural drugs. New molecular approaches towards identifying these medicinal plants is becoming inevitable to avoid confusions in identification. In this regard, DNA bar coding usingrbc Lgene, is suggested as a marker for pteridophyte identification. In this study, molecular characterization of Selaginella sp. was performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for rbcL gene.

The Viva (oral examination of PhD thesis or dissertation) seems to be the Fear No. 1 of not only of PhD researchers in general but even that of scholars of PhD in English in India. When the expectations from the PhD scholars undertaking the Viva are unusually high, the competence of these researchers is pushed to the edge. To their astonishment, the scholar finds that a different or perhaps a better preparation is required. As this new experience may turn out thrilling or chilling depending on the preparedness of the candidate, the scholar must undertake a strategy to face the Viva.

This paper reviews research works published on the structural performance of concrete beams strengthened using fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets. Furthermore it discusses the effect of various FRP sheets on the structural performance of concrete beams subjected to static loading condition. A total of 35 research papers relating this study have been collected and reviewed. The properties and structural applications of different types of FRP have been presented. Also a gap analysis has been conducted to propose recommendations for future research in this field.

In today’s world the demand for biomedical telemetry is increasing day by day. The idea we are putting forward is an ‘Implantable antenna for biomedical application’. Miniaturization is the major concern for implantable antennas in biomedical application. The major issue with miniaturization is the degradation of various antenna parameters. In order to meet these limitation several techniques were employed to achieve miniaturization in this paper, viz, reducing the antenna dimension, inducing irregularity in the patch, inclusion of wing and circular patch and addition of Rogers RT-Duroid.

From many years we are facing problems of intrusion on our nation’s boundary. There is need to improve the security arrangements with help of technology. With our project we will be able to improve the surveillance across the boundary. It will help to detect the intrusion activities and helps the army people to take necessary action. The benefit of this system is to surveillance the people without using close circuit cameras.

The task of each artist and architect decor privileged lies in arranging and coordinating all the design elements to produce an innovative and integrated design and implementation of this design must organize all the tools available, such as fonts, shape, color, size and quality of the cloth used in this design, these tools help that defines the principles of interior design as the basis of artistic judgment has even lead to the desired results and effects by the receiver output of the design.

Cloud computing is storage on internet which is accessible from anywhere. The data can be shared with anyone and cannot be lost. Cloud environment user have to pay for the service they used. Energy efficient cloud computing is the hot research area now a day. Due to unmanaged load, system performance can be slow load. Load balancing stands for distributing a load among various nods. Balancing is ensure that no single node is overloaded. Previous research on load balancing introduced many scheduling algorithm which conclude optimum results.

Weather Forecasting is one of the emerging applications for Data mining technology. It is used to predict the atmospheric conditions based on humidity, temperature, rainfall, wind etc. This paper focus on comparing various data mining technique which were used previously for predicting the weather conditions. Predicting the weather is helpful in preparing for the best and the worst condition of the climate. Datamining plays a very important role in determining the conditions relating to the weather.

The identity of a person is of critical importance in Forensic department and in some cases, the facial reconstruction becomes a critical stage when the face is unrecognizable. Forensic facial reconstruction is the reproduction of the unknown face based upon the soft tissues that overlays the bony structure. In this paper, we plan to propose a methodology that can be carried out to automate the facial reconstruction from skeletal remains. A dataset of CT head scans is used to produce a segmented model and an iso-surface is generated with the help of Marching Cubes algorithm.

The experimental work was conducted on slabs to study the effect of BFRP on flexural behavior of the slabs under the static loads, using cross wrapping technique with mechanical anchoring. The BFRP was to be introduced to slabs in the form of cross wrapping at flexural zone by wet lay-up technique then it was anchored with bolts and plates as per the guidelines of the manufacturers. Control slabs were casted and tested after 28 days under uniformly distributed loading case. Strengthened slabs were tested after 6 days of strengthening and once after it were anchored.

In this work we evaluated the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and fractions from Bertholletia excela, castanha-do-brazil, using the free radical scavenging method of free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Currently many studies have focused on the inhibition of free radicals, as these are associated with various diseases related to the action of these chemical species. The UV-Visible spectroscopy apparatus was used to read the absorbances.

In this paper, we have developed a deterministic fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items in which demand rate quadratic and holding cost is linear function of time. During deterioration period, deterioration rate can be controlled using preservation technology (PT). The ordering cost, deterioration cost and purchase cost are assumed as triangular fuzzy number. The purpose of our study is to find an optimal replenishment cycle and order quantity so that the total inventory cost per unit time is minimum.

One of the important factors for a successful solid phase synthesis is the swelling and solvation of peptide bound resin in the reaction medium.Here a novel GDMA-4VP resin support for solid phase synthesis is prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine with glycerol dimethacrylate. The hydrophilicity of the cross-linker provides flexibility and polarity to the support. Swelling studies and stability studies were performed. Resin was functionalized and the resin was found to be quite stable even after vigorous conditions of functionalisation.

The Information Industry has a huge amount of data available with them. This data needs to be analyzed and converted into useful information. The method used for extracting pattern and getting insight from data is known as data mining. Our Survey is focused on huge amount of data generated by the telecommunication industry. The marketing strategy used in telecommunication industry has various step, the very beginning of step is to segment the customers on the basis of customer’s usage of services and customer billing cycle.

Primary WSN are organism positioned for a widespread range of use. It has significant issue to discover out applied safety protocols for WSN due to restriction of authority, calculation and storing properties. Advantage of symmetric key methods is providing better accuracy due to its energy efficacy. But then the disadvantages of symmetric key methods are obvious in standings of key controlling and safety. The Public key substructure is measured to be not appropriate to give security for WSNs as of difficulty. In this paper, we review on key management, storage requirement and security.

In today’s era of IT world, Big Data is a new curve and a current buzz word now. Daily tremendous amount of digital data is being produced. It require an advance data management system to handle such a huge flood of data that are obtained due to advancement in tools and technologies being used. This has led human being in big dilemma. The security industry and research institute are paying more attention to the emerging security challenges in big data environment. The current security challenges in big data environment is related to privacy and volume of data.

Amongst the existing techniques of employing digital Watermarking into an image the proposed paper imposes on one of the most efficient methods, called the DWT method which is counted as a vital tool by researchers. The idea of the proposed paper is to hide the actual image beneath a cover image before transmission, to protect the main information from piracy (Md. Maklachur Rahman, 2013). This is achieved by decimating the main image elements by a factor c with respect to the cover image.

Engine Pistons are one of the most complex components among all the automotive. In this article 3D model of engine piston is established by means PRO-E software and the finite element model for the same was established by means of the ANSYS software. The cynosure of the project is to rectify the disadvantages found in the existing piston models. The same can be achieved by modeling and analysis of the new piston. The three different piston models of same capacity engines are taken and the respective modeling and analysis are carried out and the results are tabulated.

This paper makes an attempt to study the users’ satisfaction in library services in the Engineering Colleges at Coimbatore. The survey was conducted in 32 Engineering College Libraries. The data were collected in the form of questionnaire stating the opinion on access to full text database in library, access to digital repository, issue of books to the users, opinion on gate register, facilities and services offered by the library and library staff supporting for discovering the information.

The chemical examination of chloroform extract of Pongamia pinnata roots has been carried out. Two new compounds, 3-(4-acetylphenyl)-7-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one 1 and 2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-6-yl)-7-hydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one 4, in addition to two known compounds 2 (pongachromene) and 3 (demethoxykanugin) were isolated from the roots of Pongamia pinnata. The structures of the compounds 1-4 have been elucidated on the basis of spectral studies.

This paper is dedicated to the modelling and analysis of seven level inverter based on STATCOM. It presents a comprehensive study of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) systems utilizing cascaded multilevel inverters. Among flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) controllers, the STATCOM have shown feasibility compared with other shunt controllers in terms of cost effectiveness in a wide range of problem-solving abilities from transmission to distribution levels.

All the signals are analog in nature. An analog to digital converter plays an important and essential role for system-on-chip (SOC) applications because it bridges the gap between the analog physical world and the digital logical world. Now a days low power and low voltage requirements becoming more important issues as the channel length of the MOSFET shrinks so below levels. For improvement of power and speed in an analog to digital converter major building block is a comparator.

Shopping on the internet has been developing rapidly, covering most of the important spheres of marketing. Online grocery shopping has been noted of being a relatively young but promising area of electronic commerce. However, only a sparse number of studies have been focusing on consumers’ attitude to purchase grocery products through online. This paper seeks to understand the consumer’s attitude towards online grocery shopping and to identify some factors and technical barriers that may foster or hinder the acceptance of OGS in India.

The question of the usefulness of educational research has been of interest and concern in recent years to researchers in the education field. Writings have focused on the usefulness that teachers themselves derive from this research, and the assessments that we make in this work arise from those reflections. We believe that the subject has a greater depth than may at first be apparent, inasmuch as, although education professionals "need" this type of research, we might ask ourselves if universities or society itself could do without this type of research.

The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between business intelligence and competitive advantage in telecommunication industry in Nigeria. The business environment today complexity and volatile, as a result firms needs to be proactive in relation to decision-making processes so as to stay competitive and remain relevance in the industry.

Images obtained by sensors installed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly called drones, can be used for several environmental applications such as monitoring the use of soil, estimating biomass, and determining the carbon stock of native vegetation and forest restoration projects. The increased use of this technology is due to the easy operation, high spatial resolution of the orthorectified and georeferenced mosaics, precision of the cartographic products, and generation of topography information on the study targets.

The prevalence of the rickettsia bacterium Ehrlichia platys, now called Anaplasma platys, was reviewed and identified in the canine population of Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico. A total of 362 venous blood samples were collected from the EDTA tube for a period of one year (February 2, 2016 to February 2, 2017).

The detailed soil survey of Ayyammanahalli village of Doddaballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka, falling in Eastern Dry Zone, was undertaken to provide site-specific database in planning for developmental programme. Four soil series, namely Ayyammanahalli 1, Ayyammanahalli 2, Ayyammanahalli 3, Ayammanahalli 4 and Ayyammanahalli 5 were identified. The Soil pH varied from strongly acidic to neutral, low CEC, low soil organic carbon.

Misconceptions popularly known as students' conceptions, children's science alternative conceptions or alternative frame works, private concepts, naive theories and half truths, naive conceptions or naïve knowledge and as commonsense beliefs interfere with learning when students use them to interpret new experiences. A research was conducted to study the misconceptions among secondary school students with respect to biological concepts in the unit of environment of 9th class text book prescribed by Punjab School Education Board.

Every year Govt. of India has initiated to launch the various schemes for the upliftment of the poor community of country. In 2016 our Prime Minister has announced different schemes for the different beneficiaries like start up India, Swatch Bharat Abhiyan, Digital India, Make in India, Pradhan Mantry Jan Dhan Yojna, Skill India, Bharat Vikas Kauchal Yojna etc. These schemes have shown an impressive and significant improvement in the employment generation and other aspect as well. Earlier two basic schemes have started namely NAREGA and MGNREGA.

Global warming resulting from high level of greenhouse gases emitted in atmosphere has reached an alarming situation. The global 2010 emissions are 31% above the 1990 emissions. World leaders at the United Nations discussed the possibility to put a cap of how much carbon can be emitted by each country so that the total combined emission all nations should be under the safe limits of greenhouse gas emission of the earth.

In the twenty first century, education is inseparable from technology. The current generation is at ease with rapidly changing technology into technology is all pervasive with smart phones in the pockets of today’s youth.

In social business intelligence, satisfaction plays an important role. Customer satisfaction is must. Customer should make decisions that improve their business based on the trends perceived from the environment. The huge quality of information, talks, posts and papers available on the web cannot be ignored by companies. Social business intelligence is the discipline of combining corporate data with user generated content to let decision-makers improve their business. The companies cannot ignore the huge quality of information, talks, posts and papers available on the web.

This study aims to determine the use of reasoning strategy considering different variables which were consisted of students’ problem solving skills and gender, location of schools and parents’ income and education levels. Descriptive survey method was conducted in this research. The sample of the study was composed of eighth grade students from different six schools in both Kırşehir city centre and districts. In sample group, 64 girls (%54,4) and 52 boys (%45,6) were chosen randomly.

The role of media in highlighting and raising the issues of social and political interests has increased by the advent of new Technologies. The contribution is not only limited to publication/broadcast of News only but also to create awareness regarding social and political issues as well. Judicial Activism is just a ruling or decision that is guided by the personal interest or personal point of view of the individual judge, which is not based on strict laws. As to its meaning, Judicial Activism is not a distinctly separate concept from usual judicial activities.

The paper analyzes the assessment systems practiced in the business studies program in Yanbu Industrial College in Saudi Arabia, based on the fundamental principles of assessment. It is based on a primary survey conducted among all the teaching staff of IMT Department using a structured questionnaire. The study reveals the need for improvement specifically the revitalization of reliability and inclusiveness in assessment along with academic integrity and authenticity.

In order to address the global challenges of climate change and sustainable development, there is a vital need to accelerate the development of advanced technologies for clean energy. Solar water heating system is a key technology options to realize the shift towards de-carbonize energy supply and is projected to emerge as an attractive alternate electricity source in the future. In this paper the economical analysis of solar water heating system at IIT Roorkee campus is carried out.

Music Education is a difficult concept to define because it is an ongoing phenomenon from the birth of the individual and has political, social, cultural and individual dimensions in the same place. If we remember the most common definitions; It is a training process that encompasses all the social processes that are effective in helping individuals gain the standards, beliefs and ways of living of society. It is all of the processes in which the person has developed the skills, attitudes and other forms of behavior that are of value in society.

An altered and a more plausible reading from the ones proposed before of the badly mutilated and immensely problematic year 86 inscription of the reign of Mahārāja Bhadramagha is attempted in this present paper.

Social Networking sites provide a platform for discussion on burning issues that has been overlooked in today’s scenario and also for discussion on issues that has been unnoticed in today’s world. This study is conducted to check the impact of social networking sites in the education of youth. This is a survey type research and here the data was collected through the questionnaire. The main objectives were to check the effect of social media on youth and to check out the beneficial and favor form of social media for youth to determine the attitude of youth towards social networking sites.

The turn-of-the-century brought major changes in the field of technology and natural sciences, economy and industry. The development and growth of metropolitan cities was one of the important phenomenons of this time. Darwin and his theory acquired many admirers. Nietzsche's famous proclamation 'God is dead' (Neitzsche, Freidrich, Die fröhliche Wissenaschaft, Bd. 3, München: Schmitz, 1954, P. 481) and his theory of 'Superman' aroused an extreme excitement at the turn-of-the-century. In the alternating mood of euphoria and apocalypse.

E-shopping or online shopping is a trend that is increasingly catching up among the consumers in India. The increasing trend is fuelled by rise in disposable income of the middle-class, as well as by deep penetration of mobile devices. The e-shopping phenomenon is also challenging the common and established beliefs that customers have to touch and feel the product before they buy it.

Introduction: Ankyloglossia, commonly called as “tongue-tie” is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenum. This may restrict tongue tip mobility which leads to problems with speech articulation and swallowing. There are different techniques for its management. The present case report highlights the use of a novel surgical technique called as Z- Frenuloplasty for the management of tongue tie of a 9-year old male patient. Method: Z-Frenuloplasty is a technique sensitive surgical procedure and should be done under the expertise of a skilled clinician.

Introduction: Proximal tibia articular fractures can be caused by motor vehicle accidents or bumper strike injuries ;however, sports injuries, falls, and other less violent trauma frequently produce them, especially in elderly patients. The treatment for these fractures aims to achieve anatomical reduction of the joint surface and stable osteosynthesis in order to enable early mobilization, so as to prevent complications such as joint stiffness and post-traumatic arthrosis. The diagnosis of tibial plateau fractures is typically made on plain radiographs.

Background: Sensitivity is very common in most people and varnish is used to relieve sensitivity and also to prevent dental caries. Three different fluoride releasing agents MI Varnish, VOCO PROFLUORID and 60 second taste. Streptococcus mutans is the bacteria that cause progression of caries and hence it is important to test the inhibitory effect of fluoride releasing agents on streptococcus mutans. Materials and methods: A sample size of 10 culture plates of nutrient agar is used.

Aim and Objective: To check the serum calcium and iron levels in women during the second trimester of pregnancy. Background: The maternal diet must provide sufficient energy and nutrients to meet the mother's usual requirements, as well as the needs of the growing fetus. In the second and third trimester of pregnancy, there are increasing iron demands due to an expanded red cell volume and demands of the developing fetus and placenta.

Background and Objectives: Corticotomy assisted orthodontics is a tissue engineering procedure which causes rapid tooth movement at a ratio of 3-4 times greater than conventional orthodontic movement. Self-ligating techniques shortens treatment time due to reduced friction between the brackets and archwire. The use of closed coil springs to deliver constant retraction force also encourages faster space closure. A combination of corticotomy with Self Ligating Technique along with NiTi Closed Coil springs would further reduce treatment duration.

Introduction: Menstrual disorders are extremely common in puberty & reproductive age group. Menstrual disorders happen to be a common presentation by late adolescence, disorder such as primary dysmenorrhea, or painful menstruation in the absence of pelvic pathology, is a common and often debilitating, gynaecological condition that affects about 45 to 95% of menstruating girl 1. Medical students are a high risk group for developing menstrual irregularities due to lifestyle with less sleep, irregular food and exercise habits.

Heart disease complicating pregnancy is considered as a high risk situation. Increased cardiac demands during the course of pregnancy potentially increase morbidity and mortality in women with underlying heart disease. Risk of adverse outcome is more in rural population as compared to its urban counterpart. A prospective clinical study of 170 cases of pregnancy complicated by heart disease, reporting to tertiary care hospital for delivery, was carried out to find out the incidence and maternal and fetal outcome. The incidence of heart disease in pregnancy in the present study was 1.2%.

Introduction: Oral cavity is one of the most commonly accessible sites for tumor and tumour like lesions with more prevalence for benign lesions than malignant with male preponderance. Aim: To study the spectrum of oral cavity lesions in relation to age , sex and site. Results: A total of 473 cases were included in the present study. Out of these, 263(55.6%) were males and 210 (44.39%) were females with Male: Female ratio of 1.5:1.

Introduction: As a systemic condition, pregnancy causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity; these changes may favour the emergence of diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific salivary parameters and caries incidence in pregnant and non-pregnant women population in western part of Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Variations may be observed in material selection as well as techniques followed at every step in complete denture fabrication. This survey aims to identify materials and methods used by specialist prosthodontists working in institution based practice and those into exclusive private dental practice. Material and Methods: 25 academicians and 25 private practioners were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire. The responses were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Pearson Chi square test and Fisher’s Exact test.

Objectives: The objective of the survey was to assess Knowledge And Attitude of Emergency Physicians Towards Emergency Management of Avulsed Tooth in Mangalore city, Karnataka, Mangalore. Materials and Methods: This was a time bound study in which approximately 40 emergency physicians had participated 12 questionnaire were distributed to medical hospital emergency physicians in Mangalore (private / public). The questionnaire gathered data on the respondent’s professional profiles, self assessed perceived knowledge and actual knowledge of emergency management of tooth avulsion.

PNEUMOPERITONEUM is defined as gas in peritoneal cavity. Most common cause of pneumoperitoneum is laparatomy in post operative patients. Among preoperative patients most common cause is hollow viscus perforation exception is appendicular perforation which generally doesn’t cause pneumoperitoneum. Other causes of pneumoperitoneum are trauma, tumour, burst abdomen etc. The presence of pneumoperitoneum does not always imply hollow viscus perforation in preoperative patients, some non surgical conditions are also associated with pneumoperitoneum.

Pregnancy is accompanied by a variety of physiologic, anatomic and hormonal changes that can affect the oral health. However, these patients are not medically compromised and should not be denied dental treatment simply because they are pregnant. They often pay visits to dentist for pain and infections associated with their teeth. Such patients need dental treatment and in most cases the radiograph of the involved tooth is required.

Background: The present study was to compare Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNORs) with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) expression in Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to assess the proliferating activity in OSCC, also to assess the reliability between PCNA and AgNOR. Methods: Previously confirmed 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas were taken for the study. Histological sections were prepared from paraffin embedded blocks and processed for AgNOR stain and PCNA stain according to super sensitive polymer HRP method.

Pediatric Basic life support is a level of medical care which is used for clients with life threatening illness or injury. In pediatric setup there are many pediatric emergencies like accidents, injuries, respiratory failure, sudden cardiac arrest and shock where the emergency professional health care team members performs a number of life saving techniques focused on the emergency care. Among which the Pediatric Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation stands first and foremost in ‘ABC’ of hospital emergency care.

Purpose of study: All graphic tracings are not necessarily accurate due to difference in skill of dentist, cooperation of patient, complexity of device, relative reliability and ease of recording. An indigenous Digitracer which is smaller and lighter, is provided with personal computer and the sensor portion to serve as a miniature lightweight tracing board connected to the digitizer control circuit set in an extraoral location which gives real values in real time.

Introduction: Anthropometry refers to the measurement of the human individual or a part there of. Anthropometry measurements are very useful to estimate stature and bone length from the skeletal remains from anthropological remnant skeletons. Considering the fact that human tibia is a complex anatomic unit and its knowledge of the morphometric values is important in Forensic, Anatomic and Archeological cases in order to identify unknown bodies and stature, the present anthropometric study was undertaken.

The word “Doping” implies to the use of prohibited substances and practices for improving sporting performance of athletes. It includes the misuse of certain techniques and substances for enhancing the performance and endurance level of the athlete. The desire to win, acclamation and associated benefits; drives the athletes towards doping. Athletes in the present age are abusing new substances and methods of doping that are difficult to detect. Blood Doping and Gene doping are the new found trends that pose analytical challenges.

Dens invaginatus commonly known as Dens in dente is an invagination of coronary or root surface, bounded by enamel which can simulate appearance of a tooth within a tooth. It commonly affects the maxillary lateral incisors, presence of DI in maxillary canine is very rare. The aim of this case report is to describe the bizarre radiographic findings and aberrant root canal anatomy in the affected tooth which are difficult to describe using conventional radiography and hence use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a invaluable diagnostic tool.

Excessive gingival display is a common esthetic hurdle in an individual’s personality, as it may lead to a poor smile which impacts the person’s appearance as well as the confidence. This report describes two case reports where the gummy smile was corrected without orthodontic intervention. The procedures are beneficial to patients desiring less invasive alternative to orthognathic surgery and is safe with minimal risk/ side effects along with minimal treatment time as compared to orthodontic treatment.

Oral Malignant Melanoma is an aggressive rare malignant disorder found mostly in gingiva and hard palate in oral cavity. At present, the clinicopathological classification of oral malignant melanoma is not yet outlined, consequently the skin is often taken as a reference. The lesions are asymmetrical and irregular, a thorough oral examination and a high suspicion is needed for early diagnosis. The Study has been done to understand the malignant melanoma affecting the oral cavity in comparison with the malignant melanoma affecting skin.

One of the most common problems faced by mandibular complete denture patients is loose and unstable denture because of severely resorbed mandibular edentulous ridge. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of such patients with resorbed edentulous foundation is the most difficult treatment modality for the prosthodontist. To have a favourable prognosis for the complete denture, neutral zone technique is one of the most effective method with favourable prognosis to treat such patients. The neutral zone is defined as the area where the displacing forces of the lips, cheeks and tongue are neutralised.

Cognitive deficits and elevated cortisol level are considered as the hallmark of depression. Actual causative factor for cognitive changes and depression are not well understood. Various studies summarize one or other factors like cortisol in causation of cognitive changes and depression. However complete model based study is required signifying all the causative factors. Hippocampus in brain is closely related to cognitive functions. As mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors are present majorly in hippocampus through which cortisol exerts its action.

Aim: An Anganwadi worker (AWW) can be a vital link in the health care delivery system as she provides a package of services to mothers and children. Oral health knowledge among these workers is an integral component of preventing early childhood caries (ECC). The present study is aimed to assess the existing knowledge of early childhood oral health related factors among anganwadi workers. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted among AWW in Mangalore city, India.

The rising colonization rates of S. aureus lead to the increasing of infection rates in the community and in hospitals. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent bacterial pathogen in humans. It causes skin infections, osteoarthritis and respiratory tract infections in the community, as well as postoperative and catheter-related infections in hospitals. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial activity of apple cidar vinegar against clinical isolates of S. aureus. It did not show any inhibitory activity against S. aureus isolates.

The strength and resilience of a country’s national health system is intrinsically linked to factors related to maternal and child health (MCH). The centrality of maternal and child health was reflected in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), with two of the eight goals focused on reducing child mortality (goal 4), and improving maternal health (goal 5). While progress towards goals 4 and 5 varied significantly on a global scale, during the Millennium Development period the world saw child mortality rates reduced by more than half, and maternal mortalityratios lowered by nearly half.

Traumatic brain injury devastates our young adults, leaving on its trail mortalities and morbidities. One of the morbidities, seizure, leaves the patients battling in three fronts: the seizure itself, the antiepileptic drugs, and the societies the patients belong. Patients managed for early and late posttraumatic seizures in our center were compared in age, computerized tomography (CT) features and functional outcome. The study was done over a six year period.

One of the commonest developmental dental anomaly is the presence of supernumerary teeth. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in the jaws varies. Among the supernumerary teeth, 86% of the prevalence for the maxillary anterior region which is the mesiodens (Regula et al., 2010). This tooth can be either impacted or can erupt into the oral cavity. This report presents a case of a 10 year old girl with a palatallyplaced impacted mesiodens in the maxillary anterior region which was surgically removed.

Pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine secreting neuroendocrine tumour of adrenal medulla representing nearly 5% of adrenal incidentalomas. We present a case of an 80 year old male complaining of recurrent urinary tract infection diagnosed as pheochromocytoma on further investigation.

Cloude Levi Strauss and Winfred Phillips said that, “You have to be able to fabricate things, you have to be able to analyze things, and you have to be able to handle things smaller than ever imagined in ways not done before”. Many researchers believed that in future, scientific devices that are dwarfed by dust mites may one day be capable of grand biomedical miracles. The word ‘Nano’ is derived from the Greek word for “dwarf”. Today, the revolutionary development of nanotechnology has become the most highly energized discipline in science and technology.

Introduction: Hepatitis B is the most common blood borne infection after occupational exposure in India. Awareness towards adult vaccination against hepatitis B is slowly rising amongst healthcare workers. However, it is well demonstrated that vaccine does not offer protection in 100% of recipients. It is important to seek out the vaccine non-responders as the post exposure management depends on the immune status of the vaccine recipient. Objective: To check the immune response after hepatitis B vaccination and identify the non-responders.

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. In India it is the most common cancer among females. Papanicolaou cytological (Pap) test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. Material and Methods: Pap smears of 1941 women attending the gynaecology OPD, from January 2012 to December 2015 were evaluated by light microscopy. The 2001 Bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology was used in evaluating the pap smears. Results: The mean age was 41.7.

Facial harmony and esthetics of an individual is affected when atypical and supernumerary teeth are present in the oral cavity. Rehabilitation of function and esthetics is a challenging task for a pediatric dentist especially when speech and smile is affected in young individuals. Here we present a case with mesiodens in a 10 year old female child disturbing the occlusion. Mesiodens was extracted and esthetic reconstruction of the patient was done.

Objectives: Cerebrovascular accident, which has considerable mortality and morbidity, deserves attention towards its prevention. The first lines of defense in stroke prevention are detecting and adequately treating manageable risk factors, C-Reactive protein, an acute phase reactant is an indicator of underlying systemic inflammation and a novel marker for atherothrombotic disease. Present study is an attempt to study the levels of C-Reactive protein in acute ischemic stroke and to correlate between serum C-Reactive protein levels in acute ischemic stroke.

Primary spinal glioblastoma is a rare and aggressive entity with poor prognosis. With less than 200 reported cases the specific guidelines for the treatment of these cases are not yet formulated. Even with different treatments like radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy the survival is poor. We report a case of 10 year old female with spinal Glioblastoma Multiforme (sGBM) with cerebral and spinal deposits treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy at our institute. Since this was a rare presentation we were keen on giving the best possible treatment to the patient.

Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) may lead to oro-facial injuries like to teeth and other related oral structures. Swelling and cuts on skin gradually heal but traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) like teeth intrusions, avulsion of teeth, displacement of teeth, fracture of teeth or roots need dental intervention and dental planning. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow‐up are important to assure a favorable outcome.

A study was to conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) – (Oxytetracycline OTC and Chlortetracycline CTC) and synbiotics on growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments each consisting of eight replicates and each replicate having 5 birds and reared up to 42 days of age.

Persistence and recalcitrant of materials in the environment for longer period of time that has surfactant which are main ingredients of some products that are our basic needs e.g. detergents, shampoos, toothpaste, soap e.t.c. are of great concern. These surfactants are mainly of chemical origin which gives the scientists keen interest and reason for replacing chemical surfactant found in the products with biosurfactants.

The study carry out in Lublin province. This survey was conducted using a questionnaire, where 128 household heads were sampled and interviewed, Objectives of study was describe the socio-economic characteristic of respondents; identify Production and Marketing Problems of Potato growers in Lublin province. Results show that. The most important production problems were High costs of fertilizers, pesticides and labor. And important Marketing problems were Low price of product, High costs of transportation, Perishability of product and Markets far away from farm.

Duck plague (DP) is a worldwide acute, lethal, sometimes chronic, contagious virus infection of ducks caused by duck plague virus (DPV), also known as duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of duck plague is considered as one of the biggest challenges in which vaccination is an efficient way to control DPV. Till now, vaccination is done mainly with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the presence of other avian pathogens in the embryo propagated vaccine may pose a threat.

The present study was performed in order to investigate the nature and antimicrobial property of the compound isolated from leaves and female cones of Cycas revoluta. The compound was isolated by using preparative TLC and further the compound in the form of single spots was scrapped out for characterization via HPLC and FT-IR. The isolated compound was dissolved in appropriate solvent. 5 µl of sample (chloroformic extracts of leaves and cones) were applied to silica gel plates, Merck (Germany) 20 × 20 cm, 0.25 mm in thickness were used.

The studies on polygalacturonase producing bacteria form fertile soils are very meager. In the present study, bacteria were isolated from different commercial crop field soils of W.G.Dist. A.P. A total number of 12,325 bacterial colonies were isolated from 59 different fields in the cultivation of mango, maize, banana and lemon. A total of 69,371 hectares of land is under cultivation of these crops in the district. Among the isolated bacteria, 5935 were found to be polygalacturonase producers based on plate assay method.

For the past few decades plants have been the basis of treatment for many human diseases. In this study traditional plant Cleome viscosa, annual weed was selected and its free radical scavenging potential, total antioxidant capacity and antithrombotic activity were evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Cleome viscosa leaf extracts revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols etc.). From the results obtained the hydroethanolic extract exhibited maximum activity when compared with aqueous extract.

Menopause is but a natural transition in women that occurs at the age of 45-55 years. The menstrual cycle stops and sex hormone levels decrease, including that of estrogen, resulting in the condition called menopause. In Ayurveda, menopause is described as a natural effect of aging and does not reflect any disease.

Betelvine (Piper betle L.) is a perennial evergreen shade loving creeper to the family Piperaceae. In India, it is commercially cultivated as an important and potential cash crop. Betelvine crop cultivation is a profitable enterprise. Betelvine cultivation is the best example of direct income (in cash) in agriculture. Due to this character, this plant is very loving to farmers. A boroj of 500-600 sq. m. area is sufficient enough to nurture a family of 4-5 members whole round the year. But, all is not well in this enterprise. There are lot of problems in its’ cultivation.

In the present study, the unoccupied dredging vessel HANSITA V docked at Kollam Port broke loose from its mooring, washed up on the Mundakkal beach on Tuesday 21 June 2016 making waves in the city and got media coverage. The vessel showed that heavy fouling on the hull. Analysis of hull inspection on the vessel mainly focused on the characterization and percentage composition of the fouling community. The extend and composition of fouling on the vessel hull was examined through quadrate samples taken from the hull. The invading organisms include both sessile and mobile species.

Staphylococcus aureus is a species of bacterium commonly found on the skin and or in the noses of healthy people, although it is usually harmless at these sites, it may occasionally get into the body, through breaks in the skin such as abrasions, cuts, wounds, surgical infections, or indwelling catheters and cause infections. These infections may be mild (pimples or boils) or serious (infection of bloodstream, bones or joints). Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections.

The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Salacia chinensis specimen stem extract collected from five different locations. In- vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous stem extracts of Salacia chinensis of Karikan accession on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was studied. The stem extracts of Salacia chinensis (Hubili, Karikan, Bandal, Jogimat and Udipi locations from Karnataka) were evaluated for qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activity of aqueous, ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and acetone extracts by using DPPH as free radical.

Phosphate solubilising rhizobacteria associated with Coffea arabica L. in coffee plantations of North Eastern Ghats, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, were investigated. The main purpose is to screen for potential microbial biofertilizers by assessing the isolated strains for phosphate solubilization efficiency and initial screening was performed on Pikovskaya’s agar (PA).

Aim: Our purpose was to know phospholipase A2 activity and its gene PLA2G4α polymorphism was an inflammatory marker in preeclampsia compared with normotensive pregnancies. Efforts were made to determine the association of PLA2 and its gene. Study Design: Longitudinal observational study Methods: 4ml of blood was obtained from preeclampsia (n=51) and normotensive pregnants (n=51). They were maternal age, gestational age, parity matched. Phospholipase A2 activity was determined by colorimetric method and PLA2G4α polymorphism was evaluated by PCR-RFLP techniques.

Humans have developed themselves in every aspect. Right from the discovery of fire to reaching the outer space, they have proved their worth for the mankind. They knew how to reach at every possible place. The discovery of wheels did give them the advantage to transportation of every possible thing, from crops to humans. They came to know the importance of transportation as a feasible way to transport things from one place to another. Gradually and gradually, they started inventing different modes of transport for their betterment since they wanted to reach within less time.

In this study, the fine fraction (< 100 μm) of safou seeds (Dacryodes edulis) was characterized and then applied to the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) form aqueous solution. The techniques used include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which allowed access to the morphology of the material, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed the chemical functions on its surface and BET technique from which its specific surface area was determined.

In the recent years, preventive security measures at public places has gained lot of importance. Visual Surveillance has now got huge attention to ensure safety in public places. These systems generate huge amount of data on a daily basis. This data has enormous Volume, Velocity, Variety. Hence, this is can be termed as Big Data. Handling Big Data is a challenge and thus, in this proposed system, the processing of the video is done on Hadoop. The existing system takes more time to process these live stream video data which is inversely proportional to what we except.

Today, common types of industrial robots are used for many different applications and in many different areas. Designing and producing a prototype robotic system requires knowledge of the system requirements and coordinated work. All of these processes can be realised by working in partnership with mechanical, electronic and computer engineers. In this study, a robotic prototype (including software) request was designed with a Cartesian based coordinate structure at very low cost with an initial goal of cleaning a window or any further tasks to be determined by the end user.

An attempt is made to understand the similarities in the origin of the basic laws of physics including the Newton’s laws of motion and the ‘Theory of Karma’. The problem of arbitrariness in time of observing the ‘fruits’ that is observed in the ‘Theory of Karma’ is also discussed using the concept of time that exists currently according to the ‘modern science’.

In this paper, we give some characterizations of quasi-simple ternary Γ-semirings. Mathematics Subject Classification: 20G07, 20M10, 20M12, 20M14, 20N10.

This is a novel solution for tracking the location of a vehicle and availability of seats in real time (for public transport vehicles) using mobile application which also has a blind assist mode that helps blind people to use the app by voice commands. Two modes of operation are normal mode and blind assist mode which can be launched either by clicking on app icon or by shaking the device when it is in blind mode.

The need of study the properties of Particulate matter (PM) and their distribution of particles in different hospital environment and top priority of this study is to control air pollution in hospital environments. PM 2.5 is the mass concentration of fine aerosol with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm whereas, PM10 is the mass concentration with aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm.PM10 and PM2.5 were measured in ambient levels at Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Chest Diseases Hospital Area and compared with Victoria Hospital area PM10 data.

Image enhancement is the process of improving the quality of the input image. Underwater images mainly suffer from the problem of poor color contrast and poor visibility. These problems occurred due to the scattering of light and refraction of light while entering from rarer to denser medium. Scattering causes the blurring of light and reduces the color contrast. So many authors proposed different methods on under water images. In the process of enhancement brightness will alter, it is required to preserved.

In developing countries, a pressure associated with environmental and economical constraints has forced the power utilities to meet the future demand by completely utilizing the currently present resource of transmission facilities without building new transmission system. Flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) devices are used to control the phase angle, voltage and impedance of high voltage AC lines. By using FACTS devices maximum benefits of transmission system can be managed i.e.

The aim of the research is to identify the material which makes the concrete float and it should also have the strength. Floating concrete is a type of concrete having density less than water and it floats on water. There are many types of lightweight concrete which makes the concrete float either by using lightweight aggregate or by using air entraining agent. The conventional aggregates are replaced by light weight aggregates which makes the concrete lighter than the conventional concrete.

ZnO nano particles are synthesized using sol-gel method. Crystal structure of the samples prepared at different annealing temperature is analysed using XRD. Natural rubber vulcanisates are prepared using different series of nano ZnO (Z0, Z1, Z2, and Z3) as cure activator. A control compound is also prepared with commercial ZnO at high phr loading. Cure characteristics as well as cure rate kinetic values of NR-nano ZnO vulcanisates are compared with that of the commercial sample. Appreciable reduction in phr of ZnO is possible with the usage of nano ZnO.

In this survey paper literature review of black hole attack in MANETs has been presented. MANET is a type of network where communicating devices can communicate to each other without any fixed centralized master device. That’s why attack in between the communication of two more devices is not a challenging task. There are several types of attacks in MANET routing protocols such as black, gray, sink and wormhole attack and others also.

The importance of hygiene practices cannot be denied for a healthy life. Using hygienic latrine, washing hands, drinking safe water, household waste disposal, regular bathing are some of the most important hygiene practices that are needed for a sound life. In many countries around the world, especially undeveloped and developing countries, hygiene practices are not satisfactory. The present paper tries to find out the hygienic practices and their health-related impacts on the tea garden workers.

One of the typical illustrations of Africans involvement in written philosophy is the treatise written by an philosopher Ethiopian Zera Yacob. This 17th century treatise is taken as a landmark in some scholars’ perception of African philosophy in general and Ethiopian philosophy in particular. Zera Yacob is undeniably worth mentioning figure in the history of African Philosophy; however some claims made by some authors about him are misleading. Though there are several mistaken claims about him, this article tries to deal only with the issue of rationality.

Membership of cooperatives entitles eligible members access to financial resources for capital accumulation, investment and consumption purposes. However, becoming a member of the cooperative comes with the price tag of consistent savings in the cooperative pool account. It is this that qualifies such committed members access to certain benefits.

The present study aimed at identifying the faculty member role in developing political awareness among the students of Qassim University. However, the researcher applied the study tool which consisted of (26) items on a stratified sample involving (375) male and female students. The researcher adopted the analytical descriptive approach for the reason that it is appropriate for the study purposes. The outcomes revealed that the faculty member role in developing students' political awareness was average.

In science teaching and learning, the teacher is seen as playing the crucial role of harnessing all resources and evoking students’ activity for classroom success. That is why this study anchored on students’ interest, attitude and achievement as correlates of chemistry teachers’ classroom behaviours in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi state, Nigeria.. A correlation design was used for the study. A total of 410 senior secondary school chemistry SS 2 students constituted the population for the study and also the sample since the number is manageable.

In this article are given and provided detailed information about using of trees and shrubs for planting in Baku city. The research results are conducted over the 2010-2016 years and used implementation in landscaping architecture. It is completed using in landscape architecture of 87 families, 230 genus, 660 species of trees and shrubs in floristic compositions, living forms, ecological types, grouped by the prospects of economic significance are identified the suggestions for the implementation in greening.

Sport announcer (commentator) is a person with extensive media experience and sport knowledge in a particular sport game that allows him to comment on, by describing the matches' events and introduce his technical opinion objectively and honestly.

Aeon the experience of Indian Shilpis in making of pillars has been profound be it stone, timber or brick. Pillars (Stambha) forms an innate part of the Hindu Temple Architecture, thousand years back when these temples were built there were established design principals, testing methods, though no software, calculators and spreadsheets etc were available, still the end results exhibited by these temples are fabulous and are ‘Structural Engineering Marvels’. These pillars played a very prominent and pleasing part in the temple architecture of the time.

The year 2016 was the warmest on record in all major global surface temperature datasets, although, in some, the difference between 2016 and the second warmest year, 2015, was within the margin of uncertainty. In the three dataset used by WMO, 2016 was 0.83 °C +/− 0.1 0°C warmer than the average for the 1961–1990 reference period (0.52 °C above the 1981–2010 average), 0.06 °C above the previous highest value set in 2015. This is also about 1.1 °C above the pre-industrial period.

The issue of employee’s performance in furtherance of organization objectives has occupied manager’s attention for long. Difference in levels of performance has been attributed to differences in skills and abilities on the one hand, and to different theories of money on the other. This study examined the issue of performance based pay as a motivational tool for achieving organizational performance, using the situation in public sector organization.

With increased pace of urbanization and economic growth, attraction and dependency between different linking regions has also increased. Transportation have performed very crucial roles from very early, accelerating the sharing of economic and development benefit of connecting spatial regions. Railway has been proved as a potential sector for drawing economic and development benefits for various countries.

This software project will help us, to automate the existing manual system of Jiren senior secondary school. To automate the system of the school we use object oriented software engineering methodologies such as use case model, class diagram and sequence diagrams and Er-diagram. The requirements for automating the system are collected by using techniques like interview, observation and document review. The objective of the project is to automate the manual system of Jiren senior secondary school which is very much useful to provide fast, realiable and quality service to the customers.

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EDITORIAL BOARD

Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordanian
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Uzbekistan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran